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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617747

RESUMO

Toxicological studies show that exposure to disinfection byproducts, including trihalomethanes (THMs), negatively affects thyroid function; however, few epidemiological studies have explored this link. This study included 2233 adults (ages ≥20 years) from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who were measured for blood THM concentrations [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), or bromoform (TBM)] and serum thyroid function biomarkers [thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)]. Multivariable linear regression models showed positive associations between blood TCM, BDCM, and total THMs (the sum of all four THMs) concentrations and serum FT4, whereas inverse associations were found between blood DBCM and total brominated THM (Br-THM; the sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) concentrations and serum TT3 (all p < 0.05). Besides, positive associations were observed between blood TCM concentrations and FT4/FT3 ratio, between BDCM, DBCM, and Br-THM concentrations and TT4/TT3 ratio, and between DBCM and Br-THM concentrations and FT3/TT3 ratio (all p < 0.05). Blood THM concentrations were unrelated to the serum levels of thyroid autoantibodies TgAb or TPOAb. In summary, exposure to THMs was associated with altered serum biomarkers of thyroid function but not with thyroid autoimmunity among U.S. adults.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. There is little evidence regarding the prospective association of the maternal lipidome with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), especially in Chinese populations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify novel lipid species associated with GDM risk in Chinese women, and assess the incremental predictive capacity of the lipids for GDM. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort with 336 GDM cases and 672 controls, 1:2 matched on age and week of gestation. Maternal blood samples were collected at 6-15 wk, and lipidomes were profiled by targeted ultra-HPLC-tandem MS. GDM was diagnosed by oral-glucose-tolerance test at 24-28 wk. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is a regression analysis method that was used to select novel biomarkers. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. RESULTS: Of 366 detected lipids, 10 were selected and found to be significantly associated with GDM independently of confounders: there were positive associations with phosphatidylinositol 40:6, alkylphosphatidylcholine 36:1, phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen 38:6, diacylglyceride 18:0/18:1, and alkylphosphatidylethanolamine 40:5 (adjusted ORs per 1 log-SD increment range: 1.34-2.86), whereas there were inverse associations with sphingomyelin 34:1, dihexosyl ceramide 24:0, mono hexosyl ceramide 18:0, dihexosyl ceramide 24:1, and phosphatidylcholine 40:7 (adjusted ORs range: 0.48-0.68). Addition of these novel lipids to the classical GDM prediction model resulted in a significant improvement in the C-statistic (discriminatory power of the model) to 0.801 (95% CI: 0.772, 0.829). For every 1-point increase in the lipid risk score of the 10 lipids, the OR of GDM was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.85). Mediation analysis suggested the associations between specific lipid species and GDM were partially explained by glycemic and insulin-related indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Specific plasma lipid biomarkers in early pregnancy were associated with GDM in Chinese women, and significantly improved the prediction for GDM.

3.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003763, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the association of serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a Swedish cohort study. We also systematically reviewed studies of the association of dairy fat biomarkers (circulating or adipose tissue levels of 15:0, heptadecanoic acid [17:0], and trans-palmitoleic acid [t16:1n-7]) with CVD outcomes or all-cause mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured 15:0 in serum cholesterol esters at baseline in 4,150 Swedish adults (51% female, median age 60.5 years). During a median follow-up of 16.6 years, 578 incident CVD events and 676 deaths were identified using Swedish registers. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher 15:0 was associated with lower incident CVD risk in a linear dose-response manner (hazard ratio 0.75 per interquintile range; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.93, P = 0.009) and nonlinearly with all-cause mortality (P for nonlinearity = 0.03), with a nadir of mortality risk around median 15:0. In meta-analyses including our Swedish cohort and 17 cohort, case-cohort, or nested case-control studies, higher 15:0 and 17:0 but not t16:1n-7 were inversely associated with total CVD, with the relative risk of highest versus lowest tertile being 0.88 (0.78, 0.99), 0.86 (0.79, 0.93), and 1.01 (0.91, 1.12), respectively. Dairy fat biomarkers were not associated with all-cause mortality in meta-analyses, although there were ≤3 studies for each biomarker. Study limitations include the inability of the biomarkers to distinguish different types of dairy foods and that most studies in the meta-analyses (including our novel cohort study) only assessed biomarkers at baseline, which may increase the risk of misclassification of exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of 18 observational studies including our new cohort study, higher levels of 15:0 and 17:0 were associated with lower CVD risk. Our findings support the need for clinical and experimental studies to elucidate the causality of these relationships and relevant biological mechanisms.

