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1.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 18(1 Pt B): 174-179, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413896

RESUMO

To date, widely generalizable artificial intelligence (AI) programs for medical image analysis have not been demonstrated, including for mammography. Rather than pursuing a strategy of collecting ever-larger databases in the attempt to build generalizable programs, we suggest three possible avenues for exploring a precision medicine or precision imaging approach. First, it is now technologically feasible to collect hundreds of thousands of multi-institutional cases along with other patient data, allowing stratification of patients into subpopulations that have similar characteristics in the manner discussed by the National Research Council in its white paper on precision medicine. A family of AI programs could be developed across different examination types that are matched to specific patient subpopulations. Such stratification can help address bias, including racial or ethnic bias, by allowing unbiased data aggregation for creation of subpopulations. Second, for common examinations, larger institutions may be able to collect enough of their own data to train AI programs that reflect disease prevalence and variety in their respective unique patient subpopulations. Third, high- and low-probability subpopulations can be identified by application of AI programs, thereby allowing their triage off the radiology work list. This would reduce radiologists' workloads, providing more time for interpretation of the remaining examinations. For high-volume procedures, investigators should come together to define reference standards, collect data, and compare the merits of pursuing generalizability versus a precision medicine subpopulation-based strategy.

2.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11S): S472-S486, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153558

RESUMO

To date, there is little consensus on the role of pelvic imaging in assessing local disease extent during initial staging in patients with endometrial carcinoma, with practices differing widely across centers. However, when pretreatment assessment of local tumor extent is indicated, MRI is the preferred imaging modality. Preoperative imaging of endometrial carcinoma can define the extent of disease and indicate the need for subspecialist referral in the presence of deep myometrial invasion, cervical extension, or suspected lymphadenopathy. If distant metastatic disease is clinically suspected, preoperative assessment with cross-sectional imaging or PET/CT may be performed. However, most patients with low-grade disease are at low risk of lymph node and distant metastases. Thus, this group may not require a routine pretreatment evaluation for distant metastases. Recurrence rates in patients with endometrial carcinoma are infrequent. Therefore, radiologic evaluation is typically used only to investigate suspicion of recurrent disease due to symptoms or physical examination and not for routine surveillance after treatment. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

3.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate effects on life expectancy (LE) of imaging-based ovarian surveillance after detection of incidental postmenopausal ovarian cysts, under different assumptions of patient age, comorbidity level, and cancer risk and detection. METHODS: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to estimate LE benefits. Hypothetical cohorts of postmenopausal women with simple ovarian cysts were evaluated, with varied age (66-80 years) and comorbidity level (none, mild, moderate, severe). For each cohort, imaging "follow-up" (2 years) and "no-follow-up" strategies were compared. Consistent with current evidence, increased cancer risk in patients with cysts was not assumed; however, incident ovarian cancers could be detected during follow-up. To estimate theoretical maximal LE gains from follow-up, perfect ovarian cancer detection and treatment during follow-up were assumed. This and other key assumptions were varied in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Projected LE gains from follow-up were limited. For 66-, 70-, 75-, and 80-year-old women with no comorbidities, LE gains were 5.1, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.7 days; with severe comorbidities, they were 3.5, 3.2, 2.7, and 2.1 days. With sensitivity of 50% for cancer detection, they were 3.7 days for 66-year-old women with no comorbidities and 1.3 days for 80-year-old women with severe comorbidities. When cancer risk for women with cysts was assumed to be elevated (1.1 times average risk), LE gains increased only modestly (5.6 and 2.3 days for analogous cohorts). CONCLUSIONS: Even in the circumstance of perfect ovarian cancer detection and treatment, surveillance of postmenopausal women (≥66 years of age) with simple cysts affords limited benefits, particularly in women with advanced age and comorbidities.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(10): e202948, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789511

