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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750763

RESUMO

Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in Indonesia, accounting for one-third of all deaths. Indonesian authorities started to monitor PM2.5 levels in urban areas in 2015. However, there is still no study examining the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and CVD in Indonesia. In this study, we combined PM2.5 data and health survey data. Long-term (2000-2007) exposure to PM2.5 was measured based on satellite-derived aerosol optical depth measurements (1 × 1 km2) that could be used to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Population data on residents of Sumatra Island were obtained from the fourth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). A cross-sectional study was performed with 2324 participants who were aged ≥ 40 years old, and a report of doctor-diagnosed CVD determined CVD status. We used logistic regression to analyze the association between PM2.5 and CVD prevalence, adjusting for multiple covariates. Of the sample, 52.1% were women, and 47.9% were men. The sample was divided into those aged 40-59 (adults) and those ≥ 60 (older adults). The CVD prevalence was 4.05% (n = 94), with a mean (standard deviation) PM2.5 concentration of 14.4 (6.4) µg/m3. In adjusted models, a 10-µg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 levels was associated with 29% higher odds of having CVD (odds ratio = 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.47). In this population-based IFLS data, long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with a higher prevalence of CVD in Sumatera, Indonesia.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16052, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362983

RESUMO

The proportion of allergic diseases attributable to atopy remains a subject of controversy. This study aimed to estimate the population risk of physician-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and eczema attributed to atopy among a population sample of Asian school-age children. Asian children aged 5-18 years (n = 1321) in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese CHildren (PATCH) study were tested for serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E. Physician-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and eczema were assessed by a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Atopy was defined as the presence of serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E. In this population-based study, 50.4% of the subjects with asthma, 46.3% with rhinitis, and 46.7% with eczema were attributable to atopy. The population attributable risk (PAR) of atopy for three allergic diseases was higher in adolescents (asthma, 54.4%; rhinitis, 59.6%; eczema, 49.5%) than younger children aged less than 10 years (asthma, 46.9%; rhinitis, 39.5%; eczema, 41.9%). Among the seven allergen categories, sensitization to mites had the highest PARs for all three allergic diseases (51.3 to 64.1%), followed by sensitization to foods (asthma, 7.1%; rhinitis, 10.4%; eczema 27.7%). In conclusion, approximately half (46.3 to 50.4%) of Asian children in Taiwan with allergic diseases are attributable to atopy.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/complicações , Rinite/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/etiologia , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Rinite/etiologia , Rinite/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4866, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649419

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the spatial patterns of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) and their association with fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) database was used to represent the burden each country experiences as a result of LRIs. PM2.5 data obtained from the Atmosphere Composition Analysis Group was assessed as the source for main exposure. Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were applied to identify the spatial patterns and for hotspots analysis of LRIs. A generalized linear mixed model was coupled with a sensitivity test after controlling for covariates to estimate the association between LRIs and PM2.5. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether LRIs and PM2.5 are correlated for various ages and geographic regions. A significant spatial auto-correlated pattern was identified for global LRIs with Moran's Index 0.79, and the hotspots of LRIs were clustered in 35 African and 4 Eastern Mediterranean countries. A consistent significant positive association between LRIs and PM2.5 with a coefficient of 0.21 (95% CI 0.06-0.36) was identified. Furthermore, subgroup analysis revealed a significant effect of PM2.5 on LRI for children (0-14 years) and the elderly (≥ 70 years), and this effect was confirmed to be significant in all regions except for those comprised of Eastern Mediterranean countries.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 31(5): 343-349, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-related pollution is positively associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but little is known about how different sources of traffic pollution (eg, gasoline-powered cars, diesel-engine vehicles) contribute to CVD. Therefore, we evaluated the association between exposure to different types of engine exhaust and CVD mortality. METHODS: We recruited 12,098 participants from REVEAL-HBV cohort in Taiwan. The CVD mortality in 2000-2014 was ascertained by the Taiwan Death Certificates. Traffic pollution sources (2005-2013) were based on information provided by the Directorate General of Highway in 2005. Exposure to PM2.5 was based on a land-use regression model. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of traffic vehicle exposure and CVD mortality. A causal mediation analysis was applied to evaluate the mediation effect of PM2.5 on the relationship between traffic and CVD mortality. RESULTS: A total of 382 CVD mortalities were identified from 2000 to 2014. We found participants exposed to higher volumes of small car and truck exhausts had an increased CVD mortality. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 1.10 for small cars (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.27; P-value = 0.23) and 1.24 for truck (95% CI, 1.03-1.51; P-value = 0.03) per one unit increment of the logarithm scale. The findings were still robust with further adjustment for different types of vehicles. A causal mediation analysis revealed PM2.5 had an over 60% mediation effect on traffic-CVD association. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to exhaust from trucks or gasoline-powered cars is positively associated with CVD mortality, and air pollution may play a role in this association.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(2): 314-321, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no comprehensive study examining how asthma diagnosed in childhood or adolescence is associated with diagnoses of subsequent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) during adulthood. Our study aimed to examine the associations between pediatric asthma and several adult NCDs, with temporality and long interval times between asthma and NCD diagnoses. METHODS: We used RAND Indonesian Family Life Survey Fifth Wave (IFLS5) fielded in 2014-2015, to study whether being diagnosed with pediatric asthma at 0-19 years of age was associated with increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach diseases, kidney diseases, and heart diseases or stroke diagnosed in adulthood. We used the weighted Poisson regression adjusting for age, sex, urbanicity, and insurance status to estimate risk ratios. Subgroup analyses were performed by sex and age of asthma and other NCD diagnoses. RESULTS: Pediatric asthma significantly increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, and stomach diseases diagnosed at 20 years of age or above. Males with pediatric asthma diagnosed at 0-10 years of age had significantly higher risk of hypertension, while females with pediatric asthma diagnosed at 0-10 years of age had significantly higher risks of diabetes and stomach diseases. Females with pediatric asthma diagnosed at 11-19 years of age had significantly higher risks of diabetes, arthritis, stomach diseases, and kidney diseases. We also found varying associations by age of NCD diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest pediatric asthma is associated with increased risks of several adult NCDs, and these associations may vary by sex and age of asthma and other NCD diagnoses.


