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1.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(1): 133-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610247

RESUMO

In the modern COVID-19 pandemic, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity has a major role in the diagnosis of the disease. However, in deciding the patient's discharge or de-isolation, its role is still debatable. We are, hereby, describing three cases (an intern, a nursing officer and a caretaker of another patient) where only RT-PCR could not help much since it was persistently positive for >20 days of the illness course. Instead, the cycle threshold (Ct) values could have better correlated with the infectivity of COVID. We propose a rising trend (24 h apart) and absolute Ct value > 25, instead of RT-PCR negativity (which was taken as Ct value > 36 in our laboratory), to be used in deciding the infective potential of the patients, their discharge from the hospital and de-isolation of the patients. This will help in the timely discharge of patients from health-care institutions and home isolation, which, as a result, will lead to optimal utilisation of the limited hospital resources we have available in the line of the ongoing pandemic. Future studies are required to define the exact cut-off of Ct value for de-isolation purposes.

2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541971

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a biphasic illness with an initial viraemia phase and later effective adaptive immune phase, except in a minority of people who develop severe disease. Immune regulation is the key target to treat COVID illness. In anticipation, an elderly man self-medicated himself with dexamethasone on the day of symptom onset of a flu-like illness, took other symptomatic measures and was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. His condition deteriorated with each passing day resulting in hospitalisation. He demanded oxygen and declared as severe COVID. With supportive treatment, he recovered after the 20th day of illness. Immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are likely to benefit when the immune response is dysregulated and turning into a cytokine storm. A medication that has saved many could be the one predisposing to severity if taken as a preventive measure, too early in the disease course, especially the viraemia phase.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação/métodos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Viremia/complicações
3.
Trials ; 21(1): 866, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1. To compare the safety and efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin and standard treatment in patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection 2. To compare the safety and efficacy of standard treatment, Lopinavir-ritonavir with Ribavarin, and Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: The study is an Open label, Parallel arm design, stratified randomised controlled trial. Patients will be categorised as non-severe or severe based on predefined criteria. Those who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria in the respective categories, will be randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups in a ratio of 1:1 in the non-severe category and 1:1:1 in the severe category. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will be undertaken in a tertiary care center of the country where both Covid and non-Covid patients are getting treated. All patients who are confirmed positive and admitted will be screened for the eligibility criteria and will be enrolled in the study after a written informed consent. Patients will be categorised as non-severe or severe based on predefined criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA (ALL REQUIRED): 1. Age ≥18 years at time of participation in the study 2. Laboratory (RT-PCR) confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 3. Symptomatic (severe or non-severe) Covid-19 disease 4. Willingness of study participant to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Use of medications that are contraindicated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine, or Ribavirin and that cannot be replaced or stopped 2. Patient already on antiretroviral therapy with Lopinavir-Ritonavir based regimen or on Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine or on Ribavirin 3. Any known contraindication to test drugs such as retinopathy and QT prolongation 4. Known allergic reaction or inability to take orally of Lopinavir-ritonavir, Hydroxychloroquine/ Chloroquine, Ribavarin 5. Pregnant or breastfeeding females 6. Receipt of any experimental treatment for 2019-nCoV (off-label, compassionate use, or trial related) within 30 days prior to participation in the present study or want to participate after enrolment INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Two therapeutic interventions for non-severe category and three for severe category as described below NON-SEVERE TREATMENT ARMS (NS-GROUP): Treatment Arm Drug A Standard Treatment (STNS) B Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg twice on first day followed by 400 mg per oral daily for 10 days + Ribavirin (1.2 g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STNS) Standard Treatment for non-severe cases (STNS): Strict Isolation, Standard Precautions (Hand hygiene, Cough Etiquette, Wear surgical mask), Hydration, Proper Nutrition, Supportive Pharmacotherapy (Antipyretic, Antiallergic, Cough Suppressant), Treatment of Comorbid Diseases, Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) for patients who are tested positive for H1N1. SEVERE GROUP TREATMENT ARMS (S-GROUP): Treatment Arm Drug A Standard Treatment (STs) B Hydroxychloroquine 400mg BD on day1 followed by 400 mg once daily + Ribavirin (1.2 g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STs) C Lopinavir(200mg) + Ritonavir (50mg) two tablets twice daily+ Ribavirin (1.2g orally as a loading dose followed by 600mg orally every 12 hours) for 10 days + Standard Treatment (STs)6 Standard Treatment for severe patients (STs): Strict Isolation, Standard Precautions (Hand hygiene, Cough Etiquette, Wear surgical mask), Fluid Therapy, Supportive Pharmacotherapy (Antipyretic, Antiallergic, Cough Suppressant), Oxygen supplementation (As required), Invasive ventilation (As required), Antibiotic agents for other associated infections (according to 2019 ATS/IDSA guidelines for non-ICU and ICU patients), Vasopressor support, Renal-replacement therapy, Treatment of Comorbid Diseases, Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) for patients who are tested positive for H1N1. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: (1) Time to Clinical recovery (TTCR) defined as the time (in hours) from initiation of study treatment (active or placebo) until normalisation of fever, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and alleviation of cough, sustained for at least 72 hours. (2) Time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative in upper respiratory tract specimen, time to laboratory recovery of each organ involvement. Secondary Endpoints: All causes mortality, Frequency of respiratory progression (defined as SPO2≤ 94% on room air or PaO2/FiO2 <300mmHg and requirement for supplemental oxygen or more advanced ventilator support), time to defervescence (in those with fever at enrolment), frequency of requirement for supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, frequency of requirement for mechanical ventilation, frequency of serious adverse events as per DAIDS table grade of severity. Outcomes are monitored for 28 days from the time of enrolment into the study OR until the patient is discharged or death whichever is longer. RANDOMIZATION: The randomization will be done using a secured central computer-based randomization using a secure website using a central, computer-based randomisation program in a ratio of 1:1 in the non-severe category and 1:1:1 in the severe category. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open labelled study i.e. Study assigned treatment will be known to the research team, the investigators and participants. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Since it is an exploratory trial as COVID-19 being a new disease, all patients who came under the purview of the inclusion criteria within the study period (5 months duration of the recruitment period of the total 6 months duration of the study i.e. from the month of June, 2020 to October 2020) and who have consented for the study will be included. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version:1.0 Recruitment start: June 3rd, 2020 (Ongoing) Recruitment finish (expected): October 31st, 2020 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI): CTRI/2020/06/025575 . Registration on 03 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/genética , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Índia/epidemiologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(8): 4437-4440, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110879

