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1.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898364

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the expression and function of bladder cancer (BC) long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) using a high-throughput platform. High-throughput sequencing was used to compare the expression profiles of lncRNA in BC and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridization, gene ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were performed to verify differential expression of lncRNA. The effect of lncRNA overexpression on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion was analyzed following the transfection of lncRNA overexpressing lentivirus into 5637 and T24 cell lines. The overexpressing cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to evaluate their effects on tumor growth. Tumor-associated RNA-binding proteins of lncRNA were analyzed by RNA pull-down combined with mass spectrometry. A total of 93 lncRNA genes were upregulated and 352 lncRNA genes were downregulated in the tissues of patients with BC. Of which, we investigated the function of downregulated lnc-MUC20-9. Overexpression of lnc-MUC20-9 in 5637 and T24 cells resulted in decreased tumor cell viability and cell clones, decreased migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Similarly, nude mice bearing lnc-MUC20-9 overexpressing tumor cells exhibited smaller tumor size and volume than that of mice bearing control cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that lnc-MUC20-9 binds to ROCK1, an oncogene whose expression was decreased in lnc-MUC20-9 overexpressing cells. The study revealed that lnc-MUC20-9 has the function of inhibiting tumor growth, migration, and invasion. In BC cells, lnc-MUC20-9 binds to ROCK1 and may be involved in lnc-MUC20-9-mediated tumor suppressor function, which might be potential therapeutic targets for BC.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 73: 172-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although γδ T cells have been reported to be closely related to the immunopathogenesis of some viral infectious diseases, the changes or roles of γδ T cells in the development of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) remain unclear. METHODS: Peripheral γδ T cells and their subsets were determined by surface (γδ TCR, Vδ1 TCR, Vδ2 TCR, CD45RA, and CD27) or intracellular (IFN-γ, TNF-α, CD107a, and Granzyme B) markers in healthy controls (HCs) and HFMD patients with FACS. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were measured by ELISA. Differences in γδ T cells or their subsets and correlations between γδ T cells and inflammation indicators were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to HCs, HFMD patients showed increased effector γδ T and TNF-α+γδ T cells and plasma TNF-α levels, especially in severe cases. In addition, significantly increased Vδ1 T and IFN-γ+γδ T cells and other plasma inflammatory cytokines were further found in severe patients. Furthermore, EV71+ severe patients showed significantly increased effector and cytokine-producing γδ T cells, while the EV71- severe patients displayed significantly greater plasma cytokine levels. The percentage of IFN-γ+γδ T or TNF-α+γδ T cells was positively correlated with that of effector γδ T cells. There was a positive correlation between the proportion of Vδ1 T cells and white blood cell (WBC) count or the proportion of IFN-γ+γδ T or TNF-α+γδ T cells and neutrophil (N) count, while there was a negative correlation between Vδ2 T cells and WBC or N count. Moreover, the percentages of Vδ1 T and effector γδ T cells in the acute phase of disease declined significantly to normal levels during the recovery phase. CONCLUSIONS: Increased effector γδ T cells with enhanced cytokine production were remarkably observed in severe HFMD patients, which was also associated with clinical inflammation parameters. These data indicated that γδ T cells might be involved in inflammatory abnormalities in severe HFMD.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , RNA Viral
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 83: 56-63, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), sofosbuvir (SOF)-based DAAs are recommended for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Whether ribavirin (RBV) is needed by patients after LT in combination with SOF-based DAAs remains to be determined. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the necessity of RBV with SOF-based DAAs for post-LT patients. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases were systematically searched for eligible studies from the databases' inceptions until November 2018. We accepted the studies that included HCV recurrence in post-LT patients who were treated with SOF-based DAAs ± RBV, and evaluated the rate of sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Twelve studies, comprising a total of 1466 LT recipients, were included in this study. The pooled SVR12 of these patients was 91% (95% CI: 84% to 95%). There was no statistical difference of SVR12 in the patients treated with SOF-based DAAs + RBV versus -RBV group (risk ratio [RR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.03; P = 0.35) by different therapy duration (P = 0.26), with different targets of DAAs (P = 0.13) and in different regions (P = 0.34) but a tendency for a higher incidence of anemia in the +RBV group than in the -RBV group (RR = 5.18; 95% CI: 3.41 to 7.86; p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: The addition of RBV may not contribute to a higher SVR rate and could increase the incidence of anemia, so RBV is not necessary in SOF-based DAAs for patients with HCV recurrence after LT.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Resposta Viral Sustentada
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1008, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158940

