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1.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 711-723, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Keratinocyte cancers are exceedingly common in high-risk populations, but accurate measures of incidence are seldom derived because the burden of manually reviewing pathology reports to extract relevant diagnostic information is excessive. Thus, we sought to develop supervised learning algorithms for classifying basal and squamous cell carcinomas and other diagnoses, as well as disease site, and incorporate these into a Web application capable of processing large numbers of pathology reports. METHODS: Participants in the QSkin study were recruited in 2011 and comprised men and women age 40-69 years at baseline (N = 43,794) who were randomly selected from a population register in Queensland, Australia. Histologic data were manually extracted from free-text pathology reports for participants with histologically confirmed keratinocyte cancers for whom a pathology report was available (n = 25,786 reports). This provided a training data set for the development of algorithms capable of deriving diagnosis and site from free-text pathology reports. We calculated agreement statistics between algorithm-derived classifications and 3 independent validation data sets of manually abstracted pathology reports. RESULTS: The agreement for classifications of basal cell carcinoma (κ = 0.97 and κ = 0.96) and squamous cell carcinoma (κ = 0.93 for both) was almost perfect in 2 validation data sets but was slightly lower for a third (κ = 0.82 and κ = 0.90, respectively). Agreement for total counts of specific diagnoses was also high (κ > 0.8). Similar levels of agreement between algorithm-derived and manually extracted data were observed for classifications of keratoacanthoma and intraepidermal carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Supervised learning methods were used to develop a Web application capable of accurately and rapidly classifying large numbers of pathology reports for keratinocyte cancers and related diagnoses. Such tools may provide the means to accurately measure subtype-specific skin cancer incidence.

2.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1933-1943, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563191

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: How does the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary with type and age of menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: Earlier surgical menopause (e.g. <45 years) poses additional increased risk of incident CVD events, compared to women with natural menopause at the same age, and HRT use reduced the risk of CVD in women with early surgical menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Earlier age at menopause has been linked to an increased risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, but the extent that this risk of CVD varies by type of menopause and the role of postmenopausal HRT use in reducing this risk is unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Pooled individual-level data of 203 767 postmenopausal women from 10 observational studies that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE) consortium were included in the analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Postmenopausal women who had reported menopause (type and age of menopause) and information on non-fatal CVD events were included. Type of menopause (natural menopause and surgical menopause) and age at menopause (categorised as <35, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54 and ≥55 years) were exposures of interest. Natural menopause was defined as absence of menstruation over a period of 12 months (no hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy) and surgical menopause as removal of both ovaries. The study outcome was the first non-fatal CVD (defined as either incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke) event ascertained from hospital medical records or self-reported. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for non-fatal CVD events associated with natural menopause and surgical menopause. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Compared with natural menopause, surgical menopause was associated with over 20% higher risk of CVD (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.28). After the stratified analysis by age at menopause, a graded relationship for incident CVD was observed with lower age at menopause in both types of natural and surgical menopause. There was also a significant interaction between type of menopause and age at menopause (P < 0.001). Compared with natural menopause at 50-54 years, women with surgical menopause before 35 (2.55, 2.22-2.94) and 35-39 years (1.91, 1.71-2.14) had higher risk of CVD than those with natural menopause (1.59, 1.23-2.05 and 1.51, 1.33-1.72, respectively). Women who experienced surgical menopause at earlier age (<50 years) and took HRT had lower risk of incident CHD than those who were not users of HRT. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported data on type and age of menopause, no information on indication for the surgery (e.g. endometriosis and fibroids) and the exclusion of fatal CVD events may bias our results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In clinical practice, women who experienced natural menopause or had surgical menopause at an earlier age need close monitoring and engagement for preventive health measures and early diagnosis of CVD. Our findings also suggested that timing of menopause should be considered as an important factor in risk assessment of CVD for women. The findings on CVD lend some support to the position that elective bilateral oophorectomy (surgical menopause) at hysterectomy for benign diseases should be discouraged based on an increased risk of CVD. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): InterLACE project is funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council project grant (APP1027196). GDM is supported by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Principal Research Fellowship (APP1121844). There are no competing interests.

