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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130882, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481403

RESUMO

Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) with different morphology and particle size can be prepared by modulating the reaction conditions over SNPs preparation. This study was to synthesize various SNPs by using ultrasound assisted nanoprecipitation method, and characterized by particle size analysis, SEM and XRD performing. SNPs were successfully produced via nanoprecipitation and the particle size were controlled in the range of 95 to 150 nm. Moreover, variously different morphologies were obtained when using corn, potato or Trichosanthes kirilowii pulp (TKP) starch to produce nanoparticles, including fiber, flake and film. Results shown film TKP SNPs demonstrated an improved urea adsorption rate to 135.60 mg/g with the highest qm at 1.00 mg/mL. SNPs can be developed using ultrasound assisted nanoprecipitation method and the particle size together with surface morphology can be varied according to the source of starch and preparation method, while surface morphology is the key factor in altering adsorption performance.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613687

RESUMO

The excessive colonization of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is responsible for the genesis of acne vulgaris, a common inflammatory disease of skin. However, the conventional anti-acne therapies are always limited by various side effects, drug resistance, and poor skin permeability. Microneedles (MNs) are emerging topical drug delivery systems capable of noninvasively breaking through the skin stratum corneum barrier to efficiently enhance the transdermal drug penetration. Herein, MNs loaded with intelligent pH-sensitive nanoplatforms were constructed for amplified chemo-photodynamic therapy against acne vulgaris, jointly exerting antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) was loaded into the zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) to improve its photostability, which would be triggered by 808 nm laser irradiation to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to result in oxidative damage and disturbed metabolic activities of P. acnes. In addition to the efficient drug delivery, the ZIF-8 carrier could selectively degrade in response to the acidic microenvironment of acne lesions, and the released Zn2+ also exhibited a potent antimicrobial activity. The fabricated ZIF-8-ICG@MNs presented an outstanding synergistic anti-acne efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. This bioresponsive microneedle patch is expected to be readily adapted as a generalized, modular strategy for noninvasive therapeutics delivery against superficial skin diseases.

3.
J Control Release ; 339: 335-349, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606937

RESUMO

Starvation therapy based on glucose oxidase (GOx) has attracted considerable attention in tumor treatment. However, several shortcomings severely hinder its further applications, including limited therapeutic efficacy, poor enzyme stability, and potential side effects. Herein, a strategy of cascade reaction-enhanced combined therapy based on the oxygen-evolving multifunctional nanoreactors is proposed for tumor therapy. The GOx and catalase (CAT) are immobilized in metal-organic frameworks by biomimetic mineralization to improve their stability via spatial confinement. The GOx can consume glucose, reduce ATP levels, and down-regulate the expression of heat shock proteins, which consequently sensitize tumor cells to indocyanine green-based photothermal therapy. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide generated by GOx as well as overexpressed in tumor can be decomposed by CAT and continuously generate oxygen, which further enhance the efficacy of oxygen-dependent starvation therapy and photodynamic therapy. The nanoreactors are directly delivered to the superficial tumor by microneedles, achieving efficient tumor accumulation and dramatically strengthened antitumor efficacy without obvious side effects, which provides a valuable paradigm for the application of cascade reaction-based combined therapy.

4.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6772-6786, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636812

RESUMO

The low oxygen level in tumors significantly reduces the antitumor efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The provision of O2 and monomeric hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) under physiological conditions would greatly help to shrink malignant tumors. We take advantage of the high porosity and multifunctionality of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to fabricate a simple all-in-one nanoplatform mediated by microneedle delivery to achieve synergistic O2 evolution and chemophototherapy. An iron(III)-based MOF (MIL-100(Fe)) acted not only as a vehicle for the concurrent delivery of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), but also to supply O2 by decomposing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the tumor microenvironment via a Fenton-like reaction. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the nanoplatform had excellent biocompatibility and exerted enhanced anticancer effects. The encapsulated drug was sustainably released from the nanoplatform skeleton in response to acidic tumor microenvironments. Moreover, upon 660 nm light irradiation, ZnPc effectively produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the reduction of hypoxia by MIL-100(Fe). A microneedle technique was adopted to directly deliver the nanoplatform into superficial tumors rather than via systemic circulation. Hence, this study provides a new strategy for more efficient chemophototherapy of hypoxic superficial tumors.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Microambiente Tumoral , Compostos Férricos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/análogos & derivados , Oxigênio
5.
Water Res ; 206: 117739, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653798