RESUMO

With the growing demand for its ornamental uses, the African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) has been popular owing to its variations in color, shape and its rapid responses to artificial selection. Wild type African violet (WT) is characterized by flowers with bilateral symmetry yet reversals showing radially symmetrical flowers such as dorsalized actinomorphic (DA) and ventralized actinomorphic (VA) peloria are common. Genetic crosses among WT, DA, and VA revealed that these floral symmetry transitions are likely to be controlled by three alleles at a single locus in which the levels of dominance are in a hierarchical fashion. To investigate whether the floral symmetry gene was responsible for these reversals, orthologs of CYCLOIDEA (CYC) were isolated and their expressions correlated to floral symmetry transitions. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ results indicated that dorsal-specific CYCs expression in WT S. ionantha (SiCYC and SiCYC1B) shifted in DA with a heterotopically extended expression to all petals, but in VA, SiCYC1s' dorsally specific expressions were greatly reduced. Selection signature analysis revealed that the major high-expressed copy of SiCYC had been constrained under purifying selection, whereas the low-expressed helper SiCYC1B appeared to be relaxed under purifying selection after the duplication into SiCYC and SiCYC1B. Heterologous expression of SiCYC in Arabdiopsis showed petal growth retardation which was attributed to limited cell proliferation. While expression shifts of SiCYC and SiCYC1B correlate perfectly to the resulting symmetry phenotype transitions in F1s of WT and DA, there is no certain allelic combination of inherited SiCYC1s associated with specific symmetry phenotypes. This floral transition indicates that although the expression shifts of SiCYC/1B are responsible for the two contrasting actinomorphic reversals in African violet, they are likely to be controlled by upstream trans-acting factors or epigenetic regulations.

5.
Exp Lung Res ; 42(7): 346-353, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common and a lethal malignancy in the world and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most usual type. H19 long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays essential roles in tumor development. But its role in tumor metastasis is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MACC1 RNAi and Lentivirus-mediated H19-specific shRNA was used to establish H19 stable knocking-down A549 cells. Transwell assays were performed to examine the effect of H19 knocking-down on A549 cells migration and invasion. The downstream signaling proteins targeted by H19 were also examined by western blot. AG1478 and U0126 were used as the inhibitor of EGFR and ERK1/2, respectively. RESULTS: The knockdown of H19 increased the migration and invasion of A549 cells, and knockdown of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) decreased the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Furthermore, MACC1 protein targeted by H19 was upregulated as well as the downstream signaling proteins including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ß-catenin, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibited the expression of EGFR or ERK1/2 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of tumor cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that H19 functions as a suppressor of NSCLC and plays an important role in the migration and invasion of NSCLC. More importantly, H19 may regulate NSCLC metastasis through modulating cellular signaling pathway proteins related to cell proliferation and cell adhesion, including MACC1, EGFR, ß-catenin and ERK1/2. These results put forward our understanding of the detailed mechanism of H19 lncRNA regulating the process of NSCLC metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/farmacologia , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lentivirus , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 40: 203-210, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611862

RESUMO

IL-7, acting via IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), plays an important role in tumor progression. Elevated IL-7 expression has been reported to be observed in prostate cancer tissues and closely associated with poor prognosis. However, the biological functions of IL-7 and its receptor in prostate cancer cell invasiveness remain unclear. In our study, we found that the expressions of IL-7 and IL-7R were both upregulated in prostate cancer cells. IL-7 dose-dependently promoted the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells, whereas knockdown of IL-7R attenuated the effect of IL-7. Further, IL-7/IL-7R axis induced the activation of AKT and NF-κB, whereas blocking of AKT suppressed IL-7-mediated NF-κB activity. Moreover, IL-7/IL-7R axis increased MMP-3 and MMP-7 expression of prostate cancer cells, whereas inhibition of NF-κB as well as MMPs activity suppressed IL-7-mediated cell invasion and migration. Together, these data identify IL-7/IL-7R axis to be involved in prostate cancer cell invasion and migration, probably via activating AKT/NF-κB pathway and upregulating MMP-3 and MMP-7 expression. Therefore, blocking IL-7/IL-7R axis may provide a potential therapeutic strategy to treat prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Interleucina-7/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Nat Genet ; 47(1): 65-72, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25420146