3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal vasomotor symptoms (ie, hot flashes and night sweats) have been associated with unfavorable risk factors and surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, but their association with clinical cardiovascular disease events is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between different components of vasomotor symptoms, timing of vasomotor symptoms, and risk of cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: We harmonized and pooled individual-level data from 23,365 women in 6 prospective studies that contributed to the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Women's Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events consortium. Women who experienced cardiovascular disease events before baseline were excluded. The associations between frequency (never, rarely, sometimes, and often), severity (never, mild, moderate, and severe), and timing (before or after age of menopause; ie, early or late onset) of vasomotor symptoms and incident cardiovascular disease were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, no evidence of association was found between the frequency of hot flashes and incident cardiovascular disease, whereas women who reported night sweats "sometimes" (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.45) or "often" (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.58) had higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased severity of either hot flashes or night sweats was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The hazards ratios of cardiovascular disease in women with severe hot flashes, night sweats, and any vasomotor symptoms were 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.73), 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.37), and 2.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.62-2.76), respectively. Women who reported severity of both hot flashes and night sweats had a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.94) than those with hot flashes alone (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.88) and night sweats alone (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-2.07). Women with either early-onset (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.75) or late-onset (hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.16) vasomotor symptoms had an increased risk for incident cardiovascular disease compared with women who did not experience vasomotor symptoms. CONCLUSION: Severity rather than frequency of vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes and night sweats) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vasomotor symptoms with onset before or after menopause were also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

4.
Thyroid ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228152

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in many parts of the world since the 1980s, as has the prevalence of obesity. Evidence suggests that people with greater body size have higher thyroid cancer risk. However, it is unclear whether this association is causal or is driven by over-diagnosis of indolent cancers, because overweight/obese people use health services more frequently than those of normal weight, thus conferring greater opportunity for incidental diagnosis. Assessing whether obesity is associated with higher-risk thyroid cancers might help clarify this issue. Methods: We recruited 1013 people diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2013 and 2016 and 1057 population controls, frequency matched by sex and age group. We used logistic regression to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall thyroid cancer risk as well as by tumor BRAF mutational status as a marker of potentially higher-risk cancer. Results: Overall, obesity was associated with greater risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI 1.37-2.16] for obese vs. normal BMI). The association with obesity was significantly stronger for BRAF-mutation positive than BRAF-negative papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs; OR = 1.71 [CI 1.17-2.50] for BRAF-positive vs. BRAF-negative cancers). The increased risks associated with overweight/obesity did not vary by histological subtypes or presence/absence of adverse tumor histologic features. Conclusions: Greater risk of BRAF-mutated PTCs among those with high BMI suggests that the association may not merely reflect greater health care service use and indicates an independent relationship between obesity and clinically important thyroid cancer.

