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2.
Pain Ther ; 9(1): 241-248, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900815

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although controversial, pre-emptive analgesia has shown some promise in preventing altered pain perception and reducing pain amplification after surgery. Hence, it has the potential to be more effective than a similar analgesic regimen started after surgery with an appropriate combination of patient category and analgesic modality. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of preventive epidural analgesia in reducing pain severity and duration after bilateral single-stage knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Fifty patients, 18-70 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I & II posted for bilateral single-stage knee replacement under regional anesthesia were randomly allocated into preventive versus postoperative epidural analgesia group to compare severity of post-operative pain, analgesic consumption, day of mobilization, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and hospital stay. RESULTS: The pain score after surgery [2.0 (1.5, 2.0); 3.0 (1.5, 3.0), p = 0.005] and day of mobilization [(2. 92 ± 0. 28; 3. 31 ± 0. 48; p value 0.02)] were significantly lesser in the preventive epidural group. However, there was no difference in the hospital stay (9.92 ± 3.71 and 9.00 ± 2.12, p = 0.95) and analgesic consumption (65.38 ± 37.55 and 73.08 ± 43.85, p = 0.30). The preventive group had a larger drop in CRP and experienced a lesser number of days with pain after surgery as compared to the controls [(64.29 ± 21.29); (142.37 ± 80.04), p = 0.0001]. Six patients in the preemptive group (24%) and 13 of the control group (24 vs. 56.5%; p = 0.02) had chronic postsurgical pain. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive epidural analgesia reduces the severity and number of chronic pain days after bilateral single-stage knee replacement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Indian national registry (CTRI/2017/03/008240 on 28/03/2017).

3.
Acta Orthop Belg ; 85(3): 364-372, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677634

RESUMO

Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) causes increased blood loss and increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is commonly used to minimize blood loss and transfusion requirements. However, the optimal regimen of TXA in single stage bilateral TKA is still not defined. In this retrospective study, 35 patients who received TXA and 31 patients who did not receive TXA were evaluated for blood loss and transfusion requirement. Both the groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, body mass index and preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct). There was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels (2.42 ± 1.28 vs 2.44 ± 1.31 ; p=0.95) and Hct (1.37 ± 0.96 vs 1.62 ± 0.98, p=0.22) between the groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in the intraoperative blood loss (163.71 vs 165.32 ml, p=0.92), drain output (621.71 vs 695.65 ml, p=0.65) and total blood loss (785.0 vs 860.97, p=0.40). There was no significant difference in allogeneic blood transfusion between the groups (62.85% received blood in the study group vs 58.06% in the control group, p>0.05). Single intraoperative dose of TXA may not be adequate to reduce blood loss and blood transfusion requirement in bilateral TKA.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
4.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 35(4): 475-480, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920230

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Pectoral block (PECS)-based anesthesia without opioids decreases analgesic requirement, pain scores and post-operative nausea vomiting (PONV) compared to conventional opioid-based general anesthesia in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection (MRM-AD). We compared PECS versus Paravertebral Block (PVB) in providing an opioid free, nerve block-based regimen. Outcomes of interest were post-operative analgesic requirement, duration of analgesia, PONV and patient and surgeon satisfaction. Material and Methods: This randomised controlled study involved 58 adult ASA I-III patients posted for MRM-AD. After randomization patients were induced with propofol and maintained on spontaneous ventilation with isoflurane (0.8-1.0 MAC) through i-gel. Ultrasound-guided PECS or PV blocks (30 ml of 0.1% lignocaine + 0.25% bupivacaine + 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine) were administered. Post-operative pain scores, non-opioid analgesic requirement over 24 hours, PONV, satisfaction of surgeon and patient were measured. Results: Between the two groups, there was no difference in demographics, ASA status, location and volume of breast tumour excised or the duration of surgery. The time from block to incision was significantly longer in the PV group (P = 0.01). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of intra and post-operative parameters, and the median VAS scores for pain at rest or during shoulder abduction were similarly low in both the groups. Conclusion: Both blocks result in equally prolonged analgesia and preclude requirement of opioid analgesics intra and post-operatively. PECS block is associated with lesser time to allow incision. Complications are low in both the groups. Routine use of these blocks to avoid opioids may be studied further.

5.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 10(10): QD01-QD02, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891405

RESUMO

Management of women with Complete Heart Block (CHB) presenting without pacing, during pregnancy and labour is debatable. Temporary pacemakers have been routinely inserted for labour and birth probably to withstand any haemodynamic variations. However, due to lack of large scale prospective studies, the necessity of this procedure has not been objectively assessed. Also, the most appropriate anaesthetic technique for caesarean section in women with CHB is yet to be clarified. We report herein the case of a pregnant woman with CHB who had uneventful emergency caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia without temporary pacing. She was an unbooked case detected with congenital CHB first time during active labour; echocardiography showed no structural cardiac disease and her heart rate increased with atropine. We suggest further research so that guidelines could be established to prevent unnecessary morbidity and expense of temporary pacemaker insertion. Newly diagnosed cases of asymptomatic CHB in late pregnancy should be worked up for chronotropic responsiveness using atropine and responsive cases may be managed without pacemaker.

