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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(45): 19058-19066, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735772

RESUMO

Portable near-infrared (NIR) light sources are in high demand for applications in spectroscopy, night vision, bioimaging, and many others. Typical phosphor designs feature isolated Cr3+ ion centers, and it is challenging to design broadband NIR phosphors based on Cr3+-Cr3+ pairs. Here, we explore the solid-solution series SrAl11.88-xGaxO19:0.12Cr3+ (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) as phosphors featuring Cr3+-Cr3+ pairs and evaluate structure-property relations within the series. We establish the incorporation of Ga within the magentoplumbite-type structure at five distinct crystallographic sites and evaluate the effect of this incorporation on the Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pair proximity. Electron paramagnetic measurements reveal the presence of both isolated Cr3+ and Cr3+-Cr3+ pairs, resulting in NIR luminescence at approximately 650-1050 nm. Unexpectedly, the origin of broadband NIR luminescence with a peak within the range 740-820 nm is related to the Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pair. We demonstrate the application of the SrAl5.88Ga6O19:0.12Cr3+ phosphor, which possesses an internal quantum efficiency of ∼85%, a radiant flux of ∼95 mW, and zero thermal quenching up to 500 K. This work provides a further understanding of spectral shifts in phosphor solid solutions and in particular the application of the magentoplumbites as promising next-generation NIR phosphor host systems.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(48)2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810252

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial cells are exposed to shear stresses with disturbed vs. laminar flow patterns, which lead to proinflammatory vs. antiinflammatory phenotypes, respectively. Effective treatment against endothelial inflammation and the consequent atherogenesis requires the identification of new therapeutic molecules and the development of drugs targeting these molecules. Using Connectivity Map, we have identified vitexin, a natural flavonoid, as a compound that evokes the gene-expression changes caused by pulsatile shear, which mimics laminar flow with a clear direction, vs. oscillatory shear (OS), which mimics disturbed flow without a clear direction. Treatment with vitexin suppressed the endothelial inflammation induced by OS or tumor necrosis factor-α. Administration of vitexin to mice subjected to carotid partial ligation blocked the disturbed flow-induced endothelial inflammation and neointimal formation. In hyperlipidemic mice, treatment with vitexin ameliorated atherosclerosis. Using SuperPred, we predicted that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APEX1) may directly interact with vitexin, and we experimentally verified their physical interactions. OS induced APEX1 nuclear translocation, which was inhibited by vitexin. OS promoted the binding of acetyltransferase p300 to APEX1, leading to its acetylation and nuclear translocation. Functionally, knocking down APEX1 with siRNA reversed the OS-induced proinflammatory phenotype, suggesting that APEX1 promotes inflammation by orchestrating the NF-κB pathway. Animal experiments with the partial ligation model indicated that overexpression of APEX1 negated the action of vitexin against endothelial inflammation, and that endothelial-specific deletion of APEX1 ameliorated atherogenesis. We thus propose targeting APEX1 with vitexin as a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate atherosclerosis.

3.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(11)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828171

RESUMO

Support vector clustering (SVC) is a boundary-based algorithm, which has several advantages over other clustering methods, including identifying clusters of arbitrary shapes and numbers. Leveraged by the high generalization ability of the large margin distribution machine (LDM) and the optimal margin distribution clustering (ODMC), we propose a new clustering method: minimum distribution for support vector clustering (MDSVC), for improving the robustness of boundary point recognition, which characterizes the optimal hypersphere by the first-order and second-order statistics and tries to minimize the mean and variance simultaneously. In addition, we further prove, theoretically, that our algorithm can obtain better generalization performance. Some instructive insights for adjusting the number of support vector points are gained. For the optimization problem of MDSVC, we propose a double coordinate descent algorithm for small and medium samples. The experimental results on both artificial and real datasets indicate that our MDSVC has a significant improvement in generalization performance compared to SVC.