RESUMO

Importance: Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in the United States; however, few high-risk groups have been identified to facilitate early diagnosis strategies. Objective: To evaluate the association of diabetes duration and recent weight change with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from female participants in the Nurses' Health Study and male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with repeated exposure assessments over 30 years. Incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified from self-report or during follow-up of participant deaths. Deaths were ascertained through reports from the next of kin, the US Postal Service, or the National Death Index. Data collection was conducted from October 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Exposures: Duration of physician-diagnosed diabetes and recent weight change. Main Outcome and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent development of pancreatic cancer. Results: Of the 112 818 women (with a mean [SD] age of 59.4 [11.7] years) and 46 207 men (with a mean [SD] age of 64.7 [10.8] years) included in the analysis, 1116 incident cases of pancreatic cancers were identified. Compared with participants with no diabetes, those with recent-onset diabetes had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 2.97 (95% CI, 2.31-3.82) and those with long-standing diabetes had an age-adjusted HR of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.78-2.60). Compared with those with no weight loss, participants who reported a 1- to 4-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52), those with a 5- to 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.06-1.66), and those with more than an 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.58-2.32). Participants with recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss of 1 to 8 lb (91 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 55-151]; HR, 3.61 [95% CI, 2.14-6.10]) or more than 8 lb (164 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 114-238]; HR, 6.75 [95% CI, 4.55-10.00]) had a substantially increased risk for pancreatic cancer compared with those with neither exposure (16 incident cases per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 14-17). Incidence rates were even higher among participants with recent-onset diabetes and weight loss with a body mass index of less than 25 before weight loss (400 incident cases per 100 000 person-years) or whose weight loss was not intentional judging from increased physical activity or healthier dietary choices (334 incident cases per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: This study demonstrates that recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss is associated with a substantially increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Older age, previous healthy weight, and no intentional weight loss further elevate this risk.

6.
Radiology ; 297(1): E207-E215, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391742

RESUMO

Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrates its highest surface expression in the lung, small bowel, and vasculature, suggesting abdominal viscera may be susceptible to injury. Purpose To report abdominal imaging findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients consecutively admitted to a single quaternary care center from March 27 to April 10, 2020, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. Abdominal imaging studies performed in these patients were reviewed, and salient findings were recorded. Medical records were reviewed for clinical data. Univariable analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results A total of 412 patients (average age, 57 years; range, 18 to >90 years; 241 men, 171 women) were evaluated. A total of 224 abdominal imaging studies were performed (radiography, n = 137; US, n = 44; CT, n = 42; MRI, n = 1) in 134 patients (33%). Abdominal imaging was associated with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03 per year of increase; P = .001) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 17.3; P < .001). Bowel-wall abnormalities were seen on 31% of CT images (13 of 42) and were associated with ICU admission (OR, 15.5; P = .01). Bowel findings included pneumatosis or portal venous gas, seen on 20% of CT images obtained in patients in the ICU (four of 20). Surgical correlation (n = 4) revealed unusual yellow discoloration of the bowel (n = 3) and bowel infarction (n = 2). Pathologic findings revealed ischemic enteritis with patchy necrosis and fibrin thrombi in arterioles (n = 2). Right upper quadrant US examinations were mostly performed because of liver laboratory findings (87%, 32 of 37), and 54% (20 of 37) revealed a dilated sludge-filled gallbladder, suggestive of bile stasis. Patients with a cholecystostomy tube placed (n = 4) had negative bacterial cultures. Conclusion Bowel abnormalities and gallbladder bile stasis were common findings on abdominal images of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Patients who underwent laparotomy often had ischemia, possibly due to small-vessel thrombosis. © RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/patologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Abdome/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparotomia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