6.
Indian J Anaesth ; 56(2): 123-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22701201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alpha-2 agonists are being increasingly used as adjuncts in general anaesthesia, and the present study was carried out to investigate the ability of intravenous dexmedetomidine in decreasing the dose of opioids and anaesthetics for attenuation of haemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. METHODS: ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS SCHEDULED FOR ELECTIVE GENERAL SURGERY WERE RANDOMIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: D and F (n=50 in each group). Group D were administered 1 µg/kg each of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl while group F received 2 µg/kg of fentanyl pre-operatively. Thiopental was given until eyelash reflex disappeared. Anaesthesia was maintained with 33:66 oxygen: nitrous oxide. Isoflurane concentration was adjusted to maintain systolic blood pressure within 20% of the pre-operative values. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded at regular intervals during induction, intubation, surgery and extubation. Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance, chi-square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The demographic profile was comparable. The pressor response to laryngoscopy, intubation, surgery and extubation were effectively decreased by dexmedetomidine, and were highly significant on comparison (P<0.001). The mean dose of fentanyl and isoflurane were also decreased significantly (>50%) by the administration of dexmedetomidine. The mean recovery time was also shorter in group D as compared with group F (P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine is an excellent drug as it not only decreased the magnitude of haemodynamic response to intubation, surgery and extubation but also decreased the dose of opioids and isoflurane in achieving adequate analgesia and anaesthesia, respectively.

7.
Ayu ; 33(4): 475-80, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23723662

RESUMO

Nowadays, herbal medicines are widely used by most of the people, including the pre-surgical population. These medicines may pose numerous challenges during perioperative care. The objective of the current literature review is to dwell upon the impact of the use of herbal medicines during the perioperative period, and to review the strategies for managing their perioperative use. The data was generated from various articles of different journals, text books, web source, including, Entrez Pubmed, Medscape, WebMD, and so on. Selected only those herbal medicines for which information on, safety, usage, and precautions during the perioperative period was available. Thereafter, the information about safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics from selected literature was gathered and analyzed. The whole review focused on the fact that these commonly used alternative medicines could sometimes pose as a concern during the perioperative period, in various ways. These complications could be due to their direct action, pharmacodynamic effect, or pharmacokinetic effect. In view of the serious impacts of herbal medicine usage in perioperative care, the anesthesiologist should take a detailed history, especially stressing on the use of herbal medicine during the preoperative anesthetic assessment. The anesthesiologist should also be aware of the potential perioperative effects of those drugs. Accordingly, steps should to be taken to prevent, recognize, and treat the complications that may arise due to their use or discontinuation.

8.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 5(3): 345-7, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21957424

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome is a genetically transmitted autosomal dominant disorder characterized by various anatomic anomalies and pathophysiologic derangements. Anesthetic management in such cases poses a multitude of challenges, especially related to the airway management and maintenance of cardiovascular stability. We report a case of a 9-year-old male child weighing 24 kg, who was diagnosed as a case of Noonan syndrome and had undergone ligation of patent ductus arteriosus during early childhood. The child was operated on for release of bilateral neck bands under general anesthesia. The case report pertains to the successful airway and anesthetic management in the background of difficult airway and existence of various cardiac lesions.

9.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 5(1): 82-4, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21655024

RESUMO

An 11-month-old male child weighing 8 kg was brought to the plastic surgery out-patient department by his parents with chief complaints of sudden increase in size of a swelling over the upper lip and difficulty in feeding for the last 7 days. It was diagnosed as a case of hemangioma of the upper lip. All the routine and special investigations including coagulation profile of the child were normal. The child was planned for ablation of feeding vessels along with intralesional steroid injection. Airway management of the child posed the challenge for us as the size and site of the lesion carried the risk of difficult intubation and possible risk of extensive hemorrhage. All the requisite equipment for difficult airway management was made ready. We were able to intubate the child with miller number-2 blade from the left angle of mouth without putting much pressure on the swelling. The surgical and postoperative period was uneventful and the child was discharged the next day to be followed up after 2 weeks.

10.
Indian J Urol ; 27(4): 457-64, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22279309

RESUMO

AIM: Peri-operative pain relief in children can be provided by conventional general anaesthesia or by regional nerve blocks. The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of penile block for penile surgery with the standard technique of general anaesthesia (GA) of short duration of less than two hours, and also to evaluate the postoperative pain relief obtained by penile block. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in the department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive care of our hospital, on 60 children in the age group of 1-10 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grades I and II, and divided randomly into two groups: Group B and group G, comprising of 30 patients each. Group B children received a penile block whereas group G children underwent a standard general anaesthetic procedure. Baseline, intra-operative and post-operative heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) (systolic and diastolic) and pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were recorded at regular intervals. The duration of post-operative pain relief, time to rescue analgesia and time to first feed were also evaluated and recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 11 version for windows and employing analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired student t test, Chi-square test and Mann Whitney U test for various parameters. Value of P<0.05 was considered as significant and P<0.0001 as highly significant. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics were comparable in both the groups. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse oximetry showed remarkable differences at various time intervals during intra-operative and post-operative period, which were statistically significant on comparison (P<0.05 and P<0.0001). Post-operative pain relief, time to first rescue analgesia and time to first feed also showed statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Penile block is very effective when used along with light sedation for distal penile surgeries of less than 2 hours duration as compared to standard GA as reflected by more stable haemodynamics in peri-operative period, excellent pain relief extending up to 6-8 hrs postoperatively and absence of any significant complications or side effects.

