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1.
Biomed J ; 42(5): 328-334, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presurgical assessment on the maxillary sinus can reduce the possibility of Schneiderian membrane perforation. This study examined Schneiderian membrane thickness (SMT) and its relationship with neighboring hard tissues for patients with and without membrane thickening. For patients with sinus infections, we evaluated dimensional changes of the SMT post-extraction relative to pre-extraction SMT and residual bone height (RBH). METHODS: CBCT images from 93 patients needing single-tooth implant reconstruction without (n = 83) and with (n = 14) odontogenic infected maxillary sinuses were assessed. SMT, RBH, and lateral wall thickness (LWT) were measured. Causes of extraction, RBH in the infection site, and retrospective post-extraction record of SMT were recorded for the thickened SMT group. RESULTS: Mean SMT for normal SMT group was 1.13 ± 0.43 mm, RBH was 6.26 ± 2.38 mm; upper and lower LWT was 1.85 ± 0.95 mm, and 3.07 ± 2.26 mm, respectively. RBH and LWT had no significant relationships with SMT. For thickened SMT group, mean values for SMT and RBH prior to extraction were 4.53 ± 2.46 mm and 1.97 ± 1.43 mm, respectively. Pre-extraction SMT had a moderately negative correlation with pre-extraction RBH. SMT resolution in thickened SMT group was observed by 2.80 ± 1.37 months post-extraction; post-extraction SMT was not significantly different from normal SMT group (p = .187). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of the sample size, thickened SMT induced by odontogenic infection subsides about 3 months following tooth extraction, and further sinus lifting implant surgery may be considered.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 16): 506, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential proteins are crucial for cellular life and thus, identification of essential proteins is an important topic and a challenging problem for researchers. Recently lots of computational approaches have been proposed to handle this problem. However, traditional centrality methods cannot fully represent the topological features of biological networks. In addition, identifying essential proteins is an imbalanced learning problem; but few current shallow machine learning-based methods are designed to handle the imbalanced characteristics. RESULTS: We develop DeepEP based on a deep learning framework that uses the node2vec technique, multi-scale convolutional neural networks and a sampling technique to identify essential proteins. In DeepEP, the node2vec technique is applied to automatically learn topological and semantic features for each protein in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Gene expression profiles are treated as images and multi-scale convolutional neural networks are applied to extract their patterns. In addition, DeepEP uses a sampling method to alleviate the imbalanced characteristics. The sampling method samples the same number of the majority and minority samples in a training epoch, which is not biased to any class in training process. The experimental results show that DeepEP outperforms traditional centrality methods. Moreover, DeepEP is better than shallow machine learning-based methods. Detailed analyses show that the dense vectors which are generated by node2vec technique contribute a lot to the improved performance. It is clear that the node2vec technique effectively captures the topological and semantic properties of PPI network. The sampling method also improves the performance of identifying essential proteins. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that DeepEP improves the prediction performance by integrating multiple deep learning techniques and a sampling method. DeepEP is more effective than existing methods.

3.
Endocr Pathol ; 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788765

RESUMO

Napsin A is widely used in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and has also been reported to be positive in cases of thyroid carcinomas. We investigated napsin A levels through immunohistochemistry on whole sections of 210 primary thyroid tumors of various subtypes and another 41 metastatic thyroid carcinomas, and compared these with 125 primary and 25 metastatic lung adenocarcinomas. The results showed that napsin A was expressed in 23.8% thyroid tumors and 30.3% papillary thyroid carcinomas. Most cases showed a focal and weak to moderate expression. In comparison, 80.8% primary lung adenocarcinomas expressed napsin A, with mostly diffused and strong expression. For metastatic carcinomas of thyroid and lung origin, napsin A was detected in 39.0% of thyroid carcinomas in contrast to 88.0% in cases of lung adenocarcinomas. Comparisons of additional markers, TTF-1, CK7, thyroglobulin, and Pax-8 in metastatic carcinomas showed the overlapping expression of immunomarkers of TTF-1 and CK7. Thyroglobulin and Pax-8 were useful for distinguishing between metastatic carcinomas; however, Pax-8 may be a superior marker due to its higher sensitivity. The clinicopathological analysis of papillary thyroid carcinomas showed that the expression of napsin A was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.030). Here, we focused on the expression of napsin A in thyroid tumors and compared it with that in lung adenocarcinomas. The expression of napsin A is common in thyroid tumors and the combined expression of napsin A and TTF-1 in a metastatic thyroid carcinoma is a cause for concern due to chances of misdiagnosis as lung adenocarcinoma.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794244

