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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is limited evidence in the literature about fat grafting in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJA). The purpose was to investigate which interpositional fat grafting technique is superior in the operative management of TMJA. The specific aim was to compare the volumetric change and maximal mouth opening (MIO) when pedicled buccal fat or abdominal fat is interposed in patients being treated for TMJA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on TMJA patients divided into 2 groups: Pedicled buccal fat pad was used for interposition in group A, whereas abdominal fat was used in group B. At the end of 1 year, the volumetric change in fat was analyzed by comparing immediate postoperative and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MIO and re-ankylosis were recorded. Categorical variables were analyzed by the χ2 test or Fisher exact test. Continuous variables were compared using the t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients (51 joints [15 bilateral and 21 unilateral]) were included, comprising 18 in group A and 18 in group B. The mean preoperative MIO measured 6.8 mm in group A and 4.2 mm in group B. The mean immediate postoperative MRI fat volume was 4.3 cm3 in group A and 10.8 cm3 in group B. One-year follow-up MRI showed a fat retention rate of 32.44% in group A and 58.17% in group B. The rate of volumetric shrinkage was 67.5% in group A and 41.9% in group B (P < .001). Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between volumetric shrinkage and both treatment groups (P < .001). MIO improved to 30.6 mm in the pedicled buccal fat pad group (group A) and 41.9 mm in the abdominal fat group (group B) (P < .001). No re-ankylosis occurred in either group at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results suggest that the percentage of retention of interposed abdominal fat at 1 year is more than that of pedicled buccal fat pad. Volumetric shrinkage is greater with buccal fat pad, which is a paradox considering the pedicled blood supply. Abdominal fat is better than pedicled buccal fat pad when used for interposition in TMJA treatment.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(3): 175-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L-2) polymorphism has been associated with adipocyte metabolism and insulin resistance. Genetic investigations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis are unknown. This study was designed to investigate the association of rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of TCF7L-2 gene with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asian Indians. METHODS: In this case-control study 162 non-diabetic subjects with NAFLD and 173 body mass index (BMI)-matched controls without NAFLD were recruited. Abdominal ultrasound, clinical and biochemical investigations, fasting insulin levels and value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs7903146 (C/T) was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. RESULTS: The distribution of rs7903146 (C/T) alleles, the dominant model (CT + TT) and higher frequency (31%) of C/T genotype were significantly associated with NAFLD. C/T genotype of TCF7L2 gene was associated with significantly higher levels of BMI (p = 0.02), abdominal obesity (p < 0.05), fasting blood glucose (p = 0.05), hepatic transaminases (p < 0.05) and markers of insulin resistance (p < 0.05) in subjects with NAFLD. Using a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age and sex, TCF7L2 polymorphism was independently associated with presence of NAFLD [(OR: 3.234 (95% CI: 1.219-4.160, p = 0.002)]. CONCLUSION: TCF7L2 (C/T) gene was Independently associated with NAFLD in Asian Indians.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3585, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108161

RESUMO

Office cystoscopy may be associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in up to 10-20% of patients. Current practice of surgical part preparation in males with povidone-iodine excludes distal urethra in males, leaving a possibility for resident intra-urethral flora to cause post-procedural UTI. We designed this randomized study to assess whether additional cleaning of distal urethra with povidone-iodine solution can help reduce post-procedural incidence of UTIs in this setting. Additionally, urethral swab culture was done in the entire cohort to identify the prevalent microflora in the distal male urethra and to evaluate its role in causation of post-procedural UTI. Using a specialized urethral swab culture methodology, 85% males demonstrated some bacteria and 16% showed common uro-pathogens. 28 (14.5%) cases had post-procedure culture positive UTI. The incidence of UTI in control group (22%) was significantly more than the intervention group (7%) (p value <0.007). This result strongly supports inclusion of distal urethral irrigation with povidone-iodine in males before office cystoscopy, even when pre-procedure mid-stream urine culture is sterile.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 220, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937856