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) lakes are typical hydrologic features caused by open pit mining and represent extreme ecosystems and environmental challenges. Little is known about microbial distribution and community assembly in AMD lakes, especially in deep layers. Here, we investigated prokaryotic microbial diversity and community assembly along a depth profile in a stratified AMD lake using 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with multivariate ecological and statistical methods. The water column in the AMD lake exhibited tight geochemical gradients, with more acidic surface water. Coupled with vertical hydrochemical variations, prokaryotic microbial community structure changed significantly, and was accompanied by increased diversity with depth. In the surface water, heterogeneous selection was the most important assembly process, whereas stochastic processes gained importance with depth. Meanwhile, microbial co-occurrences, especially positive interactions, were more frequent in the stressful surface water with reduced network modularity and keystone taxa. The pH was identified as the key driver of microbial diversity and community assembly along the vertical profile based on random forest analysis. Taken together, environmental effects dominated by acid stress drove the community assembly and species coexistence that underpinned the spatial scaling patterns of AMD microbiota in the lake. These findings demonstrate the distinct heterogeneity of local prokaryotic microbial community in AMD lake, and provide new insights into the mechanism to maintain microbial diversity in extreme acidic environments.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e022304, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612058

RESUMO

Background Circulating microRNAs are emerging biomarkers for heart failure (HF). Our study aimed to assess the prognostic value of microRNA signature that is differentially expressed in patients with acute HF. Methods and Results Our study comprised a screening cohort of 15 patients with AHF and 5 controls, a PCR-discovery cohort of 50 patients with AHF and 26 controls and a validation cohort of 564 patients with AHF from registered study DRAGON-HF (Diagnostic, Risk Stratification and Prognostic Value of Novel Biomarkers in Patients With Heart Failure). Through screening by RNA-sequencing and verification by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, 9 differentially expressed microRNAs were verified (miR-939-5p, miR-1908-5p, miR-7706, miR-101-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-4732-3p, miR-3615, miR-484 and miR-19b-3p). Among them, miR-19b-3p was identified as the microRNA signature with the highest fold-change of 8.4 and the strongest prognostic potential (area under curve with 95% CI, 0.791, 0.654-0.927). To further validate its prognostic value, in the validation cohort, the baseline level of miR-19b-3p was measured. During a follow-up period of 19.1 (17.7, 20.7) months, primary end point comprising of all-cause mortality or readmission due to HF occurred in 48.9% patients, while patients in the highest quartile of miR-19b-3p level presented the worst survival (Log-rank P<0.001). Multivariate Cox model showed that the level of miR-19b-3p could independently predict the occurrence of primary end point (adjusted hazard ratio,1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.64). In addition, miR-19b-3p positively correlated with soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 and echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions Circulating miR-19b-3p could be a valuable prognostic biomarker for AHF. In addition, a high level of circulating miR-19b-3p might indicate ventricular hypertrophy in AHF subjects. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT03727828.

7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112293, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474844

RESUMO

Due to increased requirements for precision cancer treatment, cancer chemotherapy and combination therapies have gradually developed in the direction of diagnosis and treatment integration. In this study, a non-toxic nano carrier that demonstrates integrated MRI signal enhancing performance, as well as better chemotherapy and photothermal conversion performance, was prepared and characterized. Furthermore, the carrier was used to construct an integrated system of tumor diagnosis and treatment. Our in vitro studies showed that this system has a considerable inhibition effect on tumor cells during the treatment of chemotherapy when combined with PTT, and in vivo studies showed that the system could improve the MRI signal of the tumor site with application of a safe dosage. Thus, this system based on NGO/USPIO has the potential to be a multi-functional nano drug delivery system integrating diagnosis and treatment benefits and applications that are worthy of further research.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias , Dextranos , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos
8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9987844, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471471

