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1.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680281

RESUMO

The newly identified porcine Kobuvirus (PKV) has raised concerns owing to its association with diarrheal symptom in pigs worldwide. The process involving the emergence and global spread of PKV remains largely unknown. Here, the origin, genetic diversity, and geographic distribution of PKV were determined based on the available PKV sequence information. PKV might be derived from the rabbit Kobuvirus and sheep were an important intermediate host. The most recent ancestor of PKV could be traced back to 1975. Two major clades are identified, PKVa and PKVb, and recombination events increase PKV genetic diversity. Cross-species transmission of PKV might be linked to interspecies conserved amino acids at 13-17 and 25-40 residue motifs of Kobuvirus VP1 proteins. Phylogeographic analysis showed that Spain was the most likely location of PKV origin, which then spread to pig-rearing countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Within China, the Hubei province was identified as a primary hub of PKV, transmitting to the east, southwest, and northeast regions of the country. Taken together, our findings have important implications for understanding the evolutionary origin, genetic recombination, and geographic distribution of PKV thereby facilitating the design of preventive and containment measures to combat PKV infection.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Coelhos , Ovinos , Filogeografia , Kobuvirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Recombinação Genética
2.
J Neurosci ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653189

RESUMO

Itch is an uncomfortable and complex sensation that elicits the desire to scratch. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) activity is important in driving sensation, motivation, and emotion. Excitatory afferents from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and hippocampus are crucial in tuning the activity of dopamine receptor D1- and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons (Drd1- and Drd2-MSNs) in the NAc. However, a cell-type and neural circuity-based mechanism of the NAc underlying acute itch remains unclear. We found that acute itch induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) decreased the intrinsic membrane excitability in Drd1-MSNs, but not in Drd2-MSNs in the NAc core of male mice. Chemogenetic activation of Drd1-MSNs alleviated C48/80-induced scratching behaviors, but not itch-related anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, C48/80 enhanced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio of electrical stimulation-evoked EPSCs in Drd1-MSNs. Furthermore, C48/80 increased excitatory synaptic afferents to Drd1-MSNs from the mPFC, not from the basolateral amygdala or ventral hippocampus. Consistently, the intrinsic excitability of mPFC-NAc projecting pyramidal neurons was increased after C48/80 treatment. Chemogenetic inhibition of mPFC-NAc excitatory synaptic afferents relieved the scratching behaviors. Moreover, pharmacological activation of kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in the NAc core suppressed C48/80-induced scratching behaviors, and the modulation of KOR activity in the NAc resulted in the changes of presynaptic excitatory inputs to Drd1-MSNs in C48/80-treated mice. Together, these results reveal the neural plasticity in synapses of NAc Drd1-MSNs from the mPFC underlying acute itch and indicate the modulatory role of the KOR in itch-related scratching behaviors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:Itch stimuli cause strongly scratching desire and anxiety in patients. However, the related neural mechanisms remain largely unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the pruritogen compound 48/80 (C48/80) shapes the excitability of dopamine receptor D1-expressing medium spiny neurons (Drd1-MSNs) in the NAc core and the glutamatergic synaptic afferents from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to these neurons. Chemogenetic activation of Drd1-MSNs or inhibition of mPFC-NAc excitatory synaptic afferents relieves the scratching behaviors. In addition, pharmacological activation of kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in the NAc core alleviates C48/80-induced itch. Thus, targeting mPFC-NAc Drd1-MSNs or KOR may provide effective treatments for itch.

3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2023: 3786342, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643790