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to etiology of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians. The objectives of this study was to evaluate effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic profile and body composition in prediabetic and vitamin D deficient overweight/obese Asian Indian women. In this open-label randomized placebo-controlled trial (78 weeks duration), 121 females (aged 20-60 years) with prediabetes and vitamin D deficiency were randomly allocated in intervention (n, 61) and placebo (n, 60) groups. The primary outcome variables were fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h blood glucose post OGTT (2-h BG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), and reversal to normoglycemia. In Intention-to-treat analysis, at the end of intervention, we observed significant decrease in FBG [-5.0 (-12.6-2.4), p = 0.04], 2-h blood glucose post OGTT [-11(-49.3-26.9), p = 0.02], hemoglobin A1c [-0.41 (5.89, 6.55), p = 0.05] and increase in 25(OH) D [7.5 (-6.0-20.9), p = 0.002] levels in intervention as compared to the placebo group. Changes in glycemic category based on FBG were as follows; intervention group: normal FBG, 58.6%; impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 39%; and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 2.4%; placebo group: normal FBG, 48.8%; IFG, 46.3%; and T2DM, 4.9%. Changes in category of 2-hour glucose post OGTT after intervention were as follows; intervention group: normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 51.2% and prediabetes, 48.8%; placebo group: NGT, 43.9%; prediabetes, 53.7% and T2DM, 2.4%. After intervention, subscapular skinfold (visit Ist compared to visit IIIrd) and suprailiac skinfold (visit IInd compared to visit IIIrd) were significantly lower in intervention group vs. control group. In conclusion, we observed significant reduction in FBG, 2-hour glucose post OGTT, HbA1c, and truncal subcutaneous fat and reversal to normoglycemia in overweight/obese prediabetic vitamin D deficient Asian Indian women after 78 weeks of vitamin D supplementation.

6.
Behav Med ; 46(1): 9-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615583

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic and precardiovascular pathologic condition that begins early in life, tracks into adulthood and magnifies with age. Randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of yoga-based lifestyle vs. dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome are lacking. Here, the efficacy of a 12-week yoga-based lifestyle intervention vs. dietary intervention on cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome risk scores have been assessed in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome. In this two-arm, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial, 260 adults (20-45 years) diagnosed with metabolic syndrome as per joint interim statement, 2009 were randomized to yoga-based (including diet) lifestyle or dietary intervention alone (n = 130, each) for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were the 12-week changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic risk scores. The secondary endpoints were the 12-week changes in the proportion of subjects recovered from metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, and physical activity. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed including all the subjects with baseline data with imputed missing data. Treatment × time interaction showed yoga-based lifestyle intervention had a greater treatment effect over dietary intervention by significantly reducing waist circumference, continuous metabolic syndrome z-score, and dietary intake/day while significantly increasing physical activity. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a significantly greater reduction following dietary intervention than yoga-based lifestyle intervention. A significantly greater proportion of subjects recovered from metabolic syndrome in yoga-based lifestyle (45.4%) vs. dietary intervention group (32.3%). A 12-week yoga-based lifestyle intervention is more efficacious than usual dietary intervention in improving cardio-metabolic risk factor and metabolic risk score in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome.

7.
Behav Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743071

RESUMO

The present study explores the efficacy of 12-week yoga + diet-based lifestyle intervention (YBLI) vs dietary intervention (DI) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and identifies the predictors of change in HRQoL in Indians with metabolic syndrome (Met S). Data from the historical randomized controlled trial was used including adults (n = 260, 20-45 years) with Met S. Four domains of HRQoL were measured at baseline, 2 and 12 weeks using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation and chi-square test was used to compare 12-week changes in HRQoL domains and proportion of subjects, respectively. Changes in HRQoL were predicted using regression models concerning changes in body mass index (BMI), physical activity, total calorie intake, adiponectin, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Exploratory mediation analysis was carried out using Baron & Kenny approach. YBLI resulted in a significantly greater increase in the physical domain score of HRQoL than DI. A significantly greater proportion of subjects in YBLI group (71%) showed an increase in physical domain scores compared to DI (51%). A unit change in BMI negatively predicted a unit change in physical, psychological and environmental health. Whereas, a unit change in adiponectin and SOD levels positively predicted a unit change in physical and environmental health. Partial mediation between YBLI intervention and physical HRQoL domain was observed via adiponectin. In conclusion, a 12-week YBLI has a positive and greater effect on HRQoL physical domain score than following DI alone. Changes in BMI, adiponectin, and SOD levels may predict changes in HRQoL domains after lifestyle intervention.