RESUMO

Rabies is endemic in India and responsible for 20,000 human deaths every year. It is 100% preventable when the vaccine is taken along with proper wound care and rabies immunoglobulin administration though update continues regarding the requirement of the number of vaccine doses, the need for immunoglobulin, and if required their types. We study four cases of rabies having street dogs' bite category grade 3. Everyone took vaccines at least three doses but none of them took rabies immunoglobulin. They developed symptoms of rabies with a gap of 15-28 days after the bites and admitted to a tertiary care center. One patient was left against medical advice and three patients were treated according to the modified Milwaukee protocol. But, none of them could be saved. So, it may be proposed that the reason of deaths may be due to lack of administration of rabies immunoglobulin (passive vaccination) or failure of vaccines. Hence, the government may focus on the administration of complete and quality post-exposure prophylaxis in all cases of animal bites. Although Milwaukee protocol saves few lives, it may be further improved or other treatment modalities may be developed for rabies treatment.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(7): 3737-3740, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102360

RESUMO

Influenza is a very common cause of upper respiratory illness, rarely presented with bicytopenia, and is being wrongly treated with antimicrobials many-a-times. We report a case of 36-year-old North-Indian man, physician by profession who presented with a 5-day history of typical upper respiratory tract symptoms (sore throat, irritative cough, hoarseness of voice, coryza) and high-grade fever for which he took antibiotics (initially levofloxacin for 2-days, followed by azithromycin) after self-prescription. He developed hematological involvement (leukopenia and thrombocytopenia) for which he was admitted. Throat swab tested positive for Influenza B by RT-PCR. This case highlights a rare presentation of influenza as bicytopenia which rapidly improved with oseltamivir given for 5-days. This is also a classic case of lack of antimicrobial stewardship practice by a physician while self-treating viral pharyngitis. There is a pressing need to create more awareness regarding appropriate use of antimicrobial resources among doctors, only then will others follow.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(3): 1362-1369, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509616