5.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211827

RESUMO

Importance: Men and women develop melanoma at different rates on different body sites, with variation across countries, but explanations for these disparities remain elusive. Objective: To test whether observed differences in melanoma incidence between men and women vary by population, age, or anatomic site. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of sex- and site-specific temporal trends in melanoma incidence over 3 decades was conducted for men and women diagnosed with invasive melanoma in the US (limited to white race), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Using cancer registry data, male to female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated overall and by anatomic site, and Joinpoint regression models were used to estimate the annual percentage rate changes in sex- and site-specific incidence in each population. Incidence rates were standardized to the US 2000 population. Data on the incidence between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2015, were obtained; analysis was conducted from March 1 to October 15, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Male to female IRRs and annual percentage change in rates. Results: Total melanoma incidence was higher in men than women in US individuals (limited to white race), Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, but not in Denmark, the UK, Norway, and Sweden. In all populations, men had higher rates of melanoma of the head and neck and trunk than women (male to female IRR >1), but lower melanoma rates on the lower limbs (ie, male to female IRR approximately 0.5). The male to female IRR increased log linearly with age, with excess melanomas in women younger than 45 years in all populations (eg, IRR for 20-24 y age group, 0.3 in Denmark and 0.7 in Australia), and excess melanomas in men older than 69 years (eg, IRR for 70-74 y age group, 1.1 in Denmark and 2.1 in the US white population). The age at which the melanoma incidence in men exceeded the melanoma incidence in women differed by population, being achieved the earliest in Australia (45-49 years) and latest in Denmark (65-69 years). Conclusions and Relevance: In predominantly fair-skinned populations, melanoma incidence appears to differ systematically and consistently between men and women by age and anatomic site.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) have both been positively associated with melanoma risk, although findings for BMI have been less consistent than height. It remains unclear, however, whether these associations reflect causality or are due to residual confounding by environmental and lifestyle risk factors. We re-evaluated these associations using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for BMI and height from separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses. We obtained melanoma SNPs from the most recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis comprising 12 874 cases and 23 203 controls. We used the inverse variance-weighted estimator to derive separate causal risk estimates across all SNP instruments for BMI and height. RESULTS: Based on the combined estimate derived from 730 SNPs for BMI, we found no evidence of an association between genetically predicted BMI and melanoma [odds ratio (OR) per one standard deviation (1 SD) (4.6 kg/m2) increase in BMI 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.11]. In contrast, we observed a positive association between genetically-predicted height (derived from a pooled estimate of 3290 SNPs) and melanoma risk [OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13, per 1 SD (9.27 cm) increase in height]. Sensitivity analyses using two alternative MR methods yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide no evidence for a causal association between higher BMI and melanoma, but support the notion that height is causally associated with melanoma risk. Mechanisms through which height influences melanoma risk remain unclear, and it remains possible that the effect could be mediated through diverse pathways including growth factors and even socioeconomic status.

7.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the most commonly encountered cancers in fair-skinned populations worldwide. Perineural invasion is associated with worse outcomes for patients with BCC or SCC. Estimates of perineural invasion prevalence range widely, likely reflecting non-representative patient samples. We sought to determine the prevalence of perineural invasion in BCC and SCC in the general population, as well as among cancers arising in solid organ transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed histopathology reports of BCC and SCC from patients enrolled in the QSkin Study (a population-based cohort of 43 794 Queensland residents recruited 2010-2011) and the Skin Tumours in Allograft Recipients (STAR) study (a cohort of 509 high-risk kidney or liver transplant recipients at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, recruited 2012-2014.) We estimated the prevalence of perineural invasion (and 95% confidence interval) in BCC and SCC, respectively, and identified clinical factors associated with perineural invasion. RESULTS: In QSkin, we observed 35 instances of perineural invasion in 9850 histopathologically confirmed BCCs (0.36%) and 9 instances of perineural invasion in 3982 confirmed SCC (0.23%) lesions. In the STAR cohort, we identified 4 lesions with perineural invasion in 692 BCCs (0.58%) and 16 reports of perineural invasion in 875 SCC lesions (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the overall prevalence of perineural invasion in keratinocyte cancer is low, although perineural invasion prevalence may be slightly higher among organ transplant recipients when compared to the general population.

8.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(11): e553-e564, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early menopause is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality; however, the association between early menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease is unclear. We aimed to assess the associations between age at natural menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We harmonised and pooled individual-level data from 15 observational studies done across five countries and regions (Australia, Scandinavia, the USA, Japan, and the UK) between 1946 and 2013. Women who had reported their menopause status, age at natural menopause (if postmenopausal), and cardiovascular disease status (including coronary heart disease and stroke) were included. We excluded women who had hysterectomy or oophorectomy and women who did not report their age at menopause. The primary endpoint of this study was the occurrence of first non-fatal cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of incident coronary heart disease (including heart attack and angina) or stroke (including ischaemic stroke or haemorrhagic stroke). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between age at menopause and incident cardiovascular disease event. We also adjusted the model to account for smoking status, menopausal hormone therapy status, body-mass index, and education levels. Age at natural menopause was categorised as premenopausal or perimenopausal, younger than 40 years (premature menopause), 40-44 years (early menopause), 45-49 years (relatively early), 50-51 years (reference category), 52-54 years (relatively late), and 55 years or older (late menopause). FINDINGS: Overall, 301 438 women were included in our analysis. Of these 301 438 women, 12 962 (4·3%) had a first non-fatal cardiovascular disease event after menopause, of whom 9369 (3·1%) had coronary heart disease and 4338 (1·4%) had strokes. Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, the risk of cardiovascular disease was higher in women who had premature menopause (age <40 years; HR 1·55, 95% CI 1·38-1·73; p<0·0001), early menopause (age 40-44 years; 1·30, 1·22-1·39; p<0·0001), and relatively early menopause (age 45-49 years; 1·12, 1·07-1·18; p<0·0001), with a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease following menopause after age 51 years (p<0·0001 for trend). The associations persisted in never smokers, and were strongest before age 60 years for women with premature menopause (HR 1·88, 1·62-2·20; p<0·0001) and early menopause (1·40, 1·27-1·54; p<0·0001), but were attenuated at age 60-69 years, with no significant association observed at age 70 years and older. INTERPRETATION: Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, women with premature and early menopause had a substantially increased risk of a non-fatal cardiovascular disease event before the age of 60 years, but not after age 70 years. Women with earlier menopause need close monitoring in clinical practice, and age at menopause might also be considered as an important factor in risk stratification of cardiovascular disease for women. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