8.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002939, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coverage of community-based maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) services remains low, especially in hard-to-reach areas. We evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile-phone-and web-based application, Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operations (ImTeCHO), as a job aid to the government's Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Primary Health Center (PHC) staff to improve coverage of MNCH services in rural tribal communities of Gujarat, India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This open cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 22 PHCs in six tribal blocks of Bharuch and Narmada districts in India. The ImTeCHO mobile-phone-and web-based application included various technology-based job aids to facilitate scheduling of home visits, screening for complications, counseling during home visits, and supportive supervision by PHC staff. Primary outcome indicators were a composite index calculated based on coverage of important MNCH services and coverage of at least two home visitations by ASHA within the first week of birth. Primary analysis was intention to treat (ITT). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to account for clustering. Eleven PHCs each were randomly allocated to the intervention (280 ASHAs, population: 234,134) and control (281 ASHAs, population: 242,809) arms. The intervention was implemented from February, 2016 to January, 2017. At the end of the implementation, 6,493 mothers were surveyed. Most of the surveyed women were tribal (5,571, 85.8%), and reported having a government-issued certificate for living below poverty line (4,916, 75.7%). The coverage of at least two home visits within first week of birth was 32.4% in the intervention clusters compared to 22.9% in the control clusters (adjusted effect size 10.2 [95% CI: 6.4, 14.0], p < 0.001). Mean number of home visits within first week of birth was 1.11 and 0.80 for intervention and control clusters, respectively (adjusted effect size 0.34 [95% CI: 0.23, 0.45], p < 0.001). The composite coverage index was 43.0% in the intervention clusters compared to 38.5% (adjusted effect size 4.9 [95% CI: 0.2, 9.5], p = 0.03) in the control clusters. There were substantial improvements in coverage home visits by ASHAs during antenatal period (adjusted effect size 15.7 [95% CI: 11.0, 20.4], p < 0.001), postnatal period (adjusted effect size 6.4, [95% CI: 3.2, 9.6], p <0.001), early initiation of breastfeeding (adjusted effect size 7.8 [95% CI: 4.2, 11.4], p < 0.001), and exclusive breastfeeding (adjusted effect size 13.4 [95% CI: 8.9, 17.9], p < 0.001). Number of infant and neonatal deaths was similar in the two arms in the ITT analysis. The limitations of the study include potential risk of inaccuracies in reporting events that occurred during pregnancy by the mothers and the duration of intervention being 12 months, which might be considered short. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that use of ImTeCHO mobile- and web-based application as a job aid by government ASHAs and PHC staff improved coverage and quality of MNCH services in hard-to-reach areas. Supportive supervision, change management, and timely resolution of technology-related issues were critical implementation considerations to ensure adherence to the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study was registered at the Clinical Trial Registry of India (www.ctri.nic.in). Trial number: CTRI/2015/06/005847. The trial was registered (prospective) on 3 June, 2015. First enrollment was done on 26 August, 2015.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Neonatologia/organização & administração , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Telefone Celular , Análise por Conglomerados , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Internet , Masculino , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is debate regarding the ideal instrument for medical thoracoscopy. The authors compared rigid mini-thoracoscopy with semirigid thoracoscopy for thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. METHODS: Consecutive subjects with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion were randomized (1:1 ratio) to mini-thoracoscopy or semirigid thoracoscopy groups. The primary objective was a comparison of the diagnostic yield of pleural biopsy. Key secondary outcomes were the comparison of sedative/analgesic dose, operator-rated and patient-rated pain on visual analog scale (VAS), operator-rated overall procedural satisfaction (VAS), pleural biopsy size, and complications between the groups. RESULTS: Of the 88 screened subjects, 73 were randomized: 36 to mini-thoracoscopy and 37 to semirigid thoracoscopy. Diagnostic yield of pleural biopsy in the mini-thoracoscopy (69.4%) and semirigid thoracoscopy groups (81.1%) was similar on intention-to-treat analysis (P=0.25). Although the operator-rated overall procedure satisfaction scores were similar between groups (P=0.87), operator-rated pain [VAS (mean±SD), 43.5±16.7 vs. 31.7±15.8; P<0.001] and patient-rated pain (VAS, 41.9±17.3 vs. 32.1±16.5; P=0.02) scores were greater in the mini-thoracoscopy group. Mean dose of fentanyl and midazolam received was similar between the 2 groups (P=0.28 and 0.68, respectively). Biopsy size was larger in the mini-thoracoscopy group (16.1±4.5 vs. 8.3±2.9 mm; P<0.001). Three minor complications occurred in the mini-thoracoscopy group and 6 in the semirigid thoracoscopy group (P=0.11). There were no serious adverse events or procedure-related mortality. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic yield of rigid mini-thoracoscopy is not superior to semirigid thoracoscopy. Use of semirigid thoracoscope may provide greater patient comfort.