8.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(7): 940-950, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual-energy CT image sets have many applications in abdominopelvic imaging but no demonstrated clinical effect. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dual-energy CT iodine maps on abdominopelvic imaging follow-up recommendation rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of abdominopelvic CTs acquired from April 2017 through June 2018. CT reports were analyzed for radiologic follow-up recommendation and follow-up recommendation reason. Follow-up MRI reports were analyzed for benign or nonbenign diagnosis. CT scans with iodine maps (CTIMs) and conventional CT scans (CCTs) subgroups were compared using χ2 testing. RESULTS: In all, 3,221 abdominopelvic CT scans of 2,401 patients (1,326 men, 1,075 women, mean age 54.1 years) were analyzed; 1,423 were CTIMs and 1,798 were CCTs. Follow-up recommendation rates were not significantly different for CTIMs and CCTs (19.5% and 21.4%, respectively, P = .19). Follow-up recommendations because of incomplete diagnosis were significantly lower in CTIMs (9.1%) than in CCTs (11.9%, P = .01). Follow-up recommendations for MRI and PET/CT were significantly lower in CTIMs (9.6%) than CCTs (13.0%, P = .003). Follow-up MRI outcomes (n = 111) were not different between CTIMs (61.2% benign) and CCTs (59.6%, P = .87). CONCLUSION: Dual-energy CT iodine maps are associated with decreased follow-up examinations because of incomplete diagnosis and decreased recommendations for follow-up MRI, suggesting that abdominopelvic iodine maps may benefit patient care and decrease institutional cost.

9.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(2): 248-254, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790673

RESUMO

The ACR Incidental Findings Committee (IFC) presents recommendations for managing adnexal masses incidentally detected on CT and MRI. These recommendations represent an update of those provided in our previous JACR 2013 white paper. The Adnexal Subcommittee, which included six radiologists with subspecialty expertise in abdominal imaging or ultrasound and one gynecologist, developed this algorithm. The recommendations draw from published evidence and expert opinion and were finalized by iterative consensus. Algorithm branches successively categorize adnexal masses based on patient characteristics (eg, pre- versus postmenopausal) and imaging features. They terminate with a management recommendation. The algorithm addresses most, but not all, pathologies and clinical scenarios. Our goal is to improve quality of care by providing guidance on how to manage incidentally detected adnexal masses.

10.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(8): 1871-1884, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is associated with a poor prognosis with surgical resection offering the best chance for long-term survival and potential cure. However, in up to 36% of patients who undergo surgery, more extensive disease is found at time of operation requiring cancellation of surgery. PET/MR is a novel hybrid technology that might improve local and whole-body staging in ICC patients, potentially influencing clinical management. This study was aimed to investigate the possible management implications of PET/MR, relative to conventional imaging, in patients affected by untreated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinicopathologic features of 37 patients with iCCC, who underwent PET/MR between September 2015 and August 2018, was performed to investigate the management implications that PET/MR had exerted on the affected patients, relative to conventional imaging. RESULTS: Of the 37 patients enrolled, median age 63.5 years, 20 (54%) were female. The same day PET/CT was performed in 26 patients. All patients were iCCC-treatment-naïve. Conventional imaging obtained as part of routine clinical care demonstrated early-stage resectable disease for 15 patients and advanced stage disease beyond the scope of surgical resection for 22. PET/MR modified the clinical management of 11/37 (29.7%) patients: for 5 patients (13.5%), the operation was cancelled due to identification of additional disease, while 4 "inoperable" patients (10.8%) underwent an operation. An additional 2 patients (5.4%) had a significant change in their operative plan based on PET/MR. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with standard imaging, PET/MR significantly influenced the treatment plan in 29.7% of patients with iCCC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2018P001334.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18082, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study provides phase-specific cost estimates for pancreatic cancer based on stage and treatment. We compare treatment costs between the different phases and within the stage and treatment modality subgroups. METHODS: Our cohort included 20,917 pancreatic cancer patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed between 2000 and 2011. We allocated costs into four phases of care-staging (or surgery), initial, continuing, and terminal- and calculated the total, cancer-attributable, and patient-liability costs in 2018 US dollars. We fit linear regression models using log transformation to determine whether costs were predicted by age and calendar year. RESULTS: Monthly cost estimates were high during the staging and surgery phases, decreased over the initial and continuing phases, and increased during the three-month terminal phase. Overall, the linear regression models showed that cancer-attributable costs either remained stable or increased by year, and either were unaffected by age or decreased with older age; continuing phase costs for stage II patients increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates demonstrate that pancreatic cancer costs can vary widely by stage and treatment received. These cost estimates can serve as an important baseline foundation to guide resource allocation for cancer care and research in the future.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econométricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Programa de SEER , Assistência Terminal/economia , Estados Unidos
12.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(11S): S348-S363, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685103