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Arterial stiffness and sarcopenia are commonly seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and both are age-related diseases. However, few studies have addressed the causal relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and sarcopenia, especially in patients with T2DM. This study is aimed at investigating the relationship among age, arterial stiffness, and sarcopenia in patients with T2DM. Methods and Results: This cross-sectional study enrolled 557 inpatients with diabetes at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China, between June 2020 and July 2021. Patients who were diagnosed with T2DM and underwent examination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, 6-meter walk speed, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a recognized indicator of arterial stiffness) were enrolled. A total of 447 patients were included. A dose-dependent relationship was found between age and sarcopenia. We also found a dose-dependent relationship between age and baPWV. Similarly, significant dose-dependent relationships were found across baPWV tertiles with higher prevalence of sarcopenia. Then, a mediation analysis was performed to explore the mediation effect of arterial stiffness on age-associated sarcopenia. We found that the prevalence of sarcopenia increased by 0.0115 (95% CI, 0.0028-0.0239) per 1 year increase in age by the mediation effect of baPWV and that the direct effect of aging on sarcopenia was 0.0441 (95% CI, 0.0101-0.0909) per 1 year older. baPWV mediated 20.5% of the positive relationship between increased age and the prevalence of sarcopenia. Conclusions: Elevated baPWV partially mediates the association of age and sarcopenia among patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sarcopenia , Rigidez Vascular , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Força da Mão , Análise de Onda de Pulso , China/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Res Commun ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646865

RESUMO

The family Cyathocotylidae trematode is a world-widely distributed parasite whose adults are mainly found in fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals in both freshwater and marine environments. However, little is known of the prevalence of these trematode in China. For the first time, we found Cyathocotylidae trematode in the Wuhu area. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of metacercariae in Carassius auratus from Zhang Lake, Kui Lake, Qingyi River, and Yangtze River (Wuhu Section) in Wuhu area. A total of 392 one-year-old C. auratus were tested in January, April, July, and October 2019, respectively. After the fish were euthanized, the back, chest, and tail muscles were used for preliminary screening for the presence of metacercariae by direct compression method. Metacercariae were isolated by the artificial digestion method and then morphologically and molecularly identified by cox1 (642 bp) and ITS2 (418 bp) sequences amplification by PCR. Based on morphological features and sequence analysis, they were identified as cyathocotylid metacercariae. The four water sources have different degrees of prevalence throughout the year, the prevalence ranges from 28.45% (29/102) in Yangtze River to 50.55% (46/91) in Zhang Lake, with an average prevalence of 40.56% (159/392). There were also differences in the prevalence in different months: The highest occurred in July, which was 81.63% (80/98), while the lowest occurred in January, which was 8.89% (8/90). This study can provide basic data for the prevention and control of cyathocotylid trematode in this area.

5.
Water Res ; 229: 119458, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516492

RESUMO

Halophenolic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are a class of emerging pollutants whose adverse effects on human cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms still need further exploration. In this study, we found that when halophenolic DBPs were substituted with the same halogen, the more substitution sites, the more cytotoxic, while when they were substituted at the same sites, the most toxic chemical was iodophenols, followed by bromophenols and chlorophenols. In addition, several of them exerted significant endocrine-disrupting effects at sublethal concentrations. 2,4,6-triiodophenol (TIP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) showed the highest estradiol equivalent factor (EEF) of 4.41 × 10-8 and flutamide equivalent factor (FEF) of 0.4, respectively. Furthermore, all of the halophenolic DBPs except for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 2-bromophenol (2-BP) significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in HepG2 cells. The lowest cytotoxicity and unchanged ROS and 8-OHdG levels after 2-CP exposure may result from the activation of the transporters of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette in cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed distinct grouping patterns of 2-CP, 2,6-dibromophenol (2,6-DBP), and TIP at the concentrations of EC20, and the top differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in the antioxidant-, immune-, and endocrine-associated systems. The weighted gene correlation network analysis well connected the phenotypes (EC50, EEF, FEF, ROS, 8-OHdG, and ABC transporters) with the DEGs and revealed that the MAPK signaling pathway played a vital role in regulating the biological response after exposure to halophenolic DBPs. This study provides deep insights into the underlying mechanisms of the toxic effects induced by halophenolic DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Desinfecção , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Halogenação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
6.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114615, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272592

RESUMO

The feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-containing wastewater was theoretically compared with the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process in this study. The electricity consumption and expenditure, bio-energy production and CO2 emission were investigated using the operational results of a lab-scale AnMBR operated in a long-term operation. The AnMBR was capable of producing bio-methane from wastewater and generated 3.45 kWh/m3 of electricity as recovered bio-energy while the CAS just generated 1.17 kWh/m3 of electricity from the post-treatment of excessive sludge disposal. The large quantity of bio-methane recovered by the AnMBR can also be sold as sustainable bioresource for the use of household natural gas with a theoretical profit gain of 29,821 US$/year, while that of the CAS was unprofitable. The AnMBR was also demonstrated to significantly reduce the carbon emission by obtaining a theoretical negative CO2 production of -2.34 kg CO2/m3 with the recycle of bio-energy while that for the CAS was 4.50 kg CO2/m3. The results of this study demonstrate that the AnMBR process has promising potential for the carbon-neutral treatment of high-strength DMF-containing wastewater in the future.