RESUMO

In this work, the antioxidant mechanisms of bioactive oligopeptides (FWKVV and FMPLH) from protein hydrolysate of miiuy croaker muscle against H2O2-damaged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were researched systemically. The finding demonstrated that the HUVEC viability treated with ten antioxidant peptides (M1 to M10) at 100.0 µM for 24 h was not significantly affected compared with that of the normal group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, FWKVV and FMPLH at 100.0 µM could very significantly enhance the viabilities (75.89 ± 1.79% and 70.03 ± 4.37%) of oxidative-damaged HUVECs by H2O2 compared with those of the model group (51.66 ± 2.48%) (P < 0.001). The results indicated that FWKVV and FMPLH played their protective functions through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) in oxidative-damaged HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the comet assay revealed that FWKVV and FMPLH could dose-dependently protect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from oxidative damage in the HUVEC model. These results suggested that antioxidant pentapeptides (FWKVV and FMPLH) could serve as potential antioxidant additives applied in the food products, pharmaceuticals, and health supplements.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies examining the association of coronary heart disease (CHD) and NAFLD are cofounded by various cardiometabolic factors particularly diabetes and body mass index. Hence, we seek to explore such association by investigating the global prevalence, independent risk factors and influence of steatosis grade on manifestation of CHD among patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Two databases, Embase and Medline, were utilised to search for articles relating to NAFLD and CHD. Data including but not limited to continent, diagnostic methods, baseline characteristics, prevalence of CHD, CHD severity, NAFLD severity, and risk factors were extracted. RESULTS: Of the 38 articles included, 14 reported prevalence of clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and 24 subclinical CAD. The pooled prevalence of CHD was 44.6% (CI: 36.0% - 53.6%) among 67,070 NAFLD patients with an odds ratio of 1.33 (CI: 1.21% - 1.45%, p<0.0001). The prevalence of CHD was higher in patients with moderate to severe steatosis (37.5%, CI: 15.0% - 67.2%) than those with mild steatosis (29.6%, CI: 13.1% - 54.0%). The pooled prevalence of subclinical and clinical CAD was 38.7% (CI: 29.8% - 48.5%) and 55.4% (CI: 39.6% - 70.1%) respectively. CONCLUSION: Steatosis was found to be related with CHD involvement, with moderate to severe steatosis related to clinical CAD. Early screening and prompt intervention for CHD in NAFLD are warranted for holistic care in NAFLD.

10.
J Control Release ; 338: 623-632, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481927

RESUMO

There is a great challenge in regenerating cartilage defects, which usually involve absent bearing capacity and poor adaptation to joint movement, further exacerbating subchondral bone damage. Therefore, ideal tissue-engineering cartilage scaffolds should be endowed with biomimetic and sustained-release function for promoting long-term chondrogenesis while protecting subchondral bone. Herein, in situ self-assembling gel based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO)-hyaluronic acid (HA) composite lyotropic liquid crystal (HLC) was developed as the biomimetic scaffold to deliver kartogenin for long-term cartilage regeneration. Compared to the GMO based (LLC) gel, HLC gel with modified lattice structure exhibited improved rheological properties for better joint protection by increasing mechanical strength, elasticity and lubrication. Besides, HLC gel successfully prolonged drug release and retention in the joint cavity over 4 weeks to provide combined effect of kartogenin and HA for cartilage repair. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that HLC gel was the most effective to promote chondrogenesis and protect subchondral bone, making the damaged bone tissue restored to normal in divergent features as evidenced by the MRI, Micro-CT and histological results. Therefore, the HLC gel with joint protection and controlled drug release can serve as a firm scaffold for providing long-term cartilage repair.

11.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common syndrome in elderly people. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, in particular machine-learning algorithms, have been increasingly used in disease diagnosis. AIM: In this study, we designed an effective diagnostic model of PAD in the elderly patients using artificial intelligence. METHODS: The study was performed with 539 participants, all over 80 years in age, who underwent the measurements of Doppler ultrasonography and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Blood samples were collected. ABI and two machine-learning algorithms (MLAs)-logistic regression and a random forest (RF) model-were established to diagnose PAD. The sensitivity and specificity of the models were analyzed. An additional RF model was designed based on the most significant features of the original RF model and a prospective study was conducted to demonstrate its external validity. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 28 features introduced to the MLAs differed significantly between PAD and non-PAD participants. The respective sensitivities and specificities of logistic regression, RF, and ABI were as follows: logistic regression (81.5%, 83.8%), RF (89.3%, 91.6%) and ABI (85.1%, 84.5%). In the prospective study, the newly designed RF model based on the most significant seven features exhibited an acceptable performance rate for the diagnosis of PAD with 100.0% sensitivity and 90.3% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An RF model was a more effective method than the logistic regression and ABI for the diagnosis of PAD in an elderly cohort.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 262: 109239, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555732