4.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3496, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537998

RESUMO

AIMS: We prospectively evaluated the association of circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in early pregnancy and risk of incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among 332 women who developed GDM and 664 matched controls based on the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort. GDM was diagnosed during 24-28 weeks of gestation according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Serum RBP4 levels in early pregnancy (6-15 weeks of gestation) were determined by ELISA assay. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to analyse the association and generated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). EMBASE and PubMed were searched up to 30 November 2020 to identify studies investigating the association between blood RBP4 levels in early pregnancy and incident GDM. RESULTS: In the multivariable model with adjustment of potential risk factors, the OR comparing the extreme quartiles of serum RBP4 levels was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.81; p for trend <0.001), and each standard deviation (SD) increment of RBP4 was associated with 1.39-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 1.69) higher risk of GDM. The results were confirmed in a meta-analysis that included additional four studies with an overall OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.83) per 1-SD increment of RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: Serum RBP4 levels in early pregnancy, independent of metabolic risk factors, are positively associated with the risk of GDM in pregnant women. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the aetiology of GDM.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453541

RESUMO

CONTEXT: While the associations between thyroid markers and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been extensively studied, the results are inconclusive and the mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of thyroid markers in early gestation with GDM risk, and examine the mediating effects through lipid species. METHODS: This study included 6068 pregnant women from the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort. Maternal serum thyroid markers (free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and thyroglobulin antibody) were measured before 15 weeks. Deiodinase activity was assessed by fT3/fT4 ratio. Plasma lipidome were quantified in a subset of 883 participants. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 26.6 ± 3.7 years, and mean gestational age was 10.3 ± 2.0 weeks. Higher levels of fT4 were associated with a decreased risk of GDM (OR=0.73 comparing the extreme quartiles; 95% CI 0.54, 0.98, Ptrend =0.043), while higher fT3/fT4 ratio was associated with an increased risk of GDM (OR=1.43 comparing the extreme quartiles; 95% CI 1.06, 1.93, Ptrend =0.010) after adjusting for potential confounders. Multiple linear regression suggested that fT3/fT4 ratio was positively associated with alkylphosphatidylcholine 36:1, phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen 38:6, diacylglyceride 18:0/18:1, sphingomyelin 34:1, and phosphatidylcholine 40:7 (false discovery rate adjusted P<0.05). Mediation analysis indicated 67.9% of the association between fT3/fT4 ratio and GDM might be mediated through the composite effect of these lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Lower concentration of serum fT4 or higher fT3/fT4 ratio in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of GDM. The association of fT3/fT4 ratio with GDM was largely mediated by specific lipid species.

7.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3487, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289224

RESUMO

AIMS: To prospectively examine the association between arthritis and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Chinese population and confirm this association through a comprehensive meta-analysis of cohort studies. METERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study which was started in 2011-2013 and followed up in 2013-2014 and 2015-2016. Arthritis was defined as self-reported physician diagnosis at baseline, and incident T2D was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis, fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or glycosylated haemoglobin ≥6.5% during the follow-ups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between arthritis and risk for T2D. A meta-analysis was conducted to pool our effect estimate and those from other cohort studies using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Eleven thousand four hundred and eight participants (47.9% men; mean age: 59.3 years) were included in final analyses. During a 4-year follow-up, 981 participants reported incident T2D. Compared with individuals without arthritis, those with arthritis at baseline had an 18% higher risk for incident T2D (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.34). In the meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies including ours, a total of 2,473,514 participants were included with 121,851 incident diabetes. The pooling HR was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.44) for the association between arthritis and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Arthritis was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes in Chinese adults, and the positive association was confirmed in the meta-analysis of cohort studies. Our work can inform clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of arthritis treatments in reducing risk of diabetes.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205293