RESUMO

Orchidaceae, renowned for its spectacular flowers and other reproductive and ecological adaptations, is one of the most diverse plant families. Here we present the genome sequence of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, a frequently used parent species for orchid breeding. P. equestris is the first plant with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for which the genome has been sequenced. Our assembled genome contains 29,431 predicted protein-coding genes. We find that contigs likely to be underassembled, owing to heterozygosity, are enriched for genes that might be involved in self-incompatibility pathways. We find evidence for an orchid-specific paleopolyploidy event that preceded the radiation of most orchid clades, and our results suggest that gene duplication might have contributed to the evolution of CAM photosynthesis in P. equestris. Finally, we find expanded and diversified families of MADS-box C/D-class, B-class AP3 and AGL6-class genes, which might contribute to the highly specialized morphology of orchid flowers.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Orchidaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS , Taxa de Mutação , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/biossíntese , RNA de Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 16(11): 1138-42, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010. METHODS: The clinical data of all NRF cases in the hospitals of Huai'an in 2010 were prospectively collected and analyzed using descriptive epidemiological methods. RESULTS: Among 60,986 live births in Huai'an in 2010, there were 556 (0.91%) cases of NRF. The average birth weight of newborns with NRF was 2,433±789 g, with 53.8% determined as low birth weight and 64.1% as preterm. The major causes of NRF were respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, asphyxia, sepsis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Among the newborns with NRF, 23.7% were accompanied by certain birth defects. Fourteen percent of newborns with NRF received pulmonary surfactant (PS) therapy, and the median time of the first dose of PS was 5 hours (range: 0-51 hours). Nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment, conventional mechanical ventilation, and high-frequency ventilation were used in 67.9%, 33.3%, and 13.7% of patients, respectively. The cure and improvement rate of NRF patients was 73.9% (411/556), and the mortality rate was 22.5% (125/556). The average hospitalization expenses were 9,270 (range: 196-38182) Yuan. CONCLUSIONS: High morbidity, high mortality and high medical costs make NRF a serious challenge in Huai'an. It is essential to improve the quality of perinatal care and develop new techniques and new models in neonatal respiratory therapy in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality of NRF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
10.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 311: 157-82, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952917

RESUMO

The beauty and complexity of flowers have held the fascination of scientists for centuries, from Linnaeus, to Goethe, to Darwin, through to the present. During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower morphogenesis. It seems likely that there are both highly conserved aspects to flower development in addition to significant differences in developmental patterning that can contribute to the unique morphologies of different species. Furthermore, floral development is attractive in that several key genes regulating fundamental processes have been identified. Crucial functional studies of floral organ identity genes in diverse taxa are allowing the real insight into the conservation of gene function, while findings on the genetic control of organ elaboration open up new avenues for investigation. These fundamentals of floral organ differentiation and growth are therefore an ideal subject for comparative analyses of flower development, which will lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms that control flower morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morfogênese , Evolução Biológica , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos , Morfogênese/genética
11.
New Phytol ; 202(3): 1024-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24571782

RESUMO

The Phalaenopsis orchid produces complex flowers that are commercially valuable, which has promoted the study of its flower development. E-class MADS-box genes, SEPALLATA (SEP), combined with B-, C- and D-class MADS-box genes, are involved in various aspects of plant development, such as floral meristem determination, organ identity, fruit maturation, seed formation and plant architecture. Four SEP-like genes were cloned from Phalaenopsis orchid, and the duplicated PeSEPs were grouped into PeSEP1/3 and PeSEP2/4. All PeSEPs were expressed in all floral organs. PeSEP2 expression was detectable in vegetative tissues. The study of protein-protein interactions suggested that PeSEPs may form higher order complexes with the B-, C-, D-class and AGAMOUS LIKE6-related MADS-box proteins to determine floral organ identity. The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll. Silencing of PeSEP2 had minor effects on the floral phenotype. Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression. These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Forma Celular/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Organogênese/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica
12.
J Exp Bot ; 64(12): 3869-84, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23956416

RESUMO

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/virologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potexvirus/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Plant Sci ; 201-202: 25-41, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23352400