9.
Prev Med ; 124: 67-74, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077722

RESUMO

Sunscreen when applied at the recommended concentration (2 mg/cm2) has been shown to block the harmful molecular effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in vivo. In real world conditions, however, sunscreen is often not applied/reapplied sufficiently to yield protection. This field study tested the effectiveness of UV detection stickers to prevent sunburn and improve reapplication of sunscreen. During the Ashes Cricket Test match event (November 2017) in Brisbane, Australia interested spectators were recruited into the control group on DAY-1 and during subsequent days (DAY-2, DAY-3, DAY-4) new participants were recruited into the UV-Sticker group. Participants in both groups were provided with free sunscreen and participants in the UV-Sticker group were additionally provided with a UV detection sticker. Primary outcomes were self-reported sunburns and reapplication of sunscreen. Secondary endpoints included satisfaction with the UV detection stickers. 813 participants enrolled in the study, and complete data is available for 428 participants (52.6% response rate, n = 369 UV detection sticker, n = 59 control). Participants provided with a UV detection sticker were more likely to re-apply sunscreen than controls (80% vs 68%, p = 0.04); but do not reduce sunburn rates. UV detection stickers may improve sunscreen re-application in a high UV-environment. Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand clinical trials register (ACTRN12617001572358).


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Australas J Dermatol ; 60(4): 294-300, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical settings in which keratinocyte cancers are excised in Queensland and describe the types of practitioners who excise them; to examine costs; and to identify predictors of hospital admission. METHODS: We used linked data for participants from the QSkin study (n = 43 794), including Medicare claims and Queensland hospital admissions relating to treatment episodes for incident keratinocyte cancers from July 2011 to June 2015. We used multinomial logistic regression to measure associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment setting. The median costs of Medicare claims (AU$) were calculated. RESULTS: During 4 years of follow-up, there were 18 479 skin cancer excision episodes among 8613 people. Most excisions took place in private clinical rooms (89.7%), the remainder in hospitals (7.9% private; 2.4% public). Compared with other anatomical sites, skin cancers on the nose, eyelid, ear, lip, finger or genitalia were more likely to be treated in hospitals than in private clinical rooms (public hospital OR 5.7; 95%CI 4.5-7.2; private hospital OR 8.3; 95%CI 7.3-9.4). Primary care practitioners excised 83% of keratinocyte cancers, followed by plastic surgeons (9%) and dermatologists (6%). The median Medicare benefit paid was $253 in private clinical rooms and $334 in private hospitals. Out-of-pocket payments by patients treated in private hospitals were fourfold higher than those in private clinical rooms ($351 vs $80). CONCLUSIONS: Most keratinocyte cancers are excised in primary care, although more than 10% of excisions occur in hospital settings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/economia , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/economia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/economia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Thyroid ; 29(3): 341-348, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased, and ecological evidence suggests this is due in some part to over-diagnosis. Understanding pathways to diagnosis could help determine whether unnecessary diagnosis can be avoided. METHODS: A population-based sample (n = 1007) of thyroid cancer patients diagnosed between July 2013 and August 2016 was recruited from Queensland, Australia (response rate 67%). Information from structured telephone interviews was used to describe diagnostic pathways for thyroid cancer, to investigate factors associated with diagnostic pathways, and to assess the most prevalent modes of diagnoses by which the lowest-risk, potentially over-diagnosed thyroid cancers (intrathyroidal microcarcinomas) are detected. RESULTS: Only 38% of participants presented with symptoms potentially related to thyroid cancer. Older age at diagnosis was associated with a lower prevalence of symptomatic diagnosis (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.46 [confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.68] for 70-79 vs. <30 years), as was frequent medical contact, while living in rural/regional areas was associated with a higher prevalence of symptomatic diagnosis (PR = 1.17 [CI 1.00-1.37] for rural/regional areas vs. major cities). Symptomatic diagnosis also occurred more for those whose tumors had adverse histopathological features (larger size, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular invasion). The likelihood of diagnosis of intrathyroidal microcarcinomas was greatest for those having surgical resection or monitoring for benign thyroid disease (PR = 3.87 [CI 2.81-5.32] and PR = 2.21 [CI 1.53-3.18], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A minority of newly detected thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed because of symptoms. Access to medical care and factors related to cancer aggressiveness were associated with how diagnoses occurred. The likelihood of diagnosing the lowest-risk thyroid cancers was higher in situations related to management of other thyroid conditions. Adherence to thyroid management guidelines could reduce some thyroid cancer over-diagnosis, but ultimately better diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate between indolent cancers and those of clinical significance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/diagnóstico , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Sintomas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Queensland , Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(3): 235-246, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721378