RESUMO

Objective: Although methylphenidate and atomoxetine have positive effects in reducing core symptoms and emotional/behavioral problems of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about their efficacy in improving social adjustment problems among youths with ADHD. Methods: A total of 168 drug-naive youths, 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, were recruited and randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (n = 83) and atomoxetine (n = 85) in a 24-week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. Efficacy measurement was based on the parent-rated and self-rated Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Evaluation time points were set at baseline and weeks 8, 16, and 24. Results: At week 24, methylphenidate was associated with improvement in school functions (parent report: Cohen d = -0.82; self-report: Cohen d = -0.66) and peer relationships (parent report: Cohen d = -0.50; self-report: Cohen d = -0.25); and atomoxetine was associated with improvement in school functions (parent report: Cohen d = -0.62; self-report: Cohen d = -0.34) and peer relationships (parent report: Cohen d = -0.33; self-report: Cohen d = -0.65). In terms of parent-reported and self-reported ratings, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in mean reduction in the severity of school dysfunctions, impaired peer relationships, and behavioral problems at home at week 24. Conclusions: Our findings lend evidence to support that both methylphenidate and atomoxetine were comparably effective in improving social adjustment in youths with ADHD, including school functions and peer relationships.

5.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7384-7402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695775

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play an essential role in facilitating breast cancer relapse and metastasis. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the clinical significance, biological function and mechanism of a long noncoding RNA CCAT1 (LncCCAT1) in BCSCs. Methods: Firstly, lncRNAs expression in poorly differentiated breast cancer tissues and BCSCs were measured by lncRNA microarray and confirmed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The functional roles and mechanisms of LncCCAT1 were further investigated by gain and loss of function assays in vitro and in vivo. Results: LncCCAT1 is markedly upregulated in breast cancer tissues BCSCs and is correlated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. Overexpression of LncCCAT1 contributes to the proliferation, stemness, migration and invasion capacities of BCSCs. Mechanistic investigation suggests that LncCCAT1 can interact with miR-204/211, miR-148a/152 and Annexin A2(ANXA2), then upregulate T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) or promote translocation of ß-catenin to the nucleus where it activates TCF4, leading to the activation of wingless/integrated (Wnt) signaling. Furthermore, TCF4 can also bind to the promoter of LncCCAT1 to promote LncCCAT1 transcription, thus forming a positive feedback regulatory circuit of LncCCAT1-TCF4-LncCCAT1 in BCSCs. Conclusions: LncCCAT1 plays an important role in breast cancer progression and may serve as a novel target for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711643

RESUMO

ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type I motifs) enzymes play an important role in various morphogenesis processes. To determine the functions of Adamts18 in the early stages of organogenesis, we created Adamts18 deficient zebrafish using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) to generate exon 3 skipped adamts18 mRNA transcripts. Results showed that Adamts18 deficiency in zebrafish embryos caused developmental defects, including expanded brain ventricle and hindbrain edema, eye defects, and accumulation of blood in the caudal vein. Adamts18 deficiency also led to impaired trunk angiogenesis and formation of the caudal vein plexus (CVP). Consequently, Adamts18 deficient zebrafish embryos exhibited incomplete formation of intersegment vessels (ISVs), disruption of the honeycomb structure of CVP, and reduced CVP area and loop number. Furthermore, Adamts18 deficiency resulted in impaired blood circulation in major trunk, caudal vein (CV), and common cardinal vein (CCV). These aberrant vascular phenotypes in mutant zebrafish embryos were shown to be associated with a decreased expression of multiple angiogenesis-related signaling genes, including slit/robo, dll4/Notch, cox2, and fgfr. These findings indicate the critical role of Adamts18 in the early stages of vascular network development.