10.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(12): 1172-1182, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556688

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies evaluating neurophysiological correlates of long-term meditation are constrained by some methodological limitations. The objective of this study was to measure changes in the regional cerebral glucose metabolism during meditation using a novel methodological approach. Design: The present study was a part of a larger, nonrandomized, single-center open-label study. Setting/location: The study was conducted at the Department of Physiology and Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography. A dedicated place was set up as a yoga room, away from the positron emission tomography (PET) scanning room in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, where meditators performed meditation in a peaceful environment in a sitting posture with eyes closed. The electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded to affirm the meditation objectively. Subjects: Twenty-four sets of PET scans were obtained at 2 different occasions (baseline and postmeditation within 40 min of 18FDG [18fluorodeoxyglucose] injection) from 12 apparently healthy, male, right-handed long-term meditators practicing Preksha meditation (since >5 years, at least 5 days a week) who were recruited from a well-established meditation center in Delhi. Outcome measures: Changes in the regional cerebral glucose metabolism during meditation versus baseline. Results: Regional cluster analysis showed significantly activated well-defined areas of fronto-parieto-temporal regions of the right versus left hemisphere during meditation. Interestingly, right homolog of Broca's area and right lentiform nucleus were hyperactive during meditation in all the meditators. Conclusions: Long-term meditation might potentially enhance the explicit functions of specific parts of the right hemisphere, possibly due to neuroplastic changes in the brain. Importantly, results of the current study are encouraging and show a novel methodological approach to acquire 18FDG PET/CT (computed tomography) images. The study was registered at Clinical Trial Registry India (CTRI), CTRI/2009/091/000727.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Meditação , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 18: 2325958219849061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to report the prevalent HIV-1 drug-resistant mutations in patients with HIV-1 alone and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection alone to improve our understanding of the mutation patterns and aid treatment decisions. METHODS: Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-TB on treatment for more than 1 year with suspected failure were recruited. Sequencing of protease and two-thirds of the region of reverse transcriptase gene was done for drug-resistant mutations. RESULTS: In the HIV-TB group (n = 25), 88%, 92%, and 12% had mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs), respectively. In the HIV-alone group (n = 25), 84%, 100%, and 4% had mutations to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs, respectively. M184V, M41L, D67N, G190A, A98G, and K103N were the most common mutations seen. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in HIV and HIV-TB coinfected patients.

12.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(4): 301-308, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907856

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Provision of subsidized spectacles to schoolchildren with refractive error in Delhi was associated with increased spectacle coverage. PURPOSE: Studies involving free spectacle distribution and self-purchase of spectacles often report poor compliance. We assessed 1-year spectacle coverage among schoolchildren with refractive error who were provided subsidized spectacles. METHODS: This was a study of a prospective cohort of 10,114 students from 20 randomly selected schools of Delhi. Children were presumed to have refractive error when unaided visual acuity was worse than or equal to 6/12 in either eye and a best-corrected visual acuity better than or equal to 6/9.5 in both eyes (n = 1503). Children with unmet need of spectacles (presenting with a visual acuity worse than 6/9.5 in the worse eye) were provided subsidized spectacles (n = 1191). Coverage was established by direct observation at baseline and after 1 year through unannounced visits. RESULTS: Mean age of cohort was 12.0 ± 2.0 years, and 566 (37.7%) were girls. Baseline spectacle coverage was 29.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.1 to 31.7%), which improved to 65.9% (95% CI, 56.0 to 61.6%) among all children (n = 1470) and 58.8% (95% CI, 56.0 to 61.6%) among children with unmet need (n = 1163) at 1 year. Uptake of the subsidized spectacles was 98.6%. On multivariate regression, the odds of spectacle use were greatest when unaided vision was poor: 55.5% when visual acuity was better than or equal to 6/9.5, 74.8% when visual acuity was 6/19 to 6/60 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 3.5), and 91.5% when visual acuity was worse than 6/60 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 9.5). Sex (boys, 66.3%; girls, 65.3%) and socioeconomic status (lower, 58.6%; middle, 61.8%; upper middle, 70.7%) were not associated with coverage. Increasing maternal education and baseline spectacle use were associated with coverage. However, 38.0% were wearing spectacles prescribed by the project, and 61.9% of the spectacles being used at 1 year were purchased in the open market. CONCLUSIONS: Spectacle coverage after 1 year increased through a subsidized spectacle scheme, particularly for children with poor uncorrected vision.


