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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113477, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198048

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) scale and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were administered to a non-clinical group of 274 participants recruited from a university volunteers list. We found a highly significant positive correlation between number of self-reported ADHD traits and sensory sensitivity. Furthermore, ADHD traits and age were predictors of SPS and exploratory factor analysis revealed a factor that combined ADHD traits and items from the HSPS. The psychometric properties of the HSPS were also examined supporting the unidimensional nature of the concept. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a positive relationship between HSPS and ADHD traits in the general population. Our results further support recent findings suggesting abnormal sensory processing in ADHD.

2.
J Atten Disord ; 23(12): 1407-1415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800716

RESUMO

Objective: ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits found in the general population. Clinical and genetic studies suggest that ADHD and ASD often co-occur and share genetic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD traits in the general population. Method: In total, 334 participants were recruited from a population-based sample. Four questionnaires assessing current and retrospective ADHD and ASD traits were administered online: the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist, the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25), the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Results: A significant correlation was found between ADHD and autistic traits. In particular, higher inattention and overall ADHD scores were associated with self-reported deficits in communication and social skills. Conclusion: Our findings are similar to results from studies on clinical populations, suggesting that ADHD and ASD might share common etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Utah
3.
Compr Psychiatry ; 87: 7-11, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176388

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between Internet Addiction (IA), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and online activities in an adult population. METHODS: A sample of 400 individuals aged 18 to 70 completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), Young's Internet Addiction Test, and their preferred online activities. RESULTS: A moderate association was found between higher levels of ADHD symptoms and IA. The best predictors of IA scores were ADHD symptoms, age, playing online games and spending more time online. CONCLUSION: Our findings further support a positive relationship between ADHD symptoms and excessive internet use.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Compr Psychiatry ; 80: 179-185, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121555

RESUMO

Preliminary studies in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) report both hypo-responsiveness and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli, as well as problems modulating sensory input. As it has been suggested that those with ADHD exist at the extreme end of a continuum of ADHD traits, which are also evident in the general population, we investigated the link between ADHD and sensory sensitivity in the general population. Two online questionnaires measuring ADHD traits and sensory responsivity across various sensory domains were administered to 234 participants. Results showed a highly significant positive correlation between the number of ADHD traits and the frequency of reported sensory processing problems. An increased number of sensory difficulties across all modalities were associated with the level of ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD traits predicted sensory difficulties and exploratory factor analysis revealed a factor that combined ADHD trait and sensory processing items. This is the first study to identify a positive relationship between sensory processing and ADHD traits in the general population. Our results suggest that sensory difficulties could be part of the ADHD phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Autorrelato , Sensação , Transtornos das Sensações/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 181: 10-17, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024843

RESUMO

Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Autorrelato , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 20(5): 292-295, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498045

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Humanos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Perception ; 46(6): 665-678, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895292

RESUMO

We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels. Reducing the distractor-target or nontarget interval to 10 ms removed the reaction time advantage for the high group. We suggest that at 80 ms, the distractors were cueing the arrival of the target or nontarget, and that those with high levels of ADHD-like traits were more sensitive to the cues. Increased sensitivity to stimuli in the visual periphery is consistent with hyperresponsiveness at the level of the superior colliculus.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 24(1): 93-105, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21736451

RESUMO

Remembering delayed intentions can be highly demanding. Accuracy in laboratory paradigms assessing prospective memory (PM) is typically well below ceiling, and failure to remember intended behaviors after a delay is a common occurrence in everyday life. However, relatively little is known of the potential differences in brain activity that distinguish successful versus unsuccessful PM. In this fMRI study, participants repeatedly encoded, stored, and then had the opportunity to retrieve intended behaviors while engaged in a distracting ongoing task. This yielded a success rate of approximately two thirds. Overall levels of brain activity distinguished successful versus unsuccessful trials at all three stages (encoding, storage, and retrieval), suggesting multiple neural determinants of PM success. In addition, the voxelwise similarity between patterns of brain activity at encoding and retrieval was greater for successful than unsuccessful trials. This was true even in posterior cingulate, which showed opposite patterns of signal change between encoding and retrieval. Thus, successful realization of delayed intentions may be associated with reinstatement of encoding context at the time of retrieval.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Intenção , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
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