8.
Apoptosis ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768842

RESUMO

Weightlessness-induced cardiovascular dysfunction can lead to physiological and pathological consequences. It has been shown that spaceflight or simulated microgravity can alter expression profiles of some microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we attempt to identify the role of miRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis under simulated microgravity. RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in HUVECs under simulated microgravity. Then we obtained the target genes of these miRNAs through target analysis software. Moreover, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed. The effects of these miRNAs on HUVECs apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, Western blot and Hoechst staining. Furthermore, we obtained the target gene of miR-27b-5p by luciferase assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Finally, we investigated the relationship between this target gene and miR-27b-5p in HUVECs apoptosis under normal gravity or simulated microgravity. We found 29 differentially expressed miRNAs in HUVECs under simulated microgravity. Of them, the expressions of 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated that miR-27b-5p affected HUVECs apoptosis by inhibiting zinc fingers and homeoboxes 1 (ZHX1). Our results reported here demonstrate for the first time that simulated microgravity can alter the expression of some miRNAs in HUVECs and miR-27b-5p may protect HUVECs from apoptosis under simulated microgravity by targeting ZHX1.

10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102954, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722258

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that the perception of stimulus onset can be accelerated by a match between the contents of visual working memory and the stimulus presented alone in the peripheral visual field. This onset acceleration effect might contribute to previously reported effects of working memory on perceived stimulus duration. However, it remains possible that the contents of visual working memory may also modulate the offset perception of matching visual stimuli, thereby contributing to the modulation of duration perception by working memory. The present study directly tested this possibility by using a simple reaction time task to assess the effect of visual working memory on perceived stimulus offset. Participants were asked to maintain a sample stimulus in working memory and subsequently had to respond to the offset of a single visual target. Across three experiments, we showed that the offset response was reliably slower when the target matched the sample held in visual working memory, as compared with when the target did not. This effect was not likely attributed to the mechanism of repetition priming from the presentation of the sample, because we failed to observe a priming effect either when the sample was only passively viewed without working memory demands or when the sample was initially encoded into memory but did not need to be actively maintained in mind by the time the offset target appeared. The findings provide direct evidence indicating that active maintenance of information in visual working memory delays the perceived offset of matching visual stimuli.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16870, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727928

RESUMO

Human upright standing involves an integration of multiple sensory inputs such as vision, vestibular and somatosensory systems. It has been known that sensory deficits worsen the standing balance. However, how the modulation of sensory information contributes to postural stabilization still remains an open question for researchers. The purpose of this work was to formulate the human standing postural control system in the framework of the free-energy principle, and to investigate the efficacy of the skin stretch feedback in enhancing the human standing balance. Previously, we have shown that sensory augmentation by skin stretch feedback at the fingertip could modulate the standing balance of the people with simulated sensory deficits. In this study, subjects underwent ten 30-second trials of quiet standing balance with and without skin stretch feedback. Visual and vestibular sensory deficits were simulated by having each subject close their eyes and tilt their head back. We found that sensory augmentation by velocity-based skin stretch feedback at the fingertip reduced the entropy of the standing postural sway of the people with simulated sensory deficits. This result aligns with the framework of the free energy principle which states that a self-organizing biological system at its equilibrium state tries to minimize its free energy either by updating the internal state or by correcting body movement with appropriate actions. The velocity-based skin stretch feedback at the fingertip may increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensory signals, which in turn enhances the accuracy of the internal states in the central nervous system. With more accurate internal states, the human postural control system can further adjust the standing posture to minimize the entropy, and thus the free energy.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603794