Assuntos
Óculos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Refração/terapia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
13.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 22(1): 67-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692762

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Differentiating between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and neurotuberculosis has serious therapeutic implications and this distinction relies heavily on neuroimaging. Few case reports discuss the conglomeration of ring-enhancing lesions (RELs) in patients with solitary NCC. The aim of our study is to describe the imaging findings of conglomerate RELs in a cohort of patients with solitary NCC, emphasizing the frequency of conglomeration. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 100 patients with solitary NCC. Two neuroradiologists analyzed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images regarding morphology, enhancement pattern, location, number of lesions, and degree of perilesional edema. The solitary lesions were classified as solitary discrete RELs (SD-RELs) when a well-defined lesion was seen and solitary conglomerate RELs (SC-RELs) when two or more ring lesions or ring/rings plus disc lesions were present contiguously. Follow-up CT scans were evaluated for the resolution of lesions and surrounding edema. Results: Out of 100 patients, 42 were SD-RELs and 58 were SC-RELs. No statistically significant difference was found between both groups in terms of age of presentation, clinical presentation, lesion size and location, and degree of perilesional edema. Larger lesions (>10 mm) were more likely to show scolex and were associated with greater degree of edema in both subgroups. During follow-up, 13 patients had new lesions (SD-RELs-5, SC-RELs-8). In SD-RELs, follow-up lesions were in the same location in four patients and new location in one; and in SC-RELs, lesions were in the same location in seven and in new location in one case. Conclusion: Conglomeration of RELs is a common finding in patients with solitary NCC.

14.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(1): 88-95, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18-FDG PET/CT) can be used to assess changes in the metabolism of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft as it is undergoing "ligamentization." Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the preferred modality for noninvasive assessment of graft structure and graft vascularity. PURPOSE: To compare the use of F18-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI to assess ligamentization within the ACL graft and correlate the results with clinical tests. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Among 30 recruited patients, 27 patients (3 females and 24 males) completed 2 follow-up assessments at a mean of 125 ± 22 days and 259 ± 38 days after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. At both assessments, anterior drawer test, Lachman test, and Lysholm scoring (LS) were conducted. Images from F18-FDG PET/CT and MRI were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], SUVmax ratio to the contralateral side [SUVmax CL], normalized enhancement [NE]) in 3 zones: femoral, intra-articular (IA), and tibial. Of the 27 recruited patients, 1 patient had reinjury due to a fall. Therefore, 26 patients were considered for the final analysis. RESULTS: A significant improvement ( P = .0001) was found in median LS, from 78.5 (range, 62-90) to 94.5 (range, 84-100), at the second follow-up. All grafts were found to be viable on PET/CT and vascularized on MRI. All grafts were seen as continuous on MRI, with exception of 1 graft at the second follow-up. Dynamic MRI identified single-vessel supply to all of the grafts at the first follow-up and multiple-vessel supply in 10 patients at the second follow-up. Reduction in the median SUVmax, SUVmax CL, and NE at second follow-up was seen in all 3 zones. Only SUVmax CL in the IA zone showed a significant reduction ( P = .032); patients with excellent LS at the second follow-up showed significantly higher reduction ( P = .005) than patients with good LS. NE in the IA zone was correlated (0.39; P = .048) with LS only at the first follow-up, whereas SUVmax CL (-0.52; P = .006) and SUVmax (-0.49, P = .010) in the IA zone negatively correlated with LS at the second follow-up only. No correlation was observed between PET/CT and MRI parameters. CONCLUSION: Glucose metabolism and vascularity in the graft tissue can be used to assess ligamentization of ACL graft. A viable and vascularized graft at first follow-up is associated with good to excellent final outcome, regardless of LS at this stage. Since no correlation was observed between PET/CT and MRI parameters, they may be assessing different domains of the same process. Higher NE in the IA zone at the first follow-up and lower SUVmax CL in the same region at second follow-up are associated with better outcome.