RESUMO

Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) belongs to the flavivirus genus whose genome replication involved in capping and RNA synthesis dominating by nonstructural protein 5 (NS5). Flaviviral replication has been well documented to occur in the cytoplasm, but the effect of NS5 to gain access to the nucleus remains controversial. Here, TMUV NS5 was observed to localize within the cytoplasm of transfected and infected cells and co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum. We introduced two arginine mutations into the N390 and Q392 (N390R and Q392R) of the NS5 bipartite nuclear localization sequence (α/ßNLS) and designated that mutagenesis as NS5NLSmut, which has shown the ability to access the nucleus and hence attenuates viral replication and production in vitro. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the recovered wild-type TMUV (rTMUV-WT) and engineered mutant (rTMUV-NS5NLSmut) on plaque morphology, survival rate of infected duck embryos or virus copies in tissues. Considering that NS5NLSmut is mainly located in the cytoplasm of rTMUV-NS5NLSmut infected cells at the early stage of infection. We further confirmed that NS5NLSmut attenuated its interaction with nonstructural NS2B-NS3 (NS2B3) following transfection and infection. Meanwhile, the rTMUV-NS5NLSmut tended to stimulate more interferon beta (IFNß) than rTMUV-WT. However, preliminary study on transient NS5 and NS5NLSmut detected the same levels of IFNß mRNA mediated by RIG-I detection of NS5 RNA polymerase activity in cell. In summary, these results provide further insights into the relationship between the viral property and subcellular localization of flavivirus NS5 in terms of the NS5-NS2B3 interaction.

13.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531527

RESUMO

The Kyrgyz are a trans-border ethnic group, mainly living in Kyrgyzstan. Previous genetic investigations of Central Asian populations have repeatedly investigated the Central Asian Kyrgyz. However, from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity, Northwest Chinese Kyrgyz is one of the more poorly studied populations. In this study, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from 298 male Kyrgyz samples from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, using a high-resolution analysis of 108 biallelic markers and 17 or 24 STRs. First, via a Y-SNP-based PCA plot, Northwest Chinese Kyrgyz tended to cluster with other Kyrgyz population and are located in the West Asian and Central Asian group. Second, we found that the Northwest Chinese Kyrgyz display a high proportion of Y-lineage R1a1a1b2a2a-Z2125, related to Bronze Age Siberian, and followed by Y-lineage C2b1a3a1-F3796, related to Medieval Niru'un Mongols, such as Uissun tribe from Kazakhs. In these two dominant lineages, two unique recent descent clusters have been detected via NETWORK analysis, respectively, but they have nearly the same TMRCA ages (about 13th-14th centuries). This finding once again shows that the expansions of Mongol Empire had a striking effect on the Central Asian gene pool.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539656

RESUMO

Gut acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is associated with high mortality. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a group of innate-like T cells enriched in the intestine that can be activated by riboflavin metabolites from various microorganisms. However, little is known about the function or mechanism of action of MAIT cells in the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans. In our study, multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate the number of MAIT cells and functional cytokines. 16S V34 region amplicon sequencing analysis was used to analyze the intestinal flora of transplant patients. In vitro stimulation and coculture assays were used to study the activation and function of MAIT cells. The number and distribution of MAIT cells in intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence technology. Our study showed that the number and frequency of MAIT cells in infused grafts in gut aGVHD patients were lower than those in no-gut aGVHD patients. Recipients with a high number of MAITs in infused grafts had a higher abundance of intestinal flora in the early posttransplantation period (+14 days). At the onset of gut aGVHD, the number of MAIT cells decreased in peripheral blood, and the activation marker CD69, chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4, and transcription factors Rorγt and T-bet tended to increase. Furthermore, when gut aGVHD occurred, the proportion of MAIT17 was higher than that of MAIT1. The abundance of intestinal flora with non-riboflavin metabolic pathways tended to increase in gut aGVHD patients. MAIT cells secreted more granzyme B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ under the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-18 stimulation [non-T-cell receptor (TCR) signal] and secreted most of the IL-17 under the cluster of differentiation (CD)3/CD28 stimulation (TCR signal). MAIT cells inhibited the proliferation of CD4+ T cells in vitro. In conclusion, the lower number of MAIT cells in infused grafts was related to the higher incidence of gut aGVHD, and the number of MAIT cells in grafts may affect the composition of the intestinal flora of recipients early after transplantation. The flora of the riboflavin metabolism pathway activated MAIT cells and promoted the expression of intestinal protective factors to affect the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554160