Assuntos
Esgotos , /análise , Dimetilformamida , Anaerobiose , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Eletricidade
7.
J Virol ; : e0144622, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472440

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a new pathogen resulting in porcine vesicular disease, is prevalent in pig herds worldwide. Although an understanding of SVV biology pathogenesis is crucial for preventing and controlling this disease, the molecular mechanisms for the entry and post-internalization of SVV, which represent crucial steps in viral infection, are not well characterized. In this study, specific inhibitors, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence detection revealed that SVV entry into PK-15 cells depends on low-pH conditions and dynamin. Furthermore, results showed that caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CavME) contributes crucially to the internalization of SVV, as evidenced by cholesterol depletion, downregulation of caveolin-1 expression by small interfering RNA knockdown, and overexpression of a caveolin-1 dominant negative (caveolin-1-DN) in SVV-infected PK-15 cells. However, SVV entry into PK-15 cells did not depend on clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Furthermore, treatment with specific inhibitors demonstrated that SVV entry into PK-15 cells via macropinocytosis depended on the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), and actin rearrangement, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Electron microscopy showed that SVV particles or proteins were localized in CavME and macropinocytosis. Finally, knockdown of GTPase Rab5 and Rab7 by siRNA significantly inhibited SVV replication, as determined by measuring viral genome copy numbers, viral protein expression, and viral titers. In this study, our results demonstrated that SVV utilizes caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis to enter PK-15 cells, dependent on low pH, dynamin, Rab5, and Rab7. IMPORTANCE Entry of virus into cells represents the initiation of a successful infection. As an emerging pathogen of porcine vesicular disease, clarification of the process of SVV entry into cells enables us to better understand the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. In this study, patterns of SVV internalization and key factors required were explored. We demonstrated for the first time that SVV entry into PK-15 cells via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis requires Rab5 and Rab7 and is independent of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and that low-pH conditions and dynamin are involved in the process of SVV internalization. This information increases our understanding of the patterns in which all members of the family Picornaviridae enter host cells, and provides new insights for preventing and controlling SVV infection.

8.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(23): 5102-5108, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36504751

RESUMO

We report large exciton tuning in WSe2 monolayers via substrate induced non-degenerate doping. We observe a redshift of ∼62 meV for the A exciton together with a 1-2 orders of magnitude photoluminescence (PL) quenching when the monolayer WSe2 is brought in contact with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) compared to dielectric substrates such as hBN and SiO2. As the evidence of doping from HOPG to WSe2, a drastic increase of the intensity ratio of trions to neutral excitons was observed. Using a systematic PL and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) investigation on WSe2/HOPG, WSe2/hBN, and WSe2/graphene, we conclude that this unique excitonic behavior is induced by electron doping from the substrate. Our results propose a simple yet efficient way for exciton tuning in monolayer WSe2, which plays a central role in the fundamental understanding and further device development.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 1071119, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36505354

RESUMO

Background: Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is considered a valid alternative for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with persistent left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) despite adequate anticoagulation. However, the data on LAAC using the LAmbre device for patients with LAAT is limited. This study was performed to explore efficacy and safety as well as to share the experience of the modified LAAC procedure with the LAmbre device. Materials and methods: A total of 7 patients with persistent LAAT despite adequate anticoagulation underwent modified LAAC with the LAmbre device between November 2019 and April 2022. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed 3 months postoperatively to detect device-related thrombosis and peridevice leak. The patients' clinical events were evaluated during the perioperative and follow-up periods. Results: The median age, CHA2DS2-VASc score, and HAS-BLED score of all patients were 71 [53-73], 3 [2-4], and 2 [2-3], respectively. In the procedure, a cerebral protection system was used in two patients. LAAC with the LAmbre device was successfully performed in all patients without perioperative events. During the median follow-up of 383 [325-865] days, postoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed in six (85.7%) patients. Device-related thrombosis was detected in one (16.7%) patient, and no significant peridevice leak was observed. No thromboembolic event or bleeding event occurred in any patients. Conclusion: LAAC with the LAmbre device is effective and safe when performed by experienced operators in highly selected patients with LAAT after adequate anticoagulation.