Assuntos
Asma , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000527, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120436

RESUMO

SCOPE: Coffee and tea are among the most popular beverages in the world. However, the association between habitual coffee, green tea, and black tea consumption with metabolomics profiles in Asian populations remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: 158 metabolites (14 amino acids, 45 acylcarnitines, and 99 sphingolipids) in the blood plasma of participants are measured from the population-based Singapore Prospective Study Program cohort using mass spectrometry (MS). Linear regression models are used to obtain the estimates for the association between coffee and tea consumption with metabolite levels, adjusted for potential confounders and false discovery rate (FDR). Coffee consumption is significantly associated with higher levels of 63 sphingolipids (29 sphingomyelins, 32 ceramides, a sphingosine-1-phosphate, and a sphingosine) and lower levels of 13 acylcarnitines and alanine. Black tea consumption is significantly associated with higher levels of eight sphingolipids, and lower levels of an amino acid, whereas green tea is significantly inversely associated with four metabolites (C8:1-OH acylcarnitine, ganglioside GM3 d18:1/16:0, sphingomyelins d18:2/18:0 and d18:1/14:0). CONCLUSIONS: Coffee, black tea, and green tea consumption are associated with plasma levels of certain classes of sphingolipids and acylcarnitines in an Asian population, particularly sphingomyelins, which may mediate the health benefits of these beverages.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545843

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common worldwide. Studies suggest environmental pollution, including traffic noise, might be linked with metabolic syndrome. This study sought to evaluate how noise exposure is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome and its components in Taiwan. Using data from a cohort of 42,509 participants and Cox proportional hazards regression models, the effects of noise exposure on metabolic syndrome and its components were quantified. After adjustment for covariates (age, gender, body mass index, and physical activity), the hazard ratio for metabolic syndrome was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.22) for medium noise exposure and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.36) for high noise exposure. Noise exposure was also positively associated with all of metabolic syndrome's components. This finding suggests noise exposure might contribute to metabolic syndrome and its components. Policies aiming to reduce noise pollution might reduce the risks of metabolic syndrome and its components.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes , Taiwan
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586013