RESUMO

We examined the associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among Chinese and low-income Black and White Americans. Included were 47,789 Blacks, 20,360 Whites, and 134,280 Chinese aged 40-79 years at enrollment. Multivariable Cox models with restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality outcomes using intakes of 150 mg cholesterol/day and 1 egg/week as the references. Cholesterol intake showed a nonlinear association with increased all-cause mortality and a linear association with increased cardiometabolic mortality among Black Americans: HRs (95% CIs) associated with 300 and 600 mg/day vs. 150 mg/day were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.13 (1.05-1.21) for all-cause mortality (P-linearity = 0.04, P-nonlinearity = 0.002, and P-overall < 0.001) and 1.10 (1.03-1.16) and 1.21 (1.08-1.36) for cardiometabolic mortality (P-linearity = 0.007, P-nonlinearity = 0.07, and P-overall = 0.005). Null associations with all-cause or cardiometabolic mortality were noted for White Americans (P-linearity ≥ 0.13, P-nonlinearity ≥ 0.06, and P-overall ≥ 0.05 for both). Nonlinear inverse associations were observed among Chinese: HR (95% CI) for 300 vs. 150 mg/day was 0.94 (0.92-0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.91 (0.87-0.95) for cardiometabolic mortality, but the inverse associations disappeared with cholesterol intake > 500 mg/day (P-linearity ≥ 0.12; P-nonlinearity ≤ 0.001; P-overall < 0.001 for both). Similarly, we observed a positive association of egg intake with all-cause mortality in Black Americans, but a null association in White Americans and a nonlinear inverse association in Chinese. In conclusion, the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality may differ across ethnicities who have different dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk profiles. However, residual confounding remains possible.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovos , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 893-906, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Sarcosina/sangue
10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 373-392, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022156

RESUMO

Obesity has become a major public health issue in China. Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in the past four decades, and the latest national prevalence estimates for 2015-19, based on Chinese criteria, were 6·8% for overweight and 3·6% for obesity in children younger than 6 years, 11·1% for overweight and 7·9% for obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years, and 34·3% for overweight and 16·4% for obesity in adults (≥18 years). Prevalence differed by sex, age group, and geographical location, but was substantial in all subpopulations. Strong evidence from prospective cohort studies has linked overweight and obesity to increased risks of major non-communicable diseases and premature mortality in Chinese populations. The growing burden of overweight and obesity could be driven by economic developments, sociocultural norms, and policies that have shaped individual-level risk factors for obesity through urbanisation, urban planning and built environments, and food systems and environments. Substantial changes in dietary patterns have occurred in China, with increased consumption of animal-source foods, refined grains, and highly processed, high-sugar, and high-fat foods, while physical activity levels in all major domains have decreased with increasing sedentary behaviours. The effects of dietary factors and physical inactivity intersect with other individual-level risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, psychosocial factors, obesogens, and in-utero and early-life exposures. In view of the scarcity of research around the individual and collective roles of these upstream and downstream factors, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies are urgently needed to identify systemic approaches that target both the population-level determinants and individual-level risk factors for obesity in China.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 393-405, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022157

RESUMO

China has one of the largest populations with obesity in the world, and obesity has become a major challenge for the country's health-care system. Current guidelines for obesity management are not adequately supported by evidence from clinical studies in Chinese populations. Effective lifestyle interventions suitable for Chinese populations are scarce, insufficient weight-loss medications have been approved by regulatory bodies, and there is low acceptance of non-lifestyle interventions (ie, medications and surgery) among both health-care providers and the general public. Large, well designed, and well implemented clinical trials are needed to strengthen the evidence base for the clinical management of obesity in China. Obesity management can be improved through use of a tiered system involving health management centres, integrated lifestyle interventions and medical treatments, strengthened obesity education and training, and use of advanced electronic health technologies. Resource mobilisation, support from major stakeholders for people with overweight or obesity, and education and changes to social norms among the wider public are also needed. National health policies should prioritise both obesity prevention and improvement of the treatment and management of obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso/provisão & distribuição
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4128-e4141, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015117

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the association between gut bacterial biomarkers during early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: Within the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort study, we conducted a nested case-control study among 201 incident GDM cases and 201 matched controls. Fecal samples were collected during early pregnancy (at 6-15 weeks), and GDM was diagnosed at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Community DNA isolated from fecal samples and V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced. RESULTS: In GDM cases versus controls, Rothia, Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Adlercreutzia, and Coriobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae spp. were significantly reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae spp., and Veillonellaceae were overrepresented. In addition, the abundance of Staphylococcus relative to Clostridium, Roseburia, and Coriobacteriaceae as reference microorganisms were positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels. Adding microbial taxa to the base GDM prediction model with conventional risk factors increased the C-statistic significantly (P < 0.001) from 0.69 to 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota during early pregnancy was associated with subsequent risk of GDM. Several beneficial and commensal gut microorganisms showed inverse relations with incident GDM, while opportunistic pathogenic members were related to higher risk of incident GDM and positively correlated with glucose levels on OGTT.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 281: 116347, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819671