RESUMO

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a rare complication of pregnancy, includes both benign and malignant forms, the latter collectively referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). When metastatic, the lungs are the most common site of initial spread. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, elaborated to some extent by all forms of GTD, is useful in facilitating disease detection, diagnosis, monitoring treatment response, and follow-up. Imaging evaluation depends on whether GTD manifests in one of its benign forms or whether it has progressed to GTN. Transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound with duplex Doppler evaluation of the pelvis are usually appropriate diagnostic procedures in either of these circumstances, and in posttreatment surveillance. The appropriateness of more extensive imaging remains dependent on a diagnosis of GTN and on other factors. The use of imaging to assess complications, typically hemorrhagic, should be guided by the location of clinical signs and symptoms. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/patologia , Radiologia/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Estados Unidos
13.
Eur J Radiol ; 120: 108692, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prompt diagnosis and quantitation of pneumothorax impact decisions pertaining to patient management. The purpose of our study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a deep learning (DL)-based image classification program for detection of pneumothorax on chest CT. METHOD: In an IRB approved study, an eight-layer convolutional neural network (CNN) using constant-size (36*36 pixels) 2D image patches was trained on a set of 80 chest CTs, with (n = 50) and without (n = 30) pneumothorax. Image patches were classified based on their probability of representing pneumothorax with subsequent generation of 3D heat-maps. The heat maps were further defined to include 1) pneumothorax area size, 2) relative location of the region to the lung boundary, and 3) a shape descriptor based on regional anisotropy. A support vector machine (SVM) was trained for classification. RESULT: We assessed performance of our program in a separate test dataset of 200 chest CT examinations, with (160/200, 75%) and without (40/200, 25%) pneumothorax. Data were analyzed to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. The subject-wise sensitivity was 100% (all 160/160 pneumothoraces detected) and specificity was 82.5% (33 true negative/40). False positive classifications were primarily related to emphysema and/or artifacts in the test images. CONCLUSION: This deep learning-based program demonstrated high accuracy for automatic detection of pneumothorax on chest CTs. By implementing it on a high-performance computing platform and integrating the domain knowledge of radiologists into the analytics framework, our method can be used to rapidly pre-screen large numbers of cases for presence of pneumothorax, a critical finding.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stages, when survival is poor. Treatment advances have been made, but are inconsistently implemented. Our purpose was to project the maximum life expectancy gains that could be achieved in women with stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer if the implementation of available chemotherapy regimens could be optimized. METHODS: We used a microsimulation model to estimate life expectancy benefits associated with "optimized" implementation of four post-operative chemotherapy options: standard intravenous chemotherapy; intraperitoneal + intravenous chemotherapy; bevacizumab + intravenous chemotherapy; and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy + intravenous chemotherapy. Optimized implementation was defined as follows. Patients triaged to primary cytoreductive surgery received intraperitoneal + intravenous chemotherapy if optimally or completely cytoreduced, and bevacizumab + intravenous chemotherapy if suboptimally cytoreduced. Patients triaged to neoadjuvant chemotherapy received hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy at interval cytoreductive surgery if optimally or completely cytoreduced, and standard IV chemotherapy if suboptimally cytoreduced. Life expectancy associated with optimized implementation was compared with that of current utilization practices, estimated using published literature and the National Cancer Database. Effects of model uncertainty were evaluated in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Life expectancy associated with optimized implementation vs. current practice was 76.7 vs. 64.5 months (life expectancy gain = 12.2 months). Providing intraperitoneal + intravenous chemotherapy to all eligible patients was the largest driver of life expectancy gains, due to both the potential benefit conferred by intraperitoneal + intravenous chemotherapy and the proportion of eligible women who do not receive intraperitoneal + intravenous chemotherapy in current practice. CONCLUSION: Population-level life expectancy in stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer could be substantially improved through greater uptake of available chemotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(8): 1091-1101, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173744