RESUMO

Exposure to surrounding greenness is associated with reduced mortality in Caucasian populations. Little is known however about the relationship between green vegetation and the risk of death in Asian populations. Therefore, we opted to evaluate the association of greenness with mortality in Taiwan. Death information was retrieved from the Taiwan Death Certificate database between 2006 to 2014 (3287 days). Exposure to green vegetation was based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) collected by the Moderate Resolution Imagine Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A generalized additive mixed model was utilized to assess the association between NDVI exposure and mortality. A total of 1,173,773 deaths were identified from 2006 to 2014. We found one unit increment on NDVI was associated with a reduced mortality due to all-cause (risk ratio [RR] = 0.901; 95% confidence interval = 0.862-0.941), cardiovascular diseases (RR = 0.892; 95% CI = 0.817-0.975), respiratory diseases (RR = 0.721; 95% CI = 0.632-0.824), and lung cancer (RR = 0.871; 95% CI = 0.735-1.032). Using the green land cover as the alternative green index showed the protective relationship on all-cause mortality. Exposure to surrounding greenness was negatively associated with mortality in Taiwan. Further research is needed to uncover the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Meio Ambiente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , População Rural , Taiwan/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 137915, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392675

RESUMO

The rising prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been noted around the world. However, no study has been conducted to examine the effect of surrounding environment on incidence of ESRD. This study assessed the associations of exposure to PM2.5 level and surrounding green spaces, separately, with incidence of ESRD in Taiwan. Demographic and clinical data used in this study was retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2003 to 2012. PM2.5 data collected from the Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan and a hybrid land-use regression model was used to approximate long-term exposure to PM2.5. Percentage of exposure to surrounding green spaces was used to determine individual exposure level. Cox proportional hazards models with a generalized estimating equation were applied to investigate the effect of surrounding environment on incidence of ESRD. The results showed significant positive association between exposure to PM2.5 level and incidence of ESRD; but inverse association between exposure to surrounding green spaces and incidence of ESRD (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15 for exposure to PM2.5 level; AHR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.84-0.98 for surrounding green spaces). Together, the findings from this study have added suggestive evidence on the adverse effect of exposure to PM2.5 level and the beneficial effect of exposure to surrounding green spaces on the incidence of ESRD in a general population in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Falência Renal Crônica , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
11.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126979, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387910

RESUMO

Atmospheric polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxins/dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) remains an important environmental health concern. Although the total emission inventories of PCDD/Fs in Taiwan decreased from 320 to 52.1 g-I-TEQ/year during 2002-2016, the resulting concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/F and distributions in Taiwan are unknown. We, therefore, conducted a comprehensive investigation of spatial and seasonal variations and apportioned potential sources of ambient PCDD/F concentrations in Taiwan-based on 11-year observation data. A total of 1,008 atmospheric PCDD/F samples were collected from 25 air monitoring stations (from seven areas) and 1 background station for 2006-2016. Linear regression was used to model changes in PCDD/F concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were used to identify potential contributors. PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air gradually decreased during the study period, with a median concentration of 28.2 fg I-TEQ/m3 over 11 years. The highest median PCDD/F concentrations were found in the highly industrialized regions of western Taiwan (38.0-43.4 fg I-TEQ/m3). Lower concentrations were found in eastern Taiwan (∼10 fg I-TEQ/m3). Background stations reported the lowest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, with a median concentration of 1.47 fg I-TEQ/m3. Overall, the concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in Taiwan were higher in winter (13.4-86.7 fg I-TEQ/m3) than in summer (9.65-27.2 fg I-TEQ/m3). The PCA results indicated that PCDD/F profiles varied by both region (industrialized, urbanized, and background areas) and season. The PMF model for the overall data revealed that the major sources of PCDD/Fs were industrial activities (71.2%). However, in less industrialized areas, traffic activities, long-range transport, and open burning were dominant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Estações do Ano , Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Estudos Longitudinais , Taiwan
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137027, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044485

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. To date, there are few studies on short-term PM2.5 exposure in different microenvironments and its impact on immediate health effects, particularly in the Southeast Asia region. This study assessed PM2.5 concentrations in different microenvironments in a densely populated city in the tropics using low-cost personal PM2.5 sensors as well as their associations with acute cardiovascular health outcomes. A total of 49 adult participants affiliated with the National University of Singapore (NUS) community were recruited. Personal low-cost sensors were used to measure PM2.5 concentrations between September 2017 and March 2019. Demographic information and time-activity patterns were collected using questionnaires. Wilcoxon pairwise comparisons were used to determine statistical differences between PM2.5 exposures at 18 different microenvironments. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models were used to assess the association between PM2.5 exposure and blood pressure as well as heart rate. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, temperature, duration of exposure, and baseline cardiovascular parameters. Significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations were observed across different microenvironments. Air-conditioned offices and tertiary teaching spaces had the lowest (median = 13.1 µg/m3) and hawker centres had the highest (median = 32.0 µg/m3) PM2.5 concentrations. Significant positive associations between PM2.5 exposure and heart rate (ß = 0.40, p = 4.6 × 10-5) as well as diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.16, p = 0.0077) were also observed. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with higher heart rate and blood pressure. Further work is needed to investigate the variations within each type of microenvironment and expand the study to other sub-populations such as the elderly and children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396518