Assuntos
Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplantes/irrigação sanguínea , Transplantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplantes/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther ; 12(1): 32-43, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Early coagulopathy in isolated severe traumatic brain injury occurs despite the lack of severe bleeding, shock, and fluid administration. We aimed to correlate coagulation activation/inhibition, thrombin generation and fibrinolysis with the development of acute trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) and its effects on early mortality in isolated severe traumatic brain injury (iSTBI) patients. METHODS: A prospective screening of iSTBI patients was done for two years. History of anticoagulants, liver disease, hypotension, extracranial injuries, transfusion, brain death were excluded. TIC was defined as international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.27 and/or prothrombin time (PT) ≥ 16.7 seconds and/or activated partial thromboplastin Time (aPTT) ≥ 28.8 seconds on admission following iSTBI. Analysis of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), thrombin/antithrombin complex (TAT), soluble fibrin monomer (sFM), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was done. Cases were categorized as presence or absence of TIC and 20 healthy controls participants were included. RESULTS: A total of 120 cases met the inclusion criteria, aged 35.7 ±â€¯12.12 years, 96% males. TIC was identified in 50 (41.6%). TIC occurred independently of age, sex, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) but was associated with acidosis (60%; p = .01). Following iSTBI significant decline was seen in coagulation activation. Thrombin generation and fibrinolysis were markedly increased. TF, TFPI, PC and PS were low in TIC compared with control. Significant depletion of PS was seen in TIC versus No-TIC. TBI patients with depleted PS had an odds ratio (OR) of 7.10 (1.61-31.2) for TIC. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis depicted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.84) with a cut-off of ≥74 of PS (specificity 63.9%, sensitivity 72.7%). In-hospital mortality was higher in TIC group (44%) compared with no-TIC (20%) with OR of 4.73 (95% CI 1.68-13.3) and hazard ratio [HR] of 2.8 (95 % CI 1.2-6.4). CONCLUSION: Incidence of TIC in iSTBI is 41.6%, with 4.7 times odds for mortality. Traumatic brain injury causes enhanced coagulation activation, inadequate inhibition, exacerbation of thrombin generation, and subsequent increased fibrinolysis. ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off of PS ≤ 74 with specificity 63.8%, sensitivity 72.7% for development of TIC.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Fibrinólise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Trombina/metabolismo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
16.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(4): 594-604, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020512

RESUMO

The present randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the comparative efficacy of 12 week yoga-based lifestyle intervention (YBLI) and dietary intervention (DI) alone on adipokines, inflammation, and oxidative stress in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome (Met S). A parallel, two arm, RCT was conducted in Integral Health Clinic (IHC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India from 2012 to 2014. IHC is an outpatient facility conducting YBLI programs for prevention and management of chronic diseases. Two hundred sixty men and women (20-45 years) visiting the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were diagnosed with Met S and randomized 1:1 to receive 12 week YBLI (n = 130) or DI (n = 130). Primary outcomes were change in plasma levels of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and leptin:adiponectin ratio), markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6), markers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) measured at baseline, 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. YBLI group showed a significant decrease in leptin, leptin:adiponectin ratio, IL-6, 8-OHdG, and TBARS levels, whereas there was a significant increase in adiponectin and SOD levels. No significant changes were noticed in DI alone group. YBLI showed significantly greater reduction in TBARS levels than in DI group, suggestive of reduced oxidative stress in adults with Met S. A 12 week YBLI had a positive impact on oxidative stress versus DI alone in adults with Met S.

17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(4): 709-716, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234042

RESUMO

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is responsible for 2.5-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality and a 5-fold higher risk of developing diabetes. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital. A list of all villages was developed. From this list, thirty villages were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method. From each village, thirty geriatric subjects (GSs) were selected. The study population included 979 GSs aged 60 years and above. The data were collected on anthropometry, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile from all the enrolled subjects. The prevalence of MetS was estimated using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify factors associated with MetS. Results: The prevalence of MetS was found to be 28.6%. Step-wise multivariate logistic regression analysis found that female gender, higher income, and body mass index ≥25 were significant and independent risk factors of MetS amongst GP. Conclusion: There is a need for screening of GP living in high altitude region so that efforts can be initiated to prevent complications of MetS.