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with occurrence of articular inflammation and cartilage degeneration. An ideal drug delivery system for effective treatment of OA should integrate inflammation alleviation with cartilage protection. Herein, a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) precursor co-loading hyaluronic acid (HA) and celecoxib, formulated as the HLC precursor, was developed for the combined therapeutic efficacy. The in situ gelling property of the HLC precursor effectively prolongs drug retention in the articular cavity to achieve a long-term anti-inflammation effect. Based on the rheological tests, HLC gel with a cubic lattice structure endows it with a spring-like effect to buffer joint shock and shows great potential in providing cartilage protection by resisting mechanical destruction, lubricating joint, and decomposing intensive stress (about 50%). Meanwhile, the pharmacodynamics study on the OA-induced SD rats demonstrated that HLC gel was the most effective to reduce inflammation levels and to protect the cartilage against abrasion and degeneration. Furthermore, the in vivo degradation behavior and the intra-articular irritation results of LLC/HLC gel demonstrated that it was biodegradable and biocompatible. These results collectively demonstrated that HLC gel with anti-inflammation and cartilage protection performance provides a useful approach to treat OA.

16.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530140

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most common malignant skin cancer with high lethality. Chemotherapy and photothermal therapy are important and extensively studied treatment modalities for melanoma. However, these therapies still face some challenges, which severely restrict their further applications, such as unsatisfactory efficacy of monotherapy, nonspecific uptake and release during drug delivery, and unexpected adverse effects from system administration. Recently, the strategies of collaboration, functional modification, stimuli-responsive design, and topical administration all show great prospect for solving above problems. In this research, a multifunctional nanoparticle-integrated dissolving microneedle drug delivery system was constructed, in which the nanoparticles were prepared based on the framework with the incorporation of photothermal agent (CuS) into Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 and functionalized by hyaluronic acid. This system can co-load multi-modal drugs, improve specific uptake and distribution of targeted tumor, deliver drug locally, and release drug intelligently and spatiotemporally, thereby promising a low-dose administration with high efficiency. The high inhibiting tumor performance and excellent systematic safety were verified both in vitro and in vivo. Together, this smart design overcame the drawbacks of monotherapy and conventional system administration. We believe the nanoparticle-integrated dissolving microneedles will be in prospect of clinical application for more superficial tumors with further delicate optimization. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Melanoma is one of the most common skin cancers with high lethality. Extensively studied chemotherapy and photothermal therapy still face some challenges, such as the limited therapeutic efficacy and the severe system adverse effects. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the multifunctional nanoparticle-integrated dissolving microneedles (DMNs) were designed. Especially, the nanoparticles could co-load multi-modal drugs, improve specific uptake, and release drug intelligently and spatiotemporally. The microneedles could increase the drug accumulation in tumor, thus achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects. This system paved the way to a less invasive, more focused and efficient therapeutic strategy for melanoma therapy.

17.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 8121-8137, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494632

RESUMO

The delayed healing of infected post-operative wounds has turned into a worldwide medical problem. In the clinical treatment, effective bacterial clearance and promoted wound healing were considered as two crucial aspects. However, the effect of current dressings with antibacterial activity was limited due to the declined efficacy against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and poor mechanical property during skin extension and compression movement. In this project, a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC)-based bacteria-resistant and self-healing spray dressing loaded with ε-polylysine (PLL) was designed. Owing to the unique antibacterial mechanism, PLL was expected to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria efficiently, even the "superbug" methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The cubic cells of LLC were applied to encapsulate PLL to improve its stability and induce a sustained release, further realizing a long-term antibacterial effect. Meanwhile, the LLC precursor (LLCP) could extend to the irregular edges of the wound, and spontaneously transited to a cubic phase gel once exposed to physiological fluid. This 3D structure was also endowed with mechanically responsive viscoelasticity that formed a robust and flexible defense for wounds. An excellent antibacterial activity with more than 99% MRSA killed in 3 h was demonstrated by a killing kinetics study. The long-term effect was also proved by measuring the bacteriostatic circle test within 48 h. In addition, the unique sol-gel phase transition behavior and superior self-healing capacity of PLL-LLCP was verified with the rheological study and self-recoverable conformal deformation test in vivo. In the infected post-operative wound model, satisfactory bacterial clearance and prominent wound healing promotion were realized by PLL-LLCP, with the survival of the bacteria at lower than 0.1% and the wound closure at higher than 90%. Thus, PLL-LLCP was believed to be an excellent candidate for the therapy of infected post-operative wounds.