RESUMO

Background: Apart from the rarity of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in high altitude (>2000 ft), the combination triad of VL, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome, and Himalayas is rarely being reported. Here, we studied the triad in the Himalayan region, attending a single tertiary care hospital over a period of 2 years. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analysis of case records of seven confirmed VL patients. A systematic master chart review analyzed the demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome details of these patients. Results: These cases were diagnosed as VL by clinical findings and confirmed by rk-39 anti-body and demonstration of LD bodies in bone marrow smears. All cases without any travel history to endemic regions presented with prolonged fever (>1 months duration), anorexia, weight loss, and having hepatosplenomegaly and bi-or pan-cytopenia. All cases were having HLH, confirmed based on the HScore system (online calculation), and liver injury having transaminitis. Kidney involvement was seen in 27% cases. All cases improved with liposomal amphotericin-B, but one had cardiac arrest after blood transfusion reaction. Conclusion: Clinician of the non-endemic zone should suspect VL in patients with fever of unknown origin and have a high suspicion in cases of HLH and liver involvement and vice versa. Kidney involvement is seen in one-third of the VL cases. Liposomal amphotericin-B is recommended in this region. The leishmaniasis prevalent in these areas should further be subject to comparison with endemic parts, and a large-scale study is needed to find the reason of the rising vector from the holy Himalayas.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(3): 1736-1740, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509681

RESUMO

Human survival after developing rabies is very scary to humanity. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman from Uttar Pradesh (north India), who presented with 5-days of fever and 1-day of altered sensorium associated with agitation, hydrophobia, and bedwetting after 20 days of WHO category 3 bite in the face by a rabid dog. She had taken three doses of anti-rabies vaccinations but not immunoglobulin of postexposure prophylaxis. Laboratory investigation showed a rising titer of virus-neutralizing antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We treated the patient according to the modified Milwaukee protocol. The patient remained to survive and had a recovery trend during hospital stays of 15 days before relatives took her left against medical advice (LAMA). As we know rabies has approximately 100% mortality rate but by using the aggressive treatment approach (like Milwaukee protocol), the patient may survive. Rabies can be effectively prevented by using adequate postexposure vaccine prophylaxis and rabies immunoglobulin (in category-3) after bite of a rabid animal. Our report along with other published reports should give more motivation to clinicians and education to the public to have an intensive treatment approach and patience, respectively to make rabies survival.

9.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(10): 3416-3418, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742180

RESUMO

Scrub typhus and leptospirosis are zoonosis and systemic febrile illnesses with diverse, nonspecific clinical manifestations, and shared risk factors for coinfection. Diagnosis of the coinfection is dependent on laboratory serological tests, which are under used. A coinfection from Uttarakhand Himalayan region is not yet reported. A 25-year-old man from altitude of 2126 feet above sea level presented with fever, myalgia, jaundice, oliguria, mental confusion, and tender hepatomegaly. Investigations revealed leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function tests, renal dysfunction with neurological involvement. Leptospira immunoglobulin IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and scrub typhus immunochromatography test were positive. This coinfection is first to be documented in this holy Indian Himalayas. Clinical suspicion, early laboratory diagnosis, and early treatment could prevent complications and fatal outcomes. Coinfection of this type may be considered when there is persistence of fever and a treatment response to doxycycline.

10.
Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci ; 9(2): 96-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334053