10.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(12)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548652

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely around the world, and in-depth research on COVID-19 is necessary for biomarkers and target drug discovery. This analysis collected serum from six COVID-19-infected patients and six healthy people. The protein changes in the infected and healthy control serum samples were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The differential protein signature in both groups was retrieved and analyzed by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG), Gene ontology, COG/KOG, protein-protein interaction, and protein domain interactions tools. We shortlisted 24 differentially expressed proteins between both groups. Ten genes were significantly up-regulated in the infection group, and fourteen genes were significantly down-regulated. The GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the chromosomal part and chromosome were the most enriched items. The oxytocin signaling pathway was the most enriched item of KEGG analysis. The netrin module (non-TIMP type) was the most enriched protein domain in this study. Functional analysis of S100A9, PIGR, C4B, IL-6R, IGLV3-19, IGLV3-1, and IGLV5-45 revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was closely related to immune response.

11.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 18: 2967-2978, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570022

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease (PD-RBD) tend to have poor cognitive performance and faster cognitive deterioration, and the potential mechanism is still ambiguous. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the alterations in local brain function in PD-RBD. Methods: Fifty patients, including 23 patients with PD-RBD and 27 patients with PD without RBD (PD-nRBD), and 26 healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were subjected to one-night polysomnography and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The fMRI images of the three groups were analyzed by regional homogeneity (ReHo) to observe the local neural activity. Correlations between altered ReHo values and chin electromyographic (EMG) density scores and cognitive scores in the PD subgroups were assessed. Results: Compared with the patients with PD-nRBD, the patients with PD-RBD had higher ReHo values in the frontal cortex (the right superior frontal gyrus, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left medial superior frontal gyrus), the right caudate nucleus and the right anterior cingulate gyrus, and compared with the HCs, the patients with PD-RBD had lower ReHo values in the bilateral cuneus, the bilateral precuneus, the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus. For the patients with PD-RBD, the phasic chin EMG density scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values in the left medial superior frontal gyrus, and the tonic chin EMG density scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values in the right anterior cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: This study indicates that increased ReHo in the frontal cortex, the caudate nucleus and the anterior cingulate gyrus may be linked with the abnormal motor behaviors during REM sleep and that decreased ReHo in the posterior regions may be related to the visuospatial-executive function in patients with PD-RBD.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576624

RESUMO

The hydrophilic substances in natural organic matter (NOM) are the main precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed during disinfection processes. The fractionation of the components in NOM based on hydrophilicity contributes to elaborating the behavior of NOM during disinfection. However, the traditional NOM fractionation method using two hydrophobic resins of DAX-8 and XAD-4 lays emphasis on the separation of hydrophobic substances, limiting the thorough study of the hydrophilic components in NOM. In this work, the amphiphilic resin NDAM was employed as a replacement of XAD-4 to realize more thorough separation of the hydrophilic substances. Compared with the divinylbenzene (DVB) structure of XAD-4, the NDAM possesses a more hydrophilic skeleton of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and DVB which favors the adsorption of hydrophilic components in NOM. The two fractionation methods of DAX-8 + XAD-4 and DAX-8 + NDAM were applied to fractionate NOM, and the obtained fractions were characterized via fluorescence spectra, UV spectra, acid-base titration, the partition coefficients of aqueous two-phase systems(ATPs), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The results showed that the transphilic fractions separated by XAD-4 accounted for 11.09% of NOM, while the proportion increased to 20.33% with the method of NDAM fractionation. Besides, the hydrophilic components enriched by NDAM not only have more π-conjugated systems and more aromatic structure but also contain more oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups. In addition, the hydrophilic fractions separated by NDAM contained more DBP precursors. The NDAM separates more NOM which can produce bromine-containing DBPs into HPIA, and the DBP productivity of HPIN is significantly higher than that of XAD-4. In general, the NOM fractionation method proposed in this study utilizing NDAM resin could fractionate the hydrophilic fractions in NOM more thoroughly, showing application potential in the analysis and control of DBPs formed from NOM.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0341322, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537793