18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108119, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492535

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a common chronic disease associated with chondrocyte inflammation and cartilage matrix hydrolyzation. Studies report that IL-1ß plays a critical role in osteoarthritis. Anti-inflammatory effect of nootkatone has been explored in acute and chronic inflammatory disease, thus the current study sought to explore its therapeutic effect in osteoarthritis. Notably, the effect of nootkatone in osteoarthritis has not been elucidated. Therefore, murine primary chondrocytes were extracted and ACLT induced OA mouse model was established in the current study to explore the therapeutic effect of nootkatone in OA both in vitro and in vivo. The findings showed that nootkatone inhibited inflammatory response and protected cartilage balance in murine primary chondrocyte. Further analysis showed that nootkatone suppressed inflammation and protected cartilage against degeneration induced by ACLT surgery in mice. The cellular mechanism of the protective effect of nootkatone in osteoarthritis and associated signaling pathway was identified as the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the findings of the current study indicated that nootkatone is a potential therapeutic agent for OA.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506618

RESUMO

AIMS : This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and long-term survival outcome in patients with Takayasu's arteritis-associated pulmonary hypertension (TA-PH). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a nationally representative cohort study of TA-PH using data from the National Rare Diseases Registry System of China. Patients with pulmonary artery involvement who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Takayasu's arteritis and pulmonary hypertension were included. The primary outcome was the time from diagnosis of TA-PH to the occurrence of all-cause death. Between January 2007 and January 2019, a total of 140 patients were included, with a mean age of 41.4 years at diagnosis, and a female predominance (81%). Patients with TA-PH had severely haemodynamic and functional impairments at diagnosis. Significant improvements have been found in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and haemodynamic profiles in patients with TA-PH receiving drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates in TA-PH were 94.0%, 83.2%, and 77.2%, respectively. Predictors associated with an increased risk of all-cause death were syncope [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 5.38 (95% confidence interval 1.77-16.34), P = 0.003], NT-proBNP level [adjusted HR 1.04 (1.03-1.06), P < 0.001], and mean right atrial pressure [adjusted HR 1.07 (1.01-1.13), P = 0.015]. CONCLUSION : Patients with TA-PH were predominantly female and had severely compromised haemodynamics. More than 80% of patients in our cohort survived for at least 3 years. Medical treatment was based on investigators' personal opinions, and no clear risk-to-benefit ratio can be derived from the presented data.

20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(7): 237, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545436

RESUMO

Sealing the therapeutic agents in the root canal is considered to be an essential step in root canal therapy. The lyotropic liquid crystalline precursor (LLCP) incorporated with chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been confirmed as a promising candidate for root canal therapy in the previous study. Importantly, the stability of the LLCP system was a significant determinant for its therapeutic effect and further application. The objective of this study was to comprehensively investigate the stability of the LLCP incorporated with CHX and Ag-NPs. The oil-water partition coefficient of CHX and Ag-NPs was measured. The water absorption and the physical stability of drug-loaded LLCP solution were studied. Stability under high temperature, high humidity, and strong light irradiation was also investigated. The results demonstrated that CHX and Ag-NPs could be entrapped in the water channel of LLCP, indicating the low tendency of drugs leakage. The drug-loaded LLCP was a pseudoplastic fluid and it showed an excellent physical stability with a sedimentation rate of 0.981 and a settling time of 26~28 h. The payload of LLCP was confirmed to weaken the water absorption behavior, which facilitated its transformation to cubic liquid crystal. The stress testing under high temperature, high humidity, and strong light irradiation also manifested that the LLCP was stable when stored under moisture-proof condition. In conclusion, the developed LLCP incorporated with CHX and Ag-NPs was highly stable during storage and qualified for further application.

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