RESUMO

In the Himalayan region, there is a prevalence of unknown bites (not much data except media) including snakes with high range of mortality among victims because hilly terrain leads to delay in transportation and delayed initiation of proper treatment due to lack of developed tertiary care centers. These bites can present from local hypersensitivity reactions to neurological, cardiological, respiratory, hematological, musculoskeletal, and renal manifestations. We highlight two cases that presented with delayed and varied manifestations, recovered but delayed with dedicated supportive care. A 25-year-old female presented 3 days after bite from an unknown snake, possibly krait, developed cardiotoxicity, neuroxotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis, and hemolytic features and was managed with antivenom and anticholinesterase therapy along with medroxyprogesterone to facilitate recovery from bite-associated neurotoxicity. A 75-year-old male subjected to an unknown bite possibly a scorpion developed shock which was most likely cardiogenic in nature secondary to toxin and was managed initially using inotropic support. Prazosin was started, and he recovered completely though at a later time. Hence, apart from krait bite presenting as multisystem involvement, anticholinesterase and medroxyprogesterone acetate are vital for survival. Similarly, prazosin has a vital role in the recovery of scorpion bite-induced cardiotoxicity. Many such unknown venomous bites go unreported. Further case studies and case reports are necessary to help redefine the epidemiology of such bites in the Himalayan region that poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(5): 1775-1777, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198755

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a well-known cause of stroke in children, but its association is relatively rare in adults. We describe a case of 36-year-old woman, a known diabetes mellitus, who presented with recurrent vomiting, headache, and altered sensorium. Investigations revealed severe iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytosis, and ketoacidosis. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested acute infarct of B/L parieto-occipito-temporo-cerebellar region. Patient was worked up for possible causes of stroke in young. She underwent computed tomography angiography of the brain, echocardiogram, and screening for thrombophilia disorders. This, however, did not demonstrate a clear etiology and there were no other evidences of diabetic angiopathy. Some previously published case reports have suggested IDA as a potential cause of ischemic stroke; it is possible that the stroke in this young woman was attributable to severe IDA. Whether cerebrovascular accident has led to diabetic ketoacidosis or vice versa is a topic of discussion which needs further studies. Moreover, such catastrophes could be prevented by early diagnosis and timely management through involvement of primary care physicians.

12.
J Emerg Trauma Shock ; 12(1): 3-9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057277

RESUMO

Background: Surviving sepsis campaign (SSC) recommends 6 h-sepsis resuscitation bundle for severe sepsis (now termed "sepsis" after the Sepsis-3 definition) or septic shock. The study was done to assess the guideline compliance in Indian patients before and after the resident physicians' training and their impact on the survival. Subjects and Methods: Prospective interventional study (time series design) was conducted. Resident physicians, who were regularly managing the patients of severe sepsis/septic shock, were trained by providing the education and feedback on the guideline compliance at 6-month intervals for three quality improvement (QI) phases. Case details of preintervention and QI phases' patients were reviewed as per the quality indicators, defined by SSC guideline, and compared. Results: The baseline compliance of composite six components of 6 h-sepsis resuscitation bundle was low and significantly increased on postintervention (baseline 0% to 18% at QI 3 (P for trend = 0.01). The compliance of individual components was improved too: serum lactate measurement (26%, P = 0.002), obtaining blood culture (28%, P = 0.003), antibiotic administration (2%, P = 0.56), provision of fluid bolus (60%, P = 0.02), attainment of target central venous pressure (50%, P = 0.03), and optimization of central venous oxygen saturation (20%, P = 0.21). The hospital mortality showed a decreasing trend (18%, P = 0.06). Patients compliant to composite bundle got the mortality benefit (odds ratios = 0.25, 95% [confidence interval, 0.07-0.9]). The study, however, did not show any benefits of mean hospital/Intensive Care Unit (ICU) length of stay. Conclusions: The study establishes lack of acceptance to the prevailing guideline; however, it has shown a significant improvement in adaptation and mortality benefit without reducing mean hospital/ICU length of stay after physicians' repeated educational programs. The barriers to implementation of the prevalent guideline should be searched out in further trials.

13.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(2): 471-474, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090799

RESUMO

Respiratory distress is very uncommon as a presenting symptom of Chilaiditi syndrome. Furthermore, pneumonia is not documented with the syndrome, compromising further to the distress. We describe a middle-aged man, chronic alcoholic, recently diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressive breathlessness. Recently, he developed mild-to-moderate hemoptysis and cough with aggravation of breathlessness. He did not have fever, chest pain, or orthopnea. He was cyanosed, requiring high-dose oxygen therapy. Later on, he stabilized with noninvasive ventilation. Chest imagings showed incidental Chilaiditi sign, liver cirrhosis, and atypical pneumonitis. With empirical antibiotics and high-dose steroid, he recovered completely but with baseline breathlessness. Here, we outline Chilaiditi syndrome as a rare association or manifestation of liver cirrhosis, and it can present with a respiratory compromise by both obstructive lung disease and atypical interstitial pneumonia. Early identification, vaccinations against common organisms, and possible early surgery may prevent morbidity and mortality of this type of patients.