18.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 22(3): 373-378, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090730

RESUMO

Introduction: Recently, an increasing trend in the prevalence of pediatric metabolic syndrome (PMS) among school-age children has been documented in different parts of India. There is lack of data on the prevalence of PMS and its associated risk factors among school-age children living in district Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Hence, to fill in the gap in the existing knowledge, the present study was conducted. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016. Thirty clusters (schools) were identified from a list of all schools using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. From each school, 70 children in the age group of 10-16 years were selected. Data was collected on the sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, waist circumference, blood pressure, and physical activity. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein levels. Results: The prevalence of PMS using International Diabetes Federation classification was 3.3% and using modified-adult treatment panel classification criteria was 3.5%. Risk factors identified to be associated with PMS among school-age children were (i) male gender, (ii) high family monthly income, (iii) sedentary lifestyle, (iv) consumption of evening snack, (v) television/computer viewing, and (vi) motorized transportation for commuting to school. Conclusion: The PMS prevalence was 3.3% in school-age children residing in District Shimla. There is a need to formulate interventions to prevent and correct metabolic syndrome among them for reducing early onset of cardiovascular disease during adulthood.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8828, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891957

RESUMO

We evaluated the impact of intensive smoking cessation activities as an adjunct to anti-tuberculosis treatment on patient-related treatment outcomes. In this open-label, randomised controlled trial, self-reporting smokers with pulmonary tuberculosis who initiated standard anti-tuberculosis treatment were randomised to either nicotine replacement therapy and behaviour change counselling (n = 400) or counselling alone (n = 400) provided at baseline and two follow-up visits. The primary outcomes were change in TBscore at 24-weeks and culture conversion at 8-weeks. Biochemical smoking quit rates defined as serum cotinine levels <10 ng/mL and/or exhaled carbon monoxide levels <6 ppm (47·8% vs 32·4%, p-value =< 0·001) and self-reported quit rates (69.3% vs 38·7%, p-value =< 0·001) were significantly higher in the intervention arm at 24-weeks. Though the TBscores at 24 weeks (95% CI) were lower in the intervention arm [2·07 (1·98, 2·17) versus 2.12 (2·02, 2·21)], the difference was not clinically meaningful. Patients in the control arm required treatment extension more often than intervention arm (6·4% vs 2·6%, p-value = 0·02). Combining nicotine replacement therapy with behaviour change counselling resulted in significantly higher quit rates and lower cotinine levels, however, impact on patient-related (TBscore) or microbiological outcomes (culture conversion) were not seen.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 6(1): e000501, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942523

RESUMO

Background: Asian Indian women are predisposed to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Relationship of vitamin D deficiency with blood glucose levels has not been explored in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes. Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among adult women with the pre-diabetes residing in North India (Delhi). Methods: This cross-sectional population-based study involved 797 women with pre-diabetes aged 20-60 years. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), extent of sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed. For purpose of analysis, serum 25(OH)D levels (nmol/L) were categorized in quintiles as follows: 0-21.5 (first quintile), 21.51-35.60 (second quintile), 35.61-46.50 (third quintile), 46.51-62.30 (fourth quintile) and >62.31 (fifth quintile). Result: The prevalence (%) of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency was 68.6, 25.9 and 5.5, respectively. Mean age (p=0.004), systolic (p=0.05) and diastolic (p=0.04) blood pressure, weight (p=0.03), BMI (p=0.04) and FBG (p=0.02) were significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency as compared with those with vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency. Unadjusted mean values of FBG were significantly decreased in fourth (p=0.02) and fifth quintiles (p=0.030) of 25(OH)D levels as compared with second quintile. Furthermore, after adjusting for age and family income FBG levels were significantly increased in first quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.012) and fifth (p=0.018) quintiles) and second quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.003) and fifth (p=0.004) quintiles) of 25(OH)D levels, respectively. Conclusion: Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher blood glucose values in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes. These findings need confirmation in case-control and prospective studies.

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