RESUMO

Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV/C) is an important pathogen that causes upper respiratory symptoms and egg production decline in turkeys and chickens. aMPV/C infection leads to inhibition of the host antiviral immune response. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host immune response antagonized by aMPV/C infection is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that the aMPV/C phosphoprotein (P) inhibits the IFN antiviral signaling pathway triggered by melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5) and reduces interferon ß (IFN-ß) production and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by targeting IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) but not nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in DF-1 cells. Moreover, we found that aMPV/C P protein only blocks the nuclear translocation of IRF3 by interacting with IRF3 in HEK-293T cells, instead of affecting IRF3 phosphorylation and inducing IRF3 degradation, which suppresses IRF3 signaling activation and results in a decrease in IFN-ß production. Collectively, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which aMPV/C infection disrupts IFN-ß production in the host. IMPORTANCE The innate immune response is the first defense line of host cells and organisms against viral infections. When RNA viruses infect cells, viral RNA induces activation of retinoic acid-induced gene I and melanoma differentiation gene 5, which initiates downstream molecules and finally produces type I interferon (IFN-I) to regulate antiviral immune responses. The mechanism for avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) modulating IFN-I production to benefit its replication remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that phosphoprotein of aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) selectively inhibits the nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory 3 (IRF3), instead of affecting the expression and phosphorylation of IRF3, which finally downregulates IFN-I production. This study showed a novel mechanism for aMPV/C infection antagonizing the host IFN response.

14.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500630

RESUMO

A new approach for the synthesis of 2-aminobenzofurans has been described via Sc(OTf)3 mediated formal cycloaddition of isocyanides with the in situ generated ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) from o-hydroxybenzhydryl alcohol. Notably, as a class of readily available and highly active intermediates, o-QMs were first used in the construction of benzofurans. This [4 + 1] cycloaddition reaction provides a straightforward and efficient methodology for the construction of 2-aminobenzofurans scaffold in good yield (up to 93% yield) under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Cianetos , Indolquinonas , Reação de Cicloadição , Álcoois
15.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 19(11): 853-866, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a compensated response to various stimuli and is considered a key risk factor for heart failure. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a flavonoid derivative that acts as a small-molecule brain-derived neurotrophic factor mimetic. The present study aimed to explore the potential role of 7,8-DHF in cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: Kunming mice and H9c2 cells were exposed to transverse aortic constriction or isoproterenol (ISO) with or without 7,8-DHF, respectively. F-actin staining was performed to calculate the cell area. Transcriptional levels of hypertrophic markers, including ANP, BNP, and ß-MHC, were detected. Echocardiography, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the cardiac function, histology, and ultrastructure of ventricles. Protein levels of mitochondria-related factors, such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), were detected. RESULTS: 7,8-DHF inhibited compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy, diminished the cross-sectional area, and alleviated the mitochondrial disorders of cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, 7,8-DHF reduced the cell size and repressed the mRNA levels of the hypertrophic markers of ISO-treated cardiomyocytes. In addition, 7,8-DHF activated AMPK and PGC-1α signals without affecting the protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics-related molecules. The effects of 7,8-DHF were eliminanted by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that 7,8-DHF inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction by activating AMPK signaling, providing a potential agent for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

16.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; : 101159, 2022 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581531

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe irreversible central vision loss in individuals over 65 years old. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that the region at chromosome 10q26, where the age-related maculopathy susceptibility (ARMS2/LOC387715) and HtrA serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) genes are located, represents one of the strongest associated loci for AMD. However, the underlying biological mechanism of this genetic association has remained elusive. In this article, we extensively review the literature by us and others regarding the ARMS2/HTRA1 risk alleles and their functional significance. We also review the literature regarding the presumed function of the ARMS2 protein and the molecular processes of the HTRA1 protein in AMD pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, including those of transgenic mice overexpressing HtrA1/HTRA1 which developed Bruch's membrane (BM) damage, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), similar to human AMD patients. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of the ARMS2 and HTRA1 susceptibility loci has begun to untangle the complex biological pathways underlying AMD pathophysiology, pointing to new testable paradigms for treatment.