RESUMO

Early menopause is associated with an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have investigated the converse. We examined whether premenopausal CVD events are associated with early age at menopause. We pooled the individual data of 177,131 women from nine studies. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between age at onset of premenopausal CVD events-including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke-and age at natural menopause. Altogether 1561 (0.9%) premenopausal participants reported CVD events (including 1130 CHD and 469 stroke) at a mean age of 41.3 years. Compared with women without any premenopausal CVD events, women who experienced a first CVD event before age 35 years had a twofold risk of menopause before age 45 years (early menopause); adjusted RRR (95% CI) of 1.92 (1.17, 3.14) for any CVD, 1.86 (1.01, 3.43) for CHD and 2.17 (1.43, 3.30) for stroke. Women who experienced a first premenopausal CVD event after age 40 years underwent a natural menopause at the expected age (around 51 years). These associations were robust to adjustment for smoking status, BMI, educational level, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, parity, hypertension and family history of CVD. For premenopausal women, a first CVD event before age 35 years is associated with a doubling of the risk of an early menopause, while a first CVD event occurred after 35 years indicates a normal menopause at around 51 years. Shared genetic and environmental factors (such as smoking), as well as compromised vasculature following CVD events, may contribute to this outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(3): 231-238, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653212

RESUMO

Importance: Concerns around possible overdiagnosis and overtreatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have been raised. Issues concerning health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after diagnosis and treatment of DTC are understudied in this patient group. Objective: To better understand the range of HRQOL outcomes, including possible adverse effects of treatment, associated with diagnosis and treatment of DTC and whether these outcomes vary by type of surgery received. Design, Setting, and Participants: This content analysis assessed responses to an open-ended question about outcomes and concerns after DTC diagnosis and treatment among patients ascertained from the major postsurgical thyroid cancer treatment center and the population-based Cancer Registry in Queensland, Australia. Participants were aged 18 to 79 years and recently diagnosed with throid cancer. Responses underwent analysis to identify and code emergent themes to describe HRQOL issues and adverse effects of treatment experienced. Quantitative analysis was used to explore whether surgery type was associated with HRQOL issues and/or adverse effects of treatment. Of 1416 eligible patients, 1005 (71.0%) participated. Data were collected from July 1, 2013, through August 31, 2016, and analyzed from January 11 through April 9, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Issues concerning HRQOL. Results: The analysis included 1005 patients (72.2% female [n = 726]; mean [SD] age, 52 [14.0 years) with DTC. Most patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer (889 of 1003 [88.6%]), had tumors smaller than 2 cm in size (564 of 1000 [56.4%]), and received a total thyroidectomy (791 of 1005 [78.7%]). Overall, 775 patients (77.1%) reported HRQOL issues after diagnosis and treatment of DTC. The following 4 main themes emerged from content analysis of patient responses: physical (663 [66.0%]), psychological (187 [18.6%]), lifestyle (82 [8.2%]), and no issue or adverse effect (246 [24.5%]). Patients who had a total thyroidectomy (without neck dissection) were 1.5 times (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12) more likely to report an HRQOL issue or an adverse effect of treatment compared with patients who underwent a hemithyroidectomy. Conclusions and Relevance: According to results of this study, patients diagnosed with DTC report wide-ranging HRQOL issues; these are more prevalent among patients who have total thyroidectomies rather than hemithyroidectomies. For patients with small, localized DTCs, hemithyroidectomy may offer fewer adverse effects of treatment and better HRQOL outcomes than total thyroidectomy. It appears that issues with HRQOL should be considered by patients and physicians when deciding on the best treatment approach after a diagnosis of DTC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(3): 665-672, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367874