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify potential barriers to building a diverse workforce in radiology and radiation oncology by conducting a national survey of physicians in these fields and studying their reported career experiences. METHODS: An electronic survey of ACR members (February 27, 2018, to April 26, 2018) was conducted in which physicians' attitudes about their work environment, relationships, and culture were queried. The aim was to determine if responses differed by gender or race/ethnicity. In total, 900 invitations were issued; women were oversampled with the goal of equal representation. Descriptive summaries (proportions of yes or no responses) were calculated per item, per subgroup of interest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant associations between gender- and item-specific responses; it was not used in the race/ethnicity analysis because of the small sizes of many subgroups. RESULTS: The response rate was 51.2% (461 of 900). In total, 51.0% of respondents identified as women (235 of 461); the 9.5% (44 of 461) who identified as black or African American, Hispanic, or American Indian or Alaska Native were considered underrepresented minorities. Respondents' mean age was 40.2 ± 10.4 years. Subgroups varied most in their reporting of unfair or disrespectful treatment. Women were significantly more likely than men to report such treatment attributable to gender (50.6% versus 5.4%; odds ratio, 18.00; 95% confidence interval, 9.29-34.86; P < .001), and 27.9% of underrepresented minorities compared with 2.6% of white non-Hispanic respondents reported such treatment attributable to race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Women and underrepresented minorities disproportionately experience unfair or disrespectful treatment in the workplace. Addressing this problem is likely to be critically important for improving workforce diversity.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diversidade Cultural , Radiologistas/provisão & distribução , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(5S): S77-S93, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054761

RESUMO

There are approximately 9.1 pelvic surgeries performed for every histologically confirmed adnexal malignancy in the United States, compared to 2.3 surgeries per malignancy (in oncology centers) and 5.9 surgeries per malignancy (in other centers) in Europe. An important prognostic factor in the long-term survival in patients with ovarian malignancy is the initial management by a gynecological oncologist. With high accuracy of imaging for adnexal mass characterization and consequent appropriate triage to subspecialty referral, the better use of gynecologic oncology can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and duplex ultrasound, combined with MRI with contrast can diagnose adnexal masses as benign with specific features (ie, functional masses, dermoid, endometrioma, fibroma, pedunculated fibroid, hydrosalpinx, peritoneal inclusion cyst, Tarlov cyst), malignant, or indeterminate. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Anexos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(2): e187621, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707224

RESUMO

Importance: Deaths due to opioid overdose have tripled in the last decade. Efforts to curb this trend have focused on restricting the prescription opioid supply; however, the near-term effects of such efforts are unknown. Objective: To project effects of interventions to lower prescription opioid misuse on opioid overdose deaths from 2016 to 2025. Design, Setting, and Participants: This system dynamics (mathematical) model of the US opioid epidemic projected outcomes of simulated individuals who engage in nonmedical prescription or illicit opioid use from 2016 to 2025. The analysis was performed in 2018 by retrospectively calibrating the model from 2002 to 2015 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interventions: Comparison of interventions that would lower the incidence of prescription opioid misuse from 2016 to 2025 based on historical trends (a 7.5% reduction per year) and 50% faster than historical trends (an 11.3% reduction per year), vs a circumstance in which the incidence of misuse remained constant after 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures: Opioid overdose deaths from prescription and illicit opioids from 2016 to 2025 under each intervention. Results: Under the status quo, the annual number of opioid overdose deaths is projected to increase from 33 100 in 2015 to 81 700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 63 600-101 700) in 2025 (a 147% increase from 2015). From 2016 to 2025, 700 400 (95% UI, 590 200-817 100) individuals in the United States are projected to die from opioid overdose, with 80% of the deaths attributable to illicit opioids. The number of individuals using illicit opioids is projected to increase by 61%-from 0.93 million (95% UI, 0.83-1.03 million) in 2015 to 1.50 million (95% UI, 0.98-2.22 million) by 2025. Across all interventions tested, further lowering the incidence of prescription opioid misuse from 2015 levels is projected to decrease overdose deaths by only 3.0% to 5.3%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that interventions targeting prescription opioid misuse such as prescription monitoring programs may have a modest effect, at best, on the number of opioid overdose deaths in the near future. Additional policy interventions are urgently needed to change the course of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/mortalidade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Radiology ; 290(2): 278-287, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620258