4.
Neurol Ther ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is efficacious for motor neuromodulation in stroke survivors, high interindividual variability for responsiveness remains a concern. Target probing on the skull using a proper brain-mapping technique may help overcome this challenge. This study assessed the feasibility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a target navigator in rTMS treatment for motor facilitation in patients with stroke. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with stroke were enrolled in this randomized controlled study. The patients were assigned to three groups: fNIRS-guided rTMS treatment (fNIRS group, n = 20), motor evoked potential (MEP)-guided rTMS treatment (MEP group, n = 16), and sham (n = 15) group. Motor assessments, including Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and muscle strength, were conducted at baseline and after the 10-session rTMS treatment. RESULTS: The fNIRS-guided hotspot (fNIRS-HS) was obtained for each patient, even those for whom the MEP-guided hotspot was undetectable. Both intervention groups exhibited significant improvements in muscle strength, FMA, and WMFT scores (P < 0.001) compared with the sham group. The fNIRS group achieved significantly greater improvement in elbow function (P = 0.001) than the MEP group. CONCLUSION: fNIRS can be a reliable tool for hotspot navigation for motor neuromodulation in patients with stroke. With high sensitivity to cortical oxygenation changes, this navigation system achieved a superior outcome to the traditional MEP-based method in patients with stroke. fNIRS-based systems may also facilitate the integration of machine learning, thus enabling precision medicine for neuromodulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifier: NCT02006615.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 745984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630335

RESUMO

Although spermatogenic dysfunction is widely found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the underlying reasons remain unclear. Thus far, potential hypotheses involving viral reservoirs, testicular inflammation, hormone imbalance, and cachexia show inconsistent correlation with spermatogenic dysfunction. Here, northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) exhibited marked spermatogenic dysfunction after long-term infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239), with significant decreases in Johnsen scores, differentiated spermatogonial stem cells, and testicular proliferating cells. The above hypotheses were also evaluated. Results showed no differences between SIV- and SIV+ NPMs, except for an increase in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during SIV infection, which had no direct effect on the testes. However, long-term SIVmac239 infection undermined pancreatic islet ß cell function, partly represented by significant reductions in cellular counts and autophagy levels. Pancreatic islet ß cell dysfunction led to glucose metabolism disorder at the whole-body level, which inhibited lactate production by Sertoli cells in testicular tissue. As lactate is the main energy substrate for developing germ cells, its decrease was strongly correlated with spermatogenic dysfunction. Therefore, glucose metabolism disorder appears to be a primary cause of spermatogenic dysfunction in NPMs with long-term SIVmac239 infection.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696013

RESUMO

A microfluidic film bulk acoustic wave resonator gas sensor (mFBAR) adapted specifically as an in-line detector in gas chromatography was described. This miniaturized vapor sensor was a non-destructive detector with very low dead volume (0.02 µL). It was prepared by enclosing the resonator in a microfluidic channel on a chip with dimensions of only 15 mm × 15 mm × 1 mm. The device with polymer coating showed satisfactory performance in the detection of organophosphorus compound, demonstrating a very low detection limit (a dozen parts per billion) with relatively short response time (about fifteen seconds) toward the simulant of chemical warfare agent, dimethyl methylphosphonate. The in-line detection of the mFBAR sensor with FID was constructed and employed to directly measure the concentration profile on the solid surface by the mFBAR with the controlled concentration profile in the mobile phase at the same time. The difference of peak-maximum position between mobile phase and solid phase could be a convenient indicator to measure mass transfer rate. With the response of the mFBAR and FID obtained in one injection, an injection mass-independent parameter can be calculated and used to identify the analyte of interest.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Microfluídica , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Gases , Som
8.
ACS Omega ; 6(41): 26822-26828, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693104

RESUMO

Although transition-metal-based phosphides as cost-effective catalysts have great potential for transforming water to hydrogen, their electrocatalytic property for industrial application is still limited. Herein, we focus on developing amorphous NiCoP with dandelion-like arrays anchored on nanowires through a universal strategy of hydrothermal and phosphorization. The hierarchical structure features in larger catalytic surface areas expedited reaction kinetics and improved structural stability. Benefiting from these merits, the NiCoP reaches 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of mere 57 mV for a hydrogen evolution reaction in standard solution. Also, a profound activity for the generation of oxygen is along with it, which requires 276 mV to attain 10 mA cm-2. Moreover, it demonstrates satisfying durability for both processes.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9262-9295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646370