14.
Curr Drug Saf ; 13(2): 144-147, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatments of patients with amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker, CCB) overdose/poisoning remain challenging and death is certain if not intervened timely. Furthermore, for the society, the availability and common use of this drug can drive more vulnerable groups, especially children, towards an accidental/suicidal poisoning. CASE REPORT: Herein, we describe the case of an 18 year-old-adolescent girl who took 150 mg of amlodipine with the suicidal intentions and was admitted in our hospital approximately 4-hours after the ingestion. She developed circulatory failure and tachypnea. Decontamination, calcium, glucagon, and dual vasopressors were started, however, persistent hypotension led to the initiation of hyperinsulinemiceuglycemia therapy. She recovered fully and discharged without any complications in few days. This case educates not only about the successful use of variant drugs in the management of CCB overdose/poisoning, but also calls for the attention of the society for a safe storage of often used drugs, especially away from the children/adolescents.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/envenenamento , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/envenenamento , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Choque/induzido quimicamente , Taquipneia/induzido quimicamente
15.
Curr Drug Saf ; 13(1): 59-61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only few cases have been reported with cardiovascular side effects, especially congestive heart failure (HF), of intraconazole therapy after black box warning by US-FDA (2001). It is unknown which category of patients should avoid this important antifungal treatment. CASE REPORT: A middle-aged man having past history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis and obstructive uropathy presented with 2-weeks of progressive cough with scanty purulent sputum and breathlessness without any fever, chest pain, or pedal edema. Chest examination demonstrated bilateral crackles in upper thorax. Kidney function tests were deranged. Imagings revealed both upper lobe fibrosis with an aspergilloma. He received tablet itraconazole (200mg BD) and on 3rd day, he developed signs and symptoms of congestive HF. With diuretics and stopping of itraconazole, he recovered. With WHO-UMC criteria, probable drug-induced HF was diagnosed. Hence, this case reaffirms a causal relationship between itraconazole and HF. Although previous case studies have characterised cardiac risk factors as relative contraindication to the use itraconazole; this case outlines a caution (or relative contraindication) for systemic use of the drug with non-cardiac risk factors like lungs pathology in form of old koch's fibrotic chest and/or chronic kidney disease; where posaconazole may be a better treatment of choice considering availability and cost issue.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Itraconazol/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Indian J Pediatr ; 85(8): 699, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238941
17.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 21(11): 758-764, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279637

RESUMO

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be performed as per the international guidelines; however, compliance to these guidelines is difficult to assess. This study was conducted to determine the compliance to American Heart Association (2010) guideline on CPR documentation by among resident physicians before and after resident training (two arms). Methods: This pre-postinterventional quality improvement study was conducted in a referral center, North India. Data of hospitalized in-hospital CPR patients were collected in the form of quality indicators (checklists) as defined by the guideline and compared between two arms of before-after resident training. Residents were given appropriate training in CPR technique as per the guideline. The compliance of CPR documentation was assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results: The baseline arm compliance of various components of CPR documentation was low. The postintervention arm compliances of all components significantly increased (baseline, 2.5% to postintervention, 15.11%, P = 0.03). Individual components assessed were documentation of assessment of responsiveness (65% to 77.9%, P = 0.19), assessment of breathing (37.5% to 58.1%, P = 0.03), assessment of carotid pulse (62.5% to 79%, P = 0.05), rate of chest compressions (20% to 39.5%, P = 0.04), airway management (62.5% to 82.5%, P = 0.02), and compressions to breaths ratio (12.5% to 31.4%, P = 0.02). Documentation of chest compression rate compared to nondocumentation (12 of 42 vs. 11 of 84, P = 0.04) was independently associated with a higher rate of return of spontaneous circulation. The study however did not show any survival benefits. Conclusions: This study establishes that the compliance to CPR documentation is poor as assessed by CPR documentation content and quality, which improves after physician training, but not up to the mark level (100%) that may be due to busy Indian hospital settings and human behavioral factors. Due to ethical constraints of live CPR assessment, this document checklist approach may be considered as an internal quality assessment method for CPR compliance. Furthermore, correct instruction in CPR technique along with proper documentation of the procedure is required, followed up with periodic re-education during the residency period and beyond.