11.
Anesth Essays Res ; 5(1): 105-8, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885312

RESUMO

Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the encysted larvae of Echinococcus granulosus, commonly called as hydatid cyst. Almost all organs can be involved, but most commonly it affects liver (55%-70%) followed by the lungs (18%-35%). The surgery and anesthetic management become very challenging if these cysts are in or near the vicinity of vital organs, such as heart. Pulmonary hydatid cysts may rupture into the bronchial tree or pleural cavity and produce cough, chest pain, or hemoptysis and there are chances of injury to heart if the cyst is in close proximity to it. We are describing the successful management of such a case of pulmonary and hepatic hydatid cyst in a young female patient.

12.
Indian J Anaesth ; 54(3): 226-30, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20885869

RESUMO

The aim was to determine qualitative and quantitative aspects of caudal block, haemodynamic effects, and post-operative pain relief of ropivacaine 0.25% versus ropivacaine 0.25% with clonidine for lower abdominal surgeries in paediatric patients. A double-blind study was conducted among 44 paediatric patients in the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care of our institute. A total of 44 ASA-I paediatric patients between the ages of 1 and 9 years, scheduled for elective hernia surgery, were enrolled in this randomised double-blind study. The caudal block was administered with ropivacaine 0.25% (Group I) and ropivacaine 0.25% and clonidine 2 µg/kg (Group II) after induction with general anaesthesia. Haemodynamic parameters were observed before, during and after the surgical procedure. Post-operative analgesic duration, total dose of rescue analgesia, pain scores and any side effects were looked for and recorded. All the results were tabulated and analysed statistically. The variables in the two groups were compared using the non-parametric tests. For all statistical analyses, the level of significance was P < 0.05. Forty-four patients were enrolled in this study and their data were subjected to statistical analysis: 22 patients in both the groups were comparable with regard to demographic data, haemodynamic parameters and other vitals and were statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in Group II (P<0.05). The dose requirement for post-operative pain relief was also significantly lesser in Group II. The incidences of side effects were almost comparable and non-significant. A caudal block with 0.25% of isobaric ropivacaine combined with 2 µg/kg of clonidine provides efficient analgesia intra-operatively and prolonged duration of analgesia post-operatively.

13.
Anesth Essays Res ; 4(1): 9-14, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885080

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND: Dose sparing action of one adjuvant for another in regional anesthesia. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the clonidine-ropivacaine combination with fentanyl-ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia and also to find out whether addition of clonidine can reduce the dose of fentanyl in epidural anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients of ASA grade I and II between the ages of 21 and 55 years, who underwent lower abdominal surgeries, were included randomly into three clinically controlled study groups comprising 20 patients in each. They were administered epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine-clonidine (RC), ropivacaine-fentanyl (RF) or ropivacaine-fentanyl-clonidine (RCF). Per-op and post-op block characteristics as well as hemodynamic parameters were observed and recorded. Statistical data were compiled and analyzed using non-parametric tests and P<0.05 was considered as significant value. RESULTS: The demographic profile of the patients in all the three groups was similar as were the various block characteristics. The reduction of clonidine and fentanyl in the RCF group did not make any significant difference (P>0.05) in the analgesic properties of drug combination and hemodynamic parameters as compared to RC and RF groups. However, there was significant reduction of incidence of side effects in the RCF group (P<0.05) and it resulted in increased patient comfort. CONCLUSIONS: The analgesic properties of the clonidine and fentanyl when used as adjuvant to ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia are almost comparable and both can be used in combination at lower dosages without impairing the pharmacodynamic profile of the drugs as well as with a significant reduction in side effects.

14.
Anesth Essays Res ; 4(1): 20-4, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885082

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Celphos poisoning is one the most common and lethal poisonings with no antidote available till now. AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of new treatment regimens and interventions in reduction of mortality from the fatal effects of celphos poisoning. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A profile of 33 patients, who got admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of our institute with alleged intake of celphos pellets, was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all the 33 patients with alleged celphos poisoning, extensive gastric lavage was done with a mixture of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate solution. Strict monitoring, both invasive and non-invasive, was done and symptomatic/supportive treatment was carried out on a patient to patient basis. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: At the end of the study, all the data were compiled systematically and statistical analysis was carried out using the non-parametric tests and value of P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Majority of the patients out of the total 33 were young with mean age of 21.86±4.92 and had good educational level. Most of the patients presented clinically with cardiovascular signs and symptoms (58%), followed by respiratory distress (15%) and little higher incidence of multi-organ symptomatology (18%). The mean stay of the patients in ICU was 5.84±1.86 days and the survival rate was 42%. CONCLUSIONS: With the treatment regimen we have formulated, we were able to save 42% of our patients and recommend the use of this regimen by all the intensivists and physicians.

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