RESUMO

The rapid development of chiral inorganic nanostructures has greatly expanded from intrinsically chiral nanoparticles to more sophisticated assemblies made by organics, metals, semiconductors, and their hybrids. Among them, lots of studies concerning on hybrid complex of chiral molecules with achiral nanoparticles (NPs) and superstructures with chiral configurations were accordingly conducted due to the great advances such as highly enhanced biocompatibility with low cytotoxicity and enhanced penetration and retention capability, programmable surface functionality with engineerable building blocks, and more importantly tunable chirality in a controlled manner, leading to revolutionary designs of new biomaterials for synergistic cancer therapy, control of enantiomeric enzymatic reactions, integration of metabolism and pathology via bio-to nano or structural chirality. Herein, in this review our objective is to emphasize current research state and clinical applications of chiral nanomaterials in biological systems with special attentions to chiral metal- or semiconductor-based nanostructures in terms of the basic synthesis, related circular dichroism effects at optical frequencies, mechanisms of induced optical chirality and their performances in biomedical applications such as phototherapy, bio-imaging, neurodegenerative diseases, gene editing, cellular activity and sensing of biomarkers so as to provide insights into this fascinating field for peer researchers.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 306-312, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626977

RESUMO

Rational designing and synthesizing highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst plays a key role in energy conversion. However, due to the numerous factors affecting the activity of electrocatalysis, the understanding of their catalytic mechanism is insufficient, and challenges still exist. Herein, the organic group of the metal-organic nanosheets electrocatalyst was replaced by NH2 to CH3 to controllable regulate the catalytic performance of OER, corresponding to the overpotential of OER reducing from 385 mV to 318 mV at 10 mA cm-2, superior to the commercial precious metal based catalyst RuO2. Furthermore, combining the density functional theory (DFT) and electron localization function (ELF) indicates that the type of ligands group can indirectly modulate the electronic structure of metal catalytic center and the degree of electronic localization of the metal-organic nanosheets catalysts, resulting in the change in electrocatalytic activity. This simple catalytic model is more favorable to investigate the catalytic mechanism, providing a new strategy for the development of efficient electrocatalyst.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501112