RESUMO

This study determines whether surrounding greenness is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study determines the relationship between surrounding greenness and the incidence of T2DM during the study period of 2001-2012 using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the global MODIS database in the NASA Earth Observing System is used to assess greenness. Cox proportional hazard models are used to determine the relationship between exposure to surrounding greenness and the incidence of T2DM, with adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 429,504 subjects, including 40,479 subjects who developed T2DM, were identified during the study period. There is an inverse relationship between exposure to surrounding greenness and the incidence of T2DM after adjustment for individual-level covariates, comorbidities, and the region-level covariates (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.79-0.82). For the general population of Taiwan, greater exposure to surrounding greenness is associated with a lower incidence of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Meio Ambiente , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 795, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the effect of ambient air pollution at the district level on adolescents' happiness and their change in happiness over time in a cohort sample from Taiwan. METHOD: A cohort from the Taiwan Youth Project was evaluated. The adolescents (n = 2571) were in the 7th grade (mean age = 14.3 years) when the study was initiated and resided in 40 districts in three cities and counties in northern Taiwan. We examined the effects of the concentration level of air pollution, including PM2.5, PM10, and NO2, at the district level on adolescents' happiness and their change in happiness over time (7th to 9th grade). Due to the high correlations of the three pollutants, we examined each separately with similar covariates. The analyses were based on both multilevel modeling and latent growth curve modeling. RESULTS: Higher concentration levels of each of the three air pollutants measured were associated with adolescent happiness such that a higher level of concentration was related to lower levels of adolescents' happiness. These results were observed after controlling for important individual- and district-level covariates. However, further analyses did not reveal that the concentration level of air pollution was associated with the change in happiness in the study period (after 3 years). Some sensitivity checks (e.g., adjusting district size) did not change the substantive results. CONCLUSION: Many previous studies have shown the influence of air pollution on physical health and negative emotions, but only a few using adult samples have shown that air pollution is inversely related to positive wellbeing. This study may be the first to examine the effects of air pollution on adolescents' positive affect. Our results echo recent research on the consequent health burden of air pollution. Given that positive affect has been linked to future adult health, the results of the current study provide empirical grounds for early intervention concerning environmental factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Felicidade , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan
16.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S67-S75, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm; PM2.5) contributes to an elevated incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in North America and Europe, but there is limited empirical evidence for Asian countries. This study determined the association between and the exposure-response relationship for PM2.5 and the incidence of T2D in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001-2012. Health information, including age, sex, health insurance premium, type of occupation, medication, and disease status, was retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Monitoring data for PM2.5 came from the Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan, and Land-use Regression modeling was used to approximate participants' long-term exposure to PM2.5. Cox proportional hazards models with a generalized estimating equation to account for the correlation within the locations of the medical facilities were used to estimate the association between exposure to PM2.5 and the incidence of T2D, adjusting for the potential confounders. We also examined effect modification of sex, age, hyperlipidemia, and National Health Insurance premium for the association. RESULTS: Forty-eight thousand six hundred eleven new cases of diabetes were identified among 505,151 eligible participants, with the median follow-up of 12 years. Positive associations were identified between long-term exposure to PM2.5 exposure and the incidence of T2D. An increase of 10 µg/m PM2.5 was associated with an 11.0% increase in the risk of contracting diabetes (95% confidence interval = 8.0%, 13.0%). The results show that there is an almost linear relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the incidence of T2D. Sex, age, hyperlipidemia, and National Health Insurance premium acted as effect modifiers of the association between diabetes incidence and levels of PM2.5 exposure in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: In the population in Taiwan, long-term exposure to PM2.5 increases the risk of incidence of T2D by 11%. This effect is more pronounced in elderly male patients who exhibit hyperlipidemia and in individuals who have a lower insurance health insurance premium.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 955-964, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248753