RESUMO

Assembling genomes from single-cell sequencing data is essential for single-cell studies. However, single-cell assemblies are challenging due to (i) the highly non-uniform read coverage and (ii) the elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. In this study, we present a new framework called EPGA-SC for de novo assembly of single-cell sequencing reads. The EPGA assembler has designed strategies to solve the problems caused by sequencing errors, sequencing biases and repetitive regions. However, the extremely unbalanced and richer error types prevent EPGA to achieve high performance in single-cell sequencing data. In this study, we designed EPGA-SC based on EPGA. The main innovations of EPGA-SC are as follows: (i) classifying reads to reduce the proportion of false reads; (ii) using multiple sets of high precision paired-end reads generated from the high precision assemblies produced by other assembler such as SPAdes to overcome the impact of sequencing biases and repetitive regions; (iii) developing novel algorithms for removing chimeric errors and extending contigs. We test EPGA-SC with seven datasets. The experimental results show that EPGA-SC can generate better assemblies than most current tools in most time in term of MAX contig, N50, NG50, NA50 and NGA50.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(93): 13959-13962, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633139

RESUMO

The recently developed UiO-66(Ce) was firstly endowed with greatly improved redox photocatalytic activity based on titanium incorporation, which for the first time induced the formation of oxygen vacancies in Ce-MOFs, and then promoted the generation of oxidative ˙OH/˙O2- and reductive electrons.

14.
Muscle Nerve ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dominant-intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy subtype C (DI-CMTC) is associated with mutations in the YARS gene. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term natural history of the disease. METHODS: In a 5-generation DI-CMTC family, we compared data from 2016 to that of 2000 in 13 of 21 original participants. RESULTS: Five women and 8 men were examined. While most symptoms and signs progressed, only gait progression was statistically significant (P = .016). The median CMT Neuropathy Score was 6.08 in 2000 and 11 in 2016 (P = .001). Quality of life (QOL) deteriorated in mobility (P = .008), pain/discomfort (P = .011), and anxiety/depression (P = .014). Median and ulnar compound muscle action potential amplitudes decreased from 9.35 ± 2.90 mV to 6.0 ± 2.9 mV (P = .002), and from 9.24 ± 2.10 mV to 6.06 ± 1.81 mV (P = .004), respectively, whereas motor nerve conduction velocities remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: DI-CMTC in this family is a slowly progressive disease with axonal degeneration, deteriorating mobility and QOL.

15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 429, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miR-133a-3p has been recently discovered to be down-regulated in various human malignancies, including breast cancer, and reduced miR-133a-3p levels have been significantly associated with breast cancer cell growth and invasion. However, the regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal expression of miR-133a-3p in breast cancer remain obscure. METHODS: qRT-PCR was applied to detect the expression of miR-133a-3p in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Bisulfite sequencing was used to detect the degree of methylation of the miR-133a-3p promoter. The effects of miR-133a-3p on breast cancer in vitro were examined by cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Bioinformatic analysis, dual-luciferase assay and RIP assay were employed to identify the interaction between miR-133a-3p and MAML1. A xenograft model was used to show the metastasis of breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We confirmed that miR-133a-3p was silenced by DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer cell lines and tissues, which predicted poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, and reducing miR-133a-3p expression led to a significant increase in the migration, invasion, proliferation, and stemness of breast cancer cells in vitro. Mastermind-like transcriptional coactivator 1 (MAML1) was confirmed to be a target of miR-133a-3p involved in regulating breast cancer metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a series of investigations indicated that MAML1 initiated a positive feedback loop, which could up-regulate DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) to promote hypermethylation of the miR-133a-3p promoter. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings revealed a novel miR-133a-3p/MAML1/DNMT3A positive feedback loop in breast cancer cells, which may become a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

16.
J Org Chem ; 84(21): 14360-14368, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596084

RESUMO

Functionalized N-heteroarenes are highly desired motifs in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical industry. Minisci-type reactions usually require a protonated N-heteroarene for the alkyl radical to attack. This work describes a leaving-group-assisted redox-active ester to enable direct coupling of an amino acid with N-heteroarenes. The efficient and sustainable photoredox strategy provides rapid access to an alkylated heterocyclic manifold.