RESUMO

To delineate causal pathways for melanoma, it is essential to derive unbiased estimates of risk. Extant knowledge derives largely from case-control studies with potential for bias. In a population-based prospective study (QSkin, n = 38,854), we assessed melanoma risks associated with pigmentation characteristics and other phenotypes, and we explored additive interactions. We fitted Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for other factors to estimate the independent effects of each characteristic on melanoma risk. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 642 (1.5%) participants developed melanoma (253 invasive, 389 in situ). The characteristics most strongly associated with invasive melanoma were self-reported nevus density at age 21 years (many vs. no moles hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4.91 [2.81-8.55]), inability to tan (no tan vs. deep tan, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.39 [1.85-6.20]), and red hair color (vs. black, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.11 [1.50-6.43]). Propensity to sunburn was not associated with melanoma after tanning inability was adjusted for. People with both high nevus density and a history of multiple keratinocyte cancers had significantly higher melanoma risks than those with only one of those traits. We infer that melanoma risk is more strongly related to nevus density and inability to tan than susceptibility to sunburn.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/patologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Nevo Pigmentado/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cor de Cabelo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Grupos Populacionais , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(1): 83.e1-83.e11, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure, predominantly performed when women are between 30 and 50 years old. One in 3 women in Australia has had a hysterectomy by the time they are 60 years old, and 30% have both ovaries removed at the time of surgery. Given this high prevalence, it is important to understand the long-term effects of hysterectomy. In particular, women who have a hysterectomy/oophorectomy at younger ages are likely to be premenopausal or perimenopausal and may experience greater changes in hormone levels and a shortened reproductive lifespan than women who have a hysterectomy when they are older and postmenopausal. Use of menopausal hormone therapy after surgery may compensate for these hormonal changes. To inform clinical decisions about postsurgery management of women who have a hysterectomy prior to menopause (ie, average age at menopause 50 years), it is useful to compare women with a hysterectomy to women with no hysterectomy and to stratify the hysterectomy status by whether or not women have had a bilateral oophorectomy, or used menopausal hormone therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether women who had a hysterectomy with ovarian conservation or a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy before the age of 50 years were at a higher risk of premature all-cause mortality compared to women who did not have this surgery before the age of 50 years. We also sought to explore whether use of menopausal hormone therapy modified these associations. STUDY DESIGN: Women from the midcohort (born 1946 through 1951) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included in our study sample (n = 13,541). Women who reported a hysterectomy (with and without both ovaries removed) before the age of 50 years were considered exposure at risk and compared with women who did not report these surgeries before age 50 years. To explore effect modification by use of menopausal hormone therapy we further stratified hysterectomy status by menopausal hormone therapy use. Risk of all-cause mortality was assessed using inverse-probability weighted Cox regression models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21.5 years, there were 901 (6.7%) deaths in our study sample. Overall, there was no difference in all-cause mortality between women who reported a hysterectomy with ovarian conservation (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.02) or women who reported a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.34) and women with no hysterectomy. When stratified by menopausal hormone therapy use, women with hysterectomy and ovarian conservation before the age of 50 years were not at higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to no hysterectomy, regardless of menopausal hormone therapy use status. In contrast, among nonusers of menopausal hormone therapy only, women who reported a hysterectomy-bilateral oophorectomy before the age of 50 years were at a higher risk of death compared to women with no hysterectomy (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.25). CONCLUSION: Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation before the age of 50 years did not increase risk of all-cause mortality. Among nonmenopausal hormone therapy users only, hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy before the age of 50 years was associated with a higher risk of death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovariectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovariectomia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