RESUMO

The possibility of using geopolymer instead of Portland cement could effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions from cement manufacturing. Fibre-reinforced self-compacting geopolymers have great potential in civil engineering applications, such as chord member grouting for concrete-filled steel tubular truss beams. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the quantitative relationship between FF and the properties of the fibre-reinforced geopolymer has been rarely reported. In this research, 26 groups of mixtures were used to study the influence of the polypropylene fibre factor (FF) on the flowability and mechanical properties and also the compactness of the fibre-reinforced self-compacting geopolymer. At the same volume fraction, geopolymers with long fibres present worse flowability than those having short fibres due to the easier contacting of long fibres. By growing the FF the influence of fibre addition on the V-funnel flow rate is more significant than the slump spread. This can be ascribed to the consequence of fibre addition and friction by the V-funnel which estimates the restrained deformability. For FF lesser than critical factor Fc = 100, influence of fibres is negligible and fibres are far apart from each other and, thus, they cannot restrict cracking under load and transfer the load to improve the mechanical properties. For FF between the Fc = 100 and density factor Fd = 350, a noteworthy enhancement of mechanical properties was obtained and the geopolymer was still adequately workable to flow by weight of self, without any symbols of instability and fibre clumping. Under this condition, better fibre dispersal and reinforcing productivity can lead to better hardened properties. For FF higher than Fd = 350, fibres tend to come to be entwined together and form clumping resulting from the fibre balling, resulting in worse hardened properties. This research offers a sensible basis for the application of the workability regulator of the fresh properties of fibre-reinforced geopolymer as an operative way to basically obtain ideal mechanical properties.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most studies have reported unfavorable short-term effects of breastfeeding on early-childhood sleep-wake behaviors that potentially attenuate over time, findings have remained inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of breastfeeding with longitudinal day-, night-, and total-sleep trajectories and with sleep-wake behaviors in healthy infants and preschoolers. METHODS: Caregivers of naturally conceived, term, singleton infants (n = 654) completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mo) and/or Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (54 mo), and provided information on their infants' breastfeeding status at 3 mo. Trajectory analyses derived 4 day- (n = 243), 3 night- (n = 248), and/or 4 total- (n = 241) sleep trajectories, each differing in length of sleep duration (short/moderate/long) and variability (variable/consistent). Sleep-wake behaviors from 3 to 24 mo (day/night/total-sleep durations and duration/number of night awakenings) were also assessed for associations with breastfeeding. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates, formula-fed infants, relative to fully breastfed (predominant or exclusive) infants, were significantly less likely to exhibit moderate (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.70) and long consistent (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.50) night-sleep trajectories and less likely to exhibit moderate (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.61) and long consistent (OR: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.38) and long variable (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.56) total-sleep trajectories, instead of short variable night- and total-sleep trajectories. Partially breastfed infants did not differ from fully breastfed infants for both night- and total-sleep trajectories. No significant differences were found between all groups for day-sleep trajectories. Fully breastfed infants had longer night- (6, 9, 12, and 24 mo) and total- (3 and 12 mo) sleep durations than formula-fed infants, albeit a greater number of night awakenings (from 6 to 12 mo). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more night awakenings, fully breastfed infants have overall longer night- and total-sleep durations (sleep trajectories) than formula-fed infants.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1001, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the transmission routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are similar, previous studies based on separate research on HIV-1 and HCV assumed a similar transmission pattern. However, few studies have focused on the possible correlation of the spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV among HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients. METHODS: A total of 310 HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users were recruited in Yingjiang and Kaiyuan prefectures, Yunnan Province, China. HIV-1 env, p17, pol and HCV C/E2, NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced from serum samples. The genetic characteristics and spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV were explored by phylogenetic, bootscanning, and phylogeographic analyses. RESULTS: Among HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users, eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6v, and 6u) and two HIV-1 subtypes (subtype B and subtype C), three HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC), and four unique recombinant forms (URF_BC, URF_01B, URF_01C and URF_01BC) were identified. HCV subtype 3b was the most predominant subtype in both Yingjiang and Kaiyuan prefectures. The dominant circulating HIV-1 subtypes for drug users among the two areas were CRF08_BC and URF_BC. Maximum clade credibility trees revealed that both HIV-1 and HCV were transmitted from Yingjiang to Kaiyuan. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV among HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users seem to have high consistency, providing theoretical evidence for the prevention of HIV-1 and HCV simultaneously.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Hepatite C , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia
14.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2101413, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480499

RESUMO

The development of reliable and safe high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries is hindered by the structural instability of cathode materials during cycling, arising as a result of detrimental phase transformations occurring at high operating voltages alongside the loss of active materials induced by transition metal dissolution. Originating from the fundamental structure/function relation of battery materials, the authors purposefully perform crystallographic-site-specific structural engineering on electrode material structure, using the high-voltage LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO) cathode as a representative, which directly addresses the root source of structural instability of the Fd 3 ¯ m structure. By employing Sb as a dopant to modify the specific issue-involved 16c and 16d sites simultaneously, the authors successfully transform the detrimental two-phase reaction occurring at high-voltage into a preferential solid-solution reaction and significantly suppress the loss of Mn from the LNMO structure. The modified LNMO material delivers an impressive 99% of its theoretical specific capacity at 1 C, and maintains 87.6% and 72.4% of initial capacity after 1500 and 3000 cycles, respectively. The issue-tracing site-specific structural tailoring demonstrated for this material will facilitate the rapid development of high-energy-density materials for lithium-ion batteries.

15.
Malays Fam Physician ; 16(2): 78-82, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386169

RESUMO

Retained rectal foreign body, with its associated social stigma, is a medical condition that is infrequently reported in Malaysia. We report the surgical management of five cases of retained foreign objects in the rectum seen over a one-year period. There were three young and two elderly male patients. One of the elderly patients presented with altered bowel habits and an abdominal mass that mimicked a symptomatic colonic tumor. All patients had an abdominal radiograph which clinched the diagnosis of a retained foreign rectal body. Successfully retrieved objects included two bottles, one bidet device, and two sex toys. Open surgery for retrieval of the impacted rectal foreign body was required in one patient. All underwent successful retrievals without any adverse postoperative complications. In our case series, retained rectal foreign bodies were observed only in the male gender. The age presentation was bimodal, with age groups in the twenties and sixties. The treatment options used for the retrieval of these impacted foreign bodies included transanal extraction or explorative laparotomy. Proximal migration and delayed presentation are possible indications for the latter approach.