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose CT reduces mortality among high-risk current and former smokers and has been covered by public and private insurers without cost sharing since 2015. Patients and referring providers confront numerous barriers to participation in screening. To best serve in multidisciplinary efforts to expand LCS nationwide, radiologists must be knowledgeable of these challenges. A better understanding of the difficulties confronted by other stakeholders will help radiologists continue to collaboratively guide the growth of LCS programs in their communities. This article reviews barriers to participation in LCS for patients and referring providers, as well as possible solutions and interventions currently underway.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica
19.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 212(3): 596-601, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to test for the possibility that published malignancy risks for side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are overestimates, likely due to verification bias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested for possible verification bias using simulation modeling techniques. First, in age-defined hypothetical cohorts of 10 million persons, we projected the frequency of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) arising from side-branch IPMNs over 5 years using published estimates of their prevalence (4.4%) and rate of malignant transformation (1.9%). Second, we projected the total number of PDAC cases in corresponding cohorts over the same time horizon using national cancer registry data. For each cohort, we determined whether the percentage of all PDAC cases that arose from side-branch IPMNs (i.e., side-branch IPMN-associated PDAC cases) was clinically plausible using an upper limit of 10% to define plausibility, as estimated from the literature. Model assumptions and parameter uncertainty were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Across all cohorts, percentages of side-branch IPMN-associated PDACs greatly exceeded 10%. In the base case (mean age = 55.7 years), 80% of PDAC cases arose from side-branch IPMNs (7877/9786). In the oldest cohort evaluated (mean age = 75 years), this estimate was 76% (14,227/18,714). In a secondary analysis, we found that if an upper limit threshold of 10% for side-branch IPMN-associated PDAC was imposed, the model-predicted rate of malignancy for side-branch IPMNs would be less than 0.24% over a 5-year time horizon, substantially lower than most literature-based estimates. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that reported malignancy risks associated with side-branch IPMNs are likely to be overestimates and imply the presence of verification bias.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Papilar/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Viés , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Radiology ; 290(3): 732-743, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644815

RESUMO

Purpose To compare the effectiveness of personalized treatment for small (≤4 cm) renal tumors versus routine partial nephrectomy (PN), accounting for various competing causes of mortality. Materials and Methods A state-transition microsimulation model was constructed to compare life expectancy of management strategies for small renal tumors by using 1 000 000 simulations in the following ways: routine PN or personalized treatment involving percutaneous ablation for risk factors for worsening chronic kidney disease (CKD), and otherwise PN; biopsy, with triage of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to PN or ablation depending on risk factors for worsening CKD; active surveillance for growth; and active surveillance when MRI findings are indicative of papillary RCC. Transition probabilities were incorporated from the literature. Effects of parameter variability were assessed in sensitivity analysis. Results In patients of all ages with normal renal function, routine PN yielded the longest life expectancy (eg, 0.67 years in 65-year-old men with nephrometry score [NS] of 4). Otherwise, personalized strategies extended life expectancy versus routine PN: in CKD stages 2 or 3a, moderate or high NS, and no comorbidities, MRI guidance for active surveillance extended life expectancy (eg, 2.60 years for MRI vs PN in CKD 3a, NS 10); and with Charlson comorbidity index of 1 or more, biopsy or active surveillance for growth extended life expectancy (eg, 2.70 years for surveillance for growth in CKD 3a, NS 10). CKD 3b was most effectively managed by using MRI to help predict papillary RCC for surveillance. Conclusion For patients with chronic kidney disease and small renal tumors, personalized treatment selection likely extends life expectancy. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Expectativa de Vida , Nefrectomia/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Idoso , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Ablação por Cateter , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida , Triagem
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