RESUMO

Parabens are a group of esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid and are utilized as antimicrobial preservatives in the majority of personal care products (PCPs). Epidemiological studies regarding the adverse effects of parabens on fetuses are still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the association between maternal paraben exposure and birth outcomes. One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women were enrolled, and maternal urine was collected in the third trimester. The urine concentrations of four parabens (methyl (MP), ethyl (EP), propyl (PP), and butyl (BP)) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and a multivariable regression model were employed to determine the association between paraben exposure levels and birth outcomes. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine the mediation effect of oxidative stress on birth outcomes. The geometric means of urinary MP, EP, PP, and BP were 51.79, 1.26, 4.21, and 1.25 µg/g cre., respectively. In the penalized regression splines, sex-specific associations between maternal MP levels and birth outcomes were observed; a downward curvature was observed between the MP level and birth weight, length, head circumference, and thoracic circumference among female newborns. Pregnant women in the group with MP levels above the third quartile had neonates with significantly lower body weight (ß = -215.98 g, p value = 0.02) compared to those in the group with MP levels lower than the third quartile. No significant mediation of oxidative stress was observed between maternal MP exposure and female birth weight. The estimated proportion mediated ranged from -6% to 15%. The negative association between maternal paraben exposure and female birth outcomes in relation to child development should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/urina , Tamanho Corporal , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna , Parabenos/análise , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 378: 114619, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195002

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients with high cholesterol biosynthesis signature had poorer therapeutic outcome. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is crucial in the oxidation of tamoxifen to generate active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. CYP2D6 variants with C100T substitution encode null or poor functional proteins. This study aims to examine the association of C100T genotypes and serum lipid levels with plasma drug levels in patients. Plasma tamoxifen concentration was positively associated with serum triglyceride concentration, adjusting for age and C100T genotype. Overweight (body mass index >24.0) patients with high serum cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL) had increased risks of ineffective endoxifen levels (<5.97 ng/mL). Compared to the low-cholesterol group, the high-cholesterol group had a lower 4-hydroxytamoxifen or endoxifen level in T/T carriers. In T/T carriers, the high-cholesterol group had an increased risk of an ineffective endoxifen level. Metastasis, hot flash/flushing, and high alanine transaminase did not relate to plasma 4-hydroxytamoxifen or endoxifen levels. Results indicate that C100T and high serum cholesterol are risk factors of ineffective endoxifen levels in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. These findings warrant further studies of a large hypercholesterolemic population to examine the outcome of increased doses of tamoxifen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Tamoxifeno/sangue
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010236

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the association between surrounding greenness and schizophrenia incidence in Taiwan. Data of 869,484 individuals without a history of schizophrenia were included from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database from 2000 through 2010 for analysis. The diagnoses of schizophrenia were based on ICD-9 codes. Greenness exposure was assessed using the satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index, assuming individuals lived near the hospital they most often visited for common cold during the study period. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to assess the association between greenness exposure and schizophrenia incidence after adjustments were made for the potential confounders. A total of 5,069 schizophrenia cases were newly diagnosed during the study period. A negative significant (P < 0.05) association found using 2,000-m buffer distances (distance of a moderately paced 20-min walk) in the whole Taiwan island, cities, and metropolitan areas. The results of the stratified analysis based on sex and health insurance rate suggested surrounding greenness has approximately equal effects of reducing the risk of schizophrenia, regardless of sex or financial status. In conclusion, our findings suggest that more surrounding greenness may reduce the risk of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Jardins , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978985

RESUMO

This paper developed a land use regression (LUR) model to study the spatial-temporal variability of O3 concentrations in Taiwan, which has typical Asian cultural characteristics with diverse local emission sources. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) data of O3 concentrations from 2000 and 2013 were used to develop this model, while observations from 2014 were used as the external data verification to assess model reliability. The distribution of temples, cemeteries, and crematoriums was included for a potential predictor as an Asian culturally specific source for incense and joss money burning. We used stepwise regression for the LUR model development, and applied 10-fold cross-validation and external data for the verification of model reliability. With the overall model R² of 0.74 and a 10-fold cross-validated R² of 0.70, this model presented a mid-high prediction performance level. Moreover, during the stepwise selection procedures, the number of temples, cemeteries, and crematoriums was selected as an important predictor. By using the long-term monitoring data to establish an LUR model with culture specific predictors, this model can better depict O3 concentration variation in Asian areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Previsões , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taiwan
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