16.
Analyst ; 146(18): 5650-5657, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378558

RESUMO

This paper investigates the mechanism of a new acoustic micro-ejector using a Lamb wave transducer array, which can stably generate picoliter (pL) droplet jetting without nozzles. With eight transducers arranged as an octagon array, droplets are ejected based on the mechanism of combined acoustic pressure waves and acoustic streaming. The acoustic focusing area is designed as a line at the liquid center, which is the key factor for a large working range of liquid height. The experimental results show that the ejector can produce uniform water droplets of 22 µm diameter (5.6 pL in volume) continuously at a rate of 0.33 kHz with high ejection stability, owing to a large liquid height window and high acoustic wave frequency. By delivering precise ∼pL droplets without clogging issues, the acoustic ejector has great potential for demanding biochemical applications.


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Ovinos , Transdutores , Água
17.
Chem Sci ; 12(26): 8945-8966, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276925

RESUMO

Traditional Li ion batteries based on intercalation-type anodes have been approaching their theoretical limitations in energy density. Replacing the traditional anode with metallic Li has been regarded as the ultimate strategy to develop next-generation high-energy-density Li batteries. Unfortunately, the practical application of Li metal batteries has been hindered by Li dendrite growth, unstable Li/electrolyte interfaces, and Li pulverization during battery cycling. Interfacial modification can effectively solve these challenges and nitrided interfaces stand out among other functional layers because of their impressive effects on regulating Li+ flux distribution, facilitating Li+ diffusion through the solid-electrolyte interphase, and passivating the active surface of Li metal electrodes. Although various designs for nitrided interfaces have been put forward in the last few years, there is no paper that specialized in reviewing these advances and discussing prospects. In consideration of this, we make a systematic summary and give our comments based on our understanding. In addition, a comprehensive perspective on the future development of nitrided interfaces and rational Li/electrolyte interface design for Li metal electrodes is included.

18.
ACS Sens ; 6(6): 2386-2394, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102847

RESUMO

Smartphone-enabled microfluidic chemiluminescence immunoassay is a promising portable system for point-of-care (POC) biosensing applications. However, due to the rather faint emitted light in such a limited sample volume, it is still difficult to reach the clinically accepted range when the smartphone serves as a standalone detector. Besides, the multiple separation and washing steps during sample preparation hinder the immunoassay's applications for POC usage. Herein, we proposed a novel acoustic streaming tweezers-enabled microfluidic immunoassay, where the probe particles' purification, reaction, and sensing were simply achieved on the same chip at continuous-flow conditions. The dedicatedly designed high-speed microscale vortexes not only enable dynamic trapping and washing of the probe particles on-demand but also enhance the capture efficiency of the heterogeneous particle-based immunoassay through active mixing during trapping. The enriched probe particles and enhanced biomarker capture capability increase the local chemiluminescent light intensity and enable direct capture of the immunobinding signal by a regular smartphone camera. The system was tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensing both in buffer and serum, where a limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL and a large dynamic response range from 0.3 to 10 ng/mL using only 10 µL of sample were achieved in a total assay time of less than 15 min. With the advantages of on-chip integration of sample preparation and detection and high sensing performance, the developed POC platform could be applied for many on-site diagnosis applications.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Smartphone , Acústica , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino
19.
Lab Chip ; 21(10): 1948-1955, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008612

RESUMO

The development of rapid and efficient tools to modulate neurons is vital for the treatment of nervous system diseases. Here, a novel non-invasive neurite outgrowth modulation method based on a controllable acoustic streaming effect induced by an electromechanical gigahertz resonator microchip is reported. The results demonstrate that the gigahertz acoustic streaming can induce cell structure changes within a 10 min period of stimulation, which promotes a high proportion of neurite bearing cells and encourages longer neurite outgrowth. Specifically, the resonator stimulation not only promotes outgrowth of neurites, but also can be combined with chemical mediated methods to accelerate the direct entry of nerve growth factor (NGF) into cells, resulting in higher modulation efficacy. Owing to shear stress caused by the acoustic streaming effect, the resonator microchip mediates stress fiber formation and induces the neuron-like phenotype of PC12