18.
J Emerg Trauma Shock ; 10(4): 194-198, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097858

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between cortisol level and sepsis is not known in Indian patients of severe sepsis/septic shock. Aims: The study was done to determine the optimal range of cortisol levels, defining the adrenocortical response, and predicting the mortality, if possible, in the above type of patients. Settings and Designs: The study was a single-centered prospective cohort study, conducted in a tertiary referral center, North India. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with severe sepsis (n = 30) and septic shock (n = 30) were recruited. Basal and postcosyntropin (1 µg)-stimulated cortisol levels were measured, and all patients were closely monitored with daily assessments of clinical and laboratory variables. Western diagnostic criteria were followed for defining adrenal insufficiency (AI). The end point was the survival assessed at day 28 or death, whichever came earlier. Results: The mean basal (T0) and poststimulation (T30) cortisol levels were 31.77 ± 15.9 µg/dL and 37.58 ± 17.31 µg/dL, respectively. In all sepsis patients, 48.33% qualified as AI at T0 ≤ 24 µg/dL, 61.67% at delta cortisol (Δ = T30-T0) ≤7 µg/dL, and 78.33% at Δ ≤9 µg/dL. Using receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.4954, signifying poor prediction to death. Conclusions: Indians have completely different characteristics of cortisol levels in sepsis patients, in comparison to the Western data. They have higher range of basal cortisol levels, higher percentage of AI, and an inability to predict mortality with the cortisol levels. Hence, there is requirement of an international study to confirm the dichotomy of the results.

19.
Intractable Rare Dis Res ; 6(3): 230-233, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944149

RESUMO

A young adult man with 4-years history of lepromatous leprosy (received irregularly multidrug therapy) presented with two and half years history of symptoms suggestive of chronic erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), initially responded to steroids and thalidomide, but later on failed. During the last 2-months, he developed fever, vomiting, and subsequently altered sensorium. On evaluation, he had hepatosplenomegaly, hyponatremia, hyperferritinemia, hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspiration, lobular panniculitis in skin biopsy, and multiple parenchymal nodules in chest imaging. Hence diagnosis of ENL with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic (HLH) syndrome was established and treatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/m2) started. During hospitalization, he developed sinus bradycardia, QT prolongations, recurrent ventricular tachycardia, and moderate systolic dysfunction. The cardiac complications recovered using a temporary pacemaker and were presumed to be due to micronodular cardiac deposition of ENL. This case iterates that ENL can present with varied presentations like asymptomatic lung nodules and storming cardiac complications. More importantly leprosy, ENL, and HLH are a continuum of manifestations of the same agent-host interactions.

20.
Mycopathologia ; 182(5-6): 527-538, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054219

RESUMO

Intracranial aspergillosis (ICA) is very rare in the immunocompetent individuals, usually misdiagnosed as a tumor or an abscess. A high index of clinical suspicion is required in patients who present with focal neurological deficits, headache, or seizures. We report the case of a 25-year-old immunocompetent female, who presented with a 15-month history of headache, seizures, left-sided proptosis and ophthalmoplegia, and right hemiparesis. Recovery from the symptoms and decrease in the lesion size seen on the radiological assessment were achieved through two decompressive craniotomies followed by prolonged combined systemic antifungal therapies. Although the initial neuroimaging suggested a mitotic pathology, the surgical sample confirmed ICA. Now the patient is on single antifungal therapy (Tab. voriconazole, 200 mg twice daily) and doing her daily activities, but with a reduced intelligent quotient. We report a challenging case of ICA where multiple courses of combined antifungal therapies and repeat surgeries paved the way for a good prognosis.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Neuroaspergilose/diagnóstico , Neuroaspergilose/patologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Craniotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Neuroaspergilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroaspergilose/terapia , Neuroimagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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