RESUMO

Indoor environment constitutes an important source of industrial additive chemicals to human exposure. We hypothesized that the influence of residential environment on human exposure varies among different types of additive chemicals and differs between children and mothers. This study determined a suite of additive chemicals in house dust from South China dwellings (n = 47) and urine from child-mother pairs. Concentrations of phthalates (PAEs; median 601 µg/g) were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than those of parabens (0.82 µg/g), bisphenols (3.31 µg/g), and benzophenone-related chemicals (2.69 µg/g). Urinary concentrations differed between children and mothers, but the pattern of differences varied between chemical groups. Children exhibited greater urinary levels of mono-PAEs than mothers (510 versus 395 ng/mL, p = 0.152), while the latter population exhibited greater levels of parabens and benzophenones. Regression analyses indicate a lack of association between dust and urinary levels for most chemicals, suggesting that other exposure pathways can complicate human exposure scenarios. Indeed, we estimated that the daily intake via dust ingestion only constituted 0.002-0.81% of total daily intake estimated based on urine data for mothers and 0.04-5.61% for children. Future efforts are needed to better characterize source-specific exposure for different populations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Cosméticos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 87-97, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914701

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks(s.d., 2.0)) and 13.2 weeks (1.0), respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance), HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment. Results: Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-s.d. increase; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 were strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles. Conclusions: We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Peptídeo C/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Jejum , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ ; 373: n604, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether overall lifestyles mediate associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the extent of interaction or joint relations of lifestyles and SES with health outcomes. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (US NHANES, 1988-94 and 1999-2014) and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 44 462 US adults aged 20 years or older and 399 537 UK adults aged 37-73 years. EXPOSURES: SES was derived by latent class analysis using family income, occupation or employment status, education level, and health insurance (US NHANES only), and three levels (low, medium, and high) were defined according to item response probabilities. A healthy lifestyle score was constructed using information on never smoking, no heavy alcohol consumption (women ≤1 drink/day; men ≤2 drinks/day; one drink contains 14 g of ethanol in the US and 8 g in the UK), top third of physical activity, and higher dietary quality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality was the primary outcome in both studies, and CVD mortality and morbidity in UK Biobank, which were obtained through linkage to registries. RESULTS: US NHANES documented 8906 deaths over a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, and UK Biobank documented 22 309 deaths and 6903 incident CVD cases over a mean follow-up of 8.8-11.0 years. Among adults of low SES, age adjusted risk of death was 22.5 (95% confidence interval 21.7 to 23.3) and 7.4 (7.3 to 7.6) per 1000 person years in US NHANES and UK Biobank, respectively, and age adjusted risk of CVD was 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6) per 1000 person years in UK Biobank. The corresponding risks among adults of high SES were 11.4 (10.6 to 12.1), 3.3 (3.1 to 3.5), and 1.4 (1.3 to 1.5) per 1000 person years. Compared with adults of high SES, those of low SES had higher risks of all cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.90 to 2.38 in US NHANES; 1.96, 1.87 to 2.06 in UK Biobank), CVD mortality (2.25, 2.00 to 2.53), and incident CVD (1.65, 1.52 to 1.79) in UK Biobank, and the proportions mediated by lifestyle were 12.3% (10.7% to 13.9%), 4.0% (3.5% to 4.4%), 3.0% (2.5% to 3.6%), and 3.7% (3.1% to 4.5%), respectively. No significant interaction was observed between lifestyle and SES in US NHANES, whereas associations between lifestyle and outcomes were stronger among those of low SES in UK Biobank. Compared with adults of high SES and three or four healthy lifestyle factors, those with low SES and no or one healthy lifestyle factor had higher risks of all cause mortality (3.53, 3.01 to 4.14 in US NHANES; 2.65, 2.39 to 2.94 in UK Biobank), CVD mortality (2.65, 2.09 to 3.38), and incident CVD (2.09, 1.78 to 2.46) in UK Biobank. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy lifestyles mediated a small proportion of the socioeconomic inequity in health in both US and UK adults; therefore, healthy lifestyle promotion alone might not substantially reduce the socioeconomic inequity in health, and other measures tackling social determinants of health are warranted. Nevertheless, healthy lifestyles were associated with lower mortality and CVD risk in different SES subgroups, supporting an important role of healthy lifestyles in reducing disease burden.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Int ; 153: 106545, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pyrethroids-containing products are widely used as commercial and household insecticides. While animal studies and clinical case reports have shown acute cardiovascular outcomes of pyrethroids exposure, little has been known on the effect of chronic pyrethroid exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the associations between chronic pyrethroid exposure and CVD in the US adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and 2007-2012 were analyzed. The exposure to pyrethroids was determined as the urinary level of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and CVD was ascertained based on self-reported physician diagnoses. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate associations of pyrethroid exposure with CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. RESULTS: Included were 6,471 participants with a mean age of 44.77 years (standard error, 0.39) for final analyses. The weighted prevalence of CVD, CHD, and stroke was 6.85%, 4.57% and 2.27%, respectively. With adjustments for major confounders, participants in the highest tertile of urinary 3-PBA had higher odds of CVD (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.23) and CHD (OR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.61) compared to those in the lowest tertile. There were linear associations for CVD (P for trend = 0.04) and CHD (P for trend = 0.02). However, no significant association was noted for stroke (1.29; 0.78, 2.16) in the main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: 3-PBA was adversely associated with CVD and CHD in the US adults. Our findings highlight potential cardiovascular risk of chronic exposure to pyrethroids, and should be validated in large prospective studies in different populations in future.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Piretrinas , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Piretrinas/toxicidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, and validate the association in an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. METHODS: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, started in 2011-2012 with follow ups in 2013-2014 and 2015-2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regressions were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between hs-CRP level and incident T2DM. An updated meta-analysis was conducted to combine our estimates with those in previous prospective studies. RESULTS: Included in the analyses were 7985 participants (mean age: 59.38 years; men: 46.73%). Higher hs-CRP was associated with increased risk of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.64 for comparing extreme quartiles). The association was stronger in participants with body mass index (BMI) of 24.0 kg/m2 or higher than those with a BMI lower than 24.0 kg/m2 (p for interaction = 0.038). In a meta-analysis of 28 cohorts, 2 case-cohort, and 6 nested case-control studies among 125,356 participants with 10,759 cases, the pooled relative risk for T2DM was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.60, 1.96) for the highest versus lowest level of hs-CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-CRP was associated with higher risk of T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chinese, and this association was confirmed by an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. Our findings highlight the role of elevated hs-CRP in the development of T2DM.