PLoS Med ; 15(11): e1002704, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with earlier menopause, but the impact of being a former smoker and any dose-response relationships on the degree of smoking and age at menopause have been less clear. If the toxic impact of cigarette smoking on ovarian function is irreversible, we hypothesized that even former smokers might experience earlier menopause, and variations in intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and age at start/quit of smoking might have varying impacts on the risk of experiencing earlier menopause. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 207,231 and 27,580 postmenopausal women were included in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. They were from 17 studies in 7 countries (Australia, Denmark, France, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States) that contributed data to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Information on smoking status, cigarettes smoked per day (intensity), smoking duration, pack-years (cumulative dose), age started, and years since quitting smoking was collected at baseline. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between each smoking measure and categorised age at menopause (<40 (premature), 40-44 (early), 45-49, 50-51 (reference), and ≥52 years). The association with current and former smokers was analysed separately. Sensitivity analyses and two-step meta-analyses were also conducted to test the results. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was used to compare the fit of the models of smoking measures. Overall, 1.9% and 7.3% of women experienced premature and early menopause, respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had around twice the risk of experiencing premature (RRR 2.05; 95% CI 1.73-2.44) (p < 0.001) and early menopause (1.80; 1.66-1.95) (p < 0.001). The corresponding RRRs in former smokers were attenuated to 1.13 (1.04-1.23; p = 0.006) and 1.15 (1.05-1.27; p = 0.005). In both current and former smokers, dose-response relationships were observed, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration, higher cumulative dose, earlier age at start smoking, and shorter time since quitting smoking were significantly associated with higher risk of premature and early menopause, as well as earlier menopause at 45-49 years. Duration of smoking was a strong predictor of age at natural menopause. Among current smokers with duration of 15-20 years, the risk was markedly higher for premature (15.58; 11.29-19.86; p < 0.001) and early (6.55; 5.04-8.52; p < 0.001) menopause. Also, current smokers with 11-15 pack-years had over 4-fold (4.35; 2.78-5.92; p < 0.001) and 3-fold (3.01; 2.15-4.21; p < 0.001) risk of premature and early menopause, respectively. Smokers who had quit smoking for more than 10 years had similar risk as never smokers (1.04; 0.98-1.10; p = 0.176). A limitation of the study is the measurement errors that may have arisen due to recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of earlier menopause is positively associated with intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and earlier initiation of smoking. Smoking duration is a much stronger predictor of premature and early menopause than others. Our findings highlight the clear benefits for women of early smoking cessation to lower their excess risk of earlier menopause.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce , Doenças Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Aust J Prim Health ; 24(6): 530-536, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463662

RESUMO

Medical out-of-pocket costs paid by patients can be problematic when it adversely affects access to care. Survey research involving patients with out-of-pocket expenses may have selection biases, so accurate estimates are unknown. During 2010-11, 419 participants from the QSkin Sun and Health Study (n=43794) had a confirmed diagnosis of either melanoma, prostate, breast, colorectal or lung cancer. These were matched to a general population group (n=421) and a group of high users of GP services (n=419). Medical fees charged and out-of-pocket medical expenses for Medicare services were analysed. Over 2 years, three-quarters of individuals with cancer paid up-front provider fees of up to A$20551 compared with A$10995 for the high GP user group and A$6394 for the general population group. Out-of-pocket expenses were significantly higher for those with cancer (mean A$3514) compared with the high GP-user group (mean A$1837) and general population group (A$1245). Highest expenses were for therapeutic procedures (mean A$2062). Older individuals, those with poor perceived health or private health insurance had the highest costs. Regardless of private insurance status, patients with one of the main five cancers pay significantly higher out-of-pocket costs for health care compared with those without cancer.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Queensland , Estados Unidos
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