RESUMO

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a good way to study floral gene functions of orchids, especially those with a long life cycle. To explore the applicability and improve viral silencing efficiency for application of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced gene silencing, we examined several variables, including the optimal length of the DNA fragment, the effect of developmental maturation status of inflorescence, and suitable inoculation sites. A CymMV-based VIGS system can be used with orchids to silence genes including PeUFGT3, PeMADS5 and PeMADS6 and induce prominent phenotypes with silencing efficiency up to 95.8% reduction. The DNA fragment size used for silencing can be as small as 78-85 bp and still reach 61.5-95.8% reduction. The effect of cDNA location as a target in VIGS varies among genes because of non-target gene influence when using the 5' terminus of the coding region of both PeMADS5 and PeMADS6. Use of VIGS to knock down a B-class MADS-box gene (PeMADS6) in orchids with different maturation status of inflorescence allowed for observing discernable knockdown phenotypes in flowers. Furthermore, silencing effects with Agro-infiltration did not differ with both leaf and inflorescence injections, but injection in the leaf saved time and produced less damage to plants. We propose an optimized approach for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchid with Agro-infiltration: (1) DNA fragment length about 80 bp, (2) a more mature status of inflorescence and (3) leaf injection.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Inativação Gênica , Vírus do Mosaico , Orchidaceae/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/ultraestrutura , Genes de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 13(6): 2635-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22938433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated the association between glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) null genotype and risk of prostate cancer, but the impact of GSTT1 null genotype in Asians is still unclear owing to inconsistencies across results. Thie present meta-analysis aimed to quantify the strength of the association between GSTT1 null genotype and risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase and Wangfang databases for studies of associations between the GSTT1 null genotype and risk of prostate cancer in Asians and estimated summary odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 11 case-control studies with 3,118 subjects were included in this meta-analysis, which showed the GSTT1 null genotype to be significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians (random-effects OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.92, P = 0.002), also after adjustment for heterogeneity (fixed-effects OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.23-1.70, P< 0.001). No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of available data suggested the GSTT1 null genotype does contribute to increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Ásia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/deficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 53(6): 1053-67, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22499266

RESUMO

Gynostemium and ovule development in orchid are unique developmental processes in the plant kingdom. Characterization of C- and D-class MADS-box genes could help reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying gynostemium and ovule development in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized a C- and a D-class gene, PeMADS1 and PeMADS7, respectively, from Phalaenopsis equestris. These two genes showed parallel spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their cooperation in gynostemium and ovule development. Furthermore, only PeMADS1 was ectopically expressed in the petals of the gylp (gynostemium-like petal) mutant, whose petals were transformed into gynostemium-like structures. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that neither PeMADS1 and PeMADS7 could form a homodimer or a heterodimer. An E-class protein was needed to bridge the interaction between these two proteins. A complementation test revealed that PeMADS1 could rescue the phenotype of the AG mutant. Overexpression of PeMADS7 in Arabidopsis caused typical phenotypes of the D-class gene family. Together, these results indicated that both C-class PeMADS1 and D-class PeMADS7 play important roles in orchid gynostemium and ovule development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas
16.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 52(9): 1467-86, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21791545

RESUMO

Orchidaceae constitute one of the largest families of angiosperms. They are one of the most ecological and evolutionary significant plants and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on earth. Because of the significance of plant biology, market needs and the current level of breeding technologies, basic research into orchid biology and the application of biotechnology in the orchid industry are continually endearing scientists to orchids in Taiwan. In this introductory review, we give an overview of the research activities in orchid biology and biotechnology, including the status of genomics, transformation technology, flowering regulation, molecular regulatory mechanisms of floral development, scent production and color presentation. This information will provide a broad scope for study of orchid biology and serve as a starting point for uncovering the mysteries of orchid evolution.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Flores/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/genética , Cruzamento , DNA de Plantas/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Cariótipo , Odorantes , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Taiwan , Transformação Genética
17.
BMC Genomics ; 12: 360, 2011 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21749684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orchids are one of the most diversified angiosperms, but few genomic resources are available for these non-model plants. In addition to the ecological significance, Phalaenopsis has been considered as an economically important floriculture industry worldwide. We aimed to use massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing for a global characterization of the Phalaenopsis transcriptome. RESULTS: To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA from 10 samples of different tissues, various developmental stages, and biotic- or abiotic-stressed plants. We obtained 206,960 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 228 bp. These reads were assembled into 8,233 contigs and 34,630 singletons. The unigenes were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, these analyses identified 22,234 different genes (E-value cutoff, e-7). Assembled sequences were annotated with Gene Ontology, Gene Family and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Among these annotations, over 780 unigenes encoding putative transcription factors were identified. CONCLUSION: Pyrosequencing was effective in identifying a large set of unigenes from Phalaenopsis. The informative EST dataset we developed constitutes a much-needed resource for discovery of genes involved in various biological processes in Phalaenopsis and other orchid species. These transcribed sequences will narrow the gap between study of model organisms with many genomic resources and species that are important for ecological and evolutionary studies.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 52(9): 1515-31, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21757456