19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(10): 1796-1805, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the relations of individual lifestyle factors and its composite score with healthy ageing among Chinese adults. METHOD: We included 14 159 participants aged 45-74 years at baseline from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort. A protective lifestyle score (0-5 scale) was calculated at baseline (1993-1998) and updated at the second follow-up visit (2006-2010) on the basis of optimal body mass index (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), healthy diet (upper 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score), being physically active (≥2 h/wk of moderate activity or ≥0.5 h/wk of strenuous activity), nonsmoking (never smoking), and low-to-moderate alcohol drinking (>0 to ≤14 drinks/wk for men and >0 to ≤7 drinks/wk for women). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016) and was defined as absence of specific chronic diseases, absence of cognitive impairment and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, good mental and overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain. RESULTS: About 20.0% (2834) of the participants met the criteria of healthy ageing after a median follow-up of 20 years. Each 1-point increase in the protective lifestyle score computed at baseline and second follow-up visits was associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing by 25% (95% CI: 20%-30%) and 24% (18%-29%), respectively. The population-attributable risk percent of adherence to 4-5 protective lifestyle factors was 34.3% (95% CI: 25.3%-42.3%) at baseline and 31.3% (23.0%-38.7%) at second follow-up visits for healthy ageing. In addition, positive increase in lifestyle scores from baseline to second follow-up visits was also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of healthy ageing with an odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12%-1.24%) for each increment in protective lifestyle score. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed that adopting healthy lifestyle factors, even after midlife, was associated with healthy ageing at old age.

20.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(7): e3437, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469988

RESUMO

AIMS: We prospectively examined the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all cohort studies on this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our research data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Participants (n=5752, age ≥45 years) without CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m2 ) at baseline were followed up for 4 years. We applied logistic regressions to examine the association of MetS with incident CKD. In addition, we pooled our effect estimates and those from previous cohort studies in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In a 4-years follow-up, 61 (4.27%) developed CKD in participants with MetS versus 102 (2.36%) in participants without MetS. After adjustment for potential confounders, odds ratio for incident CKD was 1.82 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.19-2.78] comparing participants with MetS with those without MetS. There was a linear positive association between the number of MetS components and incident CKD (p for trend <0.001). In the updated meta-analysis of 25 studies among 350,655 participants with 29,368 incident cases of CKD, the pooled relative risk of developing CKD in participants with MetS was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.28-1.39), compared with those without MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with MetS had higher risk of incident CKD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, which was supported by a comprehensive review of cohort studies from multiple populations. It may be advisable to routinely monitor renal functions among individuals with MetS.

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