17.
Transl Res ; 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586535

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was responsible for 1.2 million deaths globally in 2016. Despite the large and growing burden of CKD, treatment options are limited and generally only preserve kidney function. Characterizing molecular precursors to incident and progressive CKD could point to critically needed prevention and treatment strategies. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is typically characterized by the clonal expansion of blood cells carrying somatic mutations in specific driver genes. An age-related disorder, CHIP is rare in the young but common in older adults. Recent studies have identified causal associations between CHIP and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease which are most likely mediated by inflammation, a hallmark of CKD. Animal evidence has supported causal effects of CHIP on kidney injury, inflammation, and fibrosis, providing impetus for human research. Although prospective epidemiologic studies investigating associations of CHIP with development and progression of CKD are few, intriguing findings have been reported. CHIP was significantly associated with kidney function decline and end stage kidney disease in the general population, although effect sizes were modest. Recent work suggests larger associations of CHIP with kidney disease progression in CKD patients, but further investigations in this area are needed. In addition, the accumulating literature has identified some heterogeneity in associations between CHIP and kidney endpoints across study populations, but reasons for these differences remain unclear. The current review provides an in-depth exploration into this nascent area of research, develops a conceptual framework linking CHIP to CKD, and discusses the clinical and public health implications of this work.

18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7799, 2022 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528652

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) frequently contain KRAS mutation but retain wild-type TP53. Abundant senescent cells are observed in premalignant but not in malignant tumors derived from the Kras-driven mouse model, suggesting that KRAS oncogenic signaling would have to overcome the intrinsic senescence burden for cancer progression. Here, we show that the nuclear Beclin 1-mediated inhibition of p53-dependent senescence drives Kras-mediated tumorigenesis. KRAS activates USP5 to stabilize nuclear Beclin 1, leading to MDM2-mediated p53 protein instability. KrasG12D mice lacking Beclin 1 display retarded lung tumor growth. Knockdown of USP5 or knockout of Becn1 leads to increased senescence and reduced autophagy. Mechanistically, KRAS elevates ROS to induce USP5 homodimer formation by forming the C195 disulfide bond, resulting in stabilization and activation of USP5. Together, these results demonstrate that activation of the USP5-Beclin 1 axis is pivotal in overriding intrinsic p53-dependent senescence in Kras-driven lung cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Genes ras , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
19.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336920

RESUMO

A pair of new quinolone alkaloid enantiomers, (Ra)-(-)-viridicatol (1) and (Sa)-(+)-viridicatol (4), and seven known compounds, namely, 2, 3 and 5-9, were isolated from Penicillium christenseniae SD.84. The structures of 1 and 4 were determined using NMR and HRESIMS data. Theoretical calculations through CD and ECD confirmed 1 and 4 as a pair of enantiomers. The MIC values of 4 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were 12.4 and 24.7 µM, respectively, compound 1 had no inhibitory activity. Antimicrobial assays of 2, 3, and 5-7 showed a moderate activity against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This study demonstrated the remarkable potential of Penicillium sp. to produce new drug-resistant leading compounds, thereby advancing the mining for new sources of antimicrobial agents.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202215247, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347791

RESUMO

Herein, we first design a model of reversible redox-switching metal-organic framework single-unit-cell sheets, where the abundant metal single sites benefit for highly selective CO2 reduction, while the reversible redox-switching metal sites can effectively activate CO2 molecules. Taking the synthetic Cu-MOF single-unit-cell sheets as an example, synchrotron-radiation quasi in situ X-ray photoelectron spectra unravel the reversible switching CuII /CuI single sites initially accept photoexcited electrons and then donate them to CO2 molecules, which favors the rate-liming activation into CO2 δ- , verified by in situ FTIR spectra and Gibbs free energy calculations. As an outcome, Cu-MOF single-unit-cell sheets achieve near 100 % selectivity for CO2 photoreduction to CO with a high rate of 860 µmol g-1 h-1 without any sacrifice reagent or photosensitizer, where both the activity and selectivity outperform previously reported photocatalysts evaluated under similar conditions.

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