RESUMO

Orchidaceae are an excellent model to examine perianth development because of their sophisticated floral architecture. In this study, we identified 24 APETALA3 (AP3)-like and 13 PISTILLA (PI)-like genes from 11 species of orchids and characterized them into four AP3- and two PI-duplicated homologs. The first duplication event in AP3 homologs occurring in the early evolutionary history of the Orchidaceae gave rise to AP3A and AP3B clades. Further duplication events resulted in four subclades, namely AP3A1, AP3A2, AP3B1 and AP3B2, during the evolution of Orchidaceae. The AP3 paralogous genes were expressed throughout inflorescence and floral bud development. From the in situ hybridization results, we noticed that the transition timings from ubiquitous to constrained expression in floral organs for both clades are different. The transition point of expression of the AP3A clade (clades 3 and 4) was at the late floral organ primordia stage. In contrast, that for the AP3B clade (clades 1 and 2) was not observed until the late inflorescence and floral bud stages. In addition, the AP3 orthologous genes revealed diverse expression patterns in various species of orchids, whereas the PI homologs were uniformly expressed in all floral whorls. AP3A2 orthologs play a noticeable role in lip formation because of their exclusive expression in the lip. Further evidence comes from the ectopic expression of AP3A2 detected in the lip-like petals extending from the lip in four sets of peloric mutants. Finally, a Homeotic Orchid Tepal (HOT) model is proposed, in which dualistic characters of duplicated B-class MADS-box genes are involved in orchid perianth development and growth.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes Duplicados , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 52(3): 563-77, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21278368

RESUMO

The orchid floral organs represent novel and effective structures for attracting pollination vectors. In addition, to avoid inbreeding, the androecium and gynoecium are united in a single structure termed the gynostemium. Identification of C-class MADS-box genes regulating reproductive organ development could help determine the level of homology with the current ABC model of floral organ identity in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized two C-class AGAMOUS-like genes, denoted CeMADS1 and CeMADS2, from Cymbidium ensifolium. These two genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their functional diversification during gynostemium development. Furthermore, the expression of CeMADS1 but not CeMADS2 was eliminated in the multitepal mutant whose gynostemium is replaced by a newly emerged flower, and this ecotopic flower continues to produce sepals and petals centripetally. Protein interaction relationships among CeMADS1, CeMADS2 and E-class PeMADS8 proteins were assessed by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Both CeMADS1 and CeMADS2 formed homodimers and heterodimers with each other and the E-class PeMADS protein. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CeMADS1 or CeMADS2 showed limited growth of primary inflorescence. Thus, CeMADS1 may have a pivotal C function in reproductive organ development in C. ensifolium.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Genes Duplicados/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Northern Blotting , Southern Blotting , Flores/citologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/química , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/citologia , Orchidaceae/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 52(2): 238-43, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21245031

RESUMO

Orchids are one of the most ecological and evolutionarily significant plants, and the Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant families of the angiosperms. Genetic databases will be useful not only for gene discovery but also for future genomic annotation. For this purpose, OrchidBase was established from 37,979,342 sequence reads collected from 11 in-house Phalaenopsis orchid cDNA libraries. Among them, 41,310 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained by using Sanger sequencing, whereas 37,908,032 reads were obtained by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) including both Roche 454 and Solexa Illumina sequencers. These reads were assembled into 8,501 contigs and 76,116 singletons, resulting in 84,617 non-redundant transcribed sequences with an average length of 459 bp. The analysis pipeline of the database is an automated system written in Perl and C#, and consists of the following components: automatic pre-processing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences and storage of the analyzed information in SQL databases. A web application was implemented with HTML and a Microsoft .NET Framework C# program for browsing and querying the database, creating dynamic web pages on the client side, analyzing gene ontology (GO) and mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways. The online resources for putative annotation can be searched either by text or by using BLAST, and the results can be explored on the website and downloaded. Consequently, the establishment of OrchidBase will provide researchers with a high-quality genetic resource for data mining and facilitate efficient experimental studies on orchid biology and biotechnology. The OrchidBase database is freely available at http://lab.fhes.tn.edu.tw/est.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Orchidaceae/genética , Mineração de Dados , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Biblioteca Gênica , Internet , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Interface Usuário-Computador
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