17.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105266, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655277

RESUMO

How we manage alternative freshwater resources to close the gap between water supply and demand is pivotal to the future of the environment and human well-being. Increased scarcity of water for agricultural irrigation in semi-arid and arid regions has resulted in a growing interest in water reuse practices. However, insight into the life cycle impacts and potential trade-offs of these emerging practices are still limited by the paucity of systematic evaluations of different water reuse implementations. In this study, a host of environmental and human health impacts at three implementation levels of allowing water reclamation for crop irrigation was comparatively evaluated across the operational landscape via a combination of scenario modelling, life-cycle impact analyses and Monte Carlo simulations. Net harvesting of reclaimed water for irrigation was found to be dependent upon the sophistication of the treatment processes, since multistage and complex configurations can cause greater direct water consumption during processing. Further, the direct benefits of water resource recovery can be essentially offset by indirect adverse impacts, such as mineral depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, ecotoxicity, and human health risks, which are associated with increased usage of energy and chemicals for rigorous removal of contaminants, such as heavy metals and contaminants of emerging concern. Nonetheless, expanded simulations suggest the significance of concurrently implementing energy recovery, nutrient recycling, and/or nature-based, chemical-free water technologies to reduce the magnitude of negative impacts from engineered water reclamation processes.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 649, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501409

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, which remains incurable once metastatic. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are a small subset of breast cancer cells, which are the radical cause of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and metastasis in breast cancer. The extracellular serine protease inhibitor serpinE2, also named protease nexin-1 (PN-1), contributes to enhanced metastasis of cancer cells mainly by remodeling the tumor matrix. In this study, we found that PN-1 was up-regulated in breast cancer, which promoted cell invasion, migration and stemness. Furthermore, by using specific inhibitors, we discovered that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated PN-1 in breast cancer cells through cascade activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which finally led to the up-regulation of early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). Moreover, EGF signaling was further activated as a feedback of PN-1 up-regulation through PN-1 blocking HtrA1. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel signaling axis that up-regulated PN-1 expression in breast cancer cells, and the new mechanism of PN-1-promoted breast cancer metastasis, which may provide new insights into identifying novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

19.
Biometals ; 32(5): 785-794, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552528

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the damage caused by vanadium compounds and to explore the protective effects of berberine (BBR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). BBR is a biologically active small molecule found in Coptis rhizome, a remedy used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. BBR has also been shown to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. MTT assay was performed to observe the influence of bis(acetylacetonato)-oxidovanadium [VO(acac)2] or sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) and BBR on viability of HUVECs. The monolayer permeability of the HUVECs was assessed by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was detected by ELISA. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that the viability of HUVECs was decreased by treatment with vanadium compounds 50-400 µM in a concentration-dependent manner, while 0.01-1 µM BBR effectively protected HUVECs from the inhibitory effects of vanadium compounds on cell viability. Also 100 and 200 µM VO(acac)2 induced high permeability and decreased eNOS activity in HUVECs. While 0.01-1 µM BBR showed no improvement in the permeability, and failed to reverse the VO(acac)2-induced changes of eNOS activity, but BBR treatment increased the eNOS activity in control cells. The addition of 200 µM VO(acac)2 significantly induced ROS generation in HUVECs, while 0.01 or 0.1 µM BBR reversed the change of ROS. In summary, BBR has protective effects in HUVECs damage induced by vanadium compounds, which is not mediated by eNOS, but related to reduced intracellular ROS.

20.
Genomics ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472243

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death in men worldwide, revealing a substantial heterogeneity in terms of molecular and clinical behaviors. Tumor infiltrating immune cell is associated with prognosis and response to immunotherapy in several cancer types. However, until now, the immune infiltrate profile of distinct subtypes for prostate cancer remains poorly characterized. In this study, using immune infiltration profiles as well as transcriptomic datasets, we characterized this subtype of prostate tumors. We observed that the FLI1 subtype of prostate tumors was highly enriched in immune system processes, immune related KEGG pathways and biological processes. We also expanded this approach to explore the immune infiltration profile of the high FLI1 expression subtype for skin cutaneous melanoma, similar results were found. Investigation of the association of immune infiltration features with the FLI1 expression demonstrated that many important features were associated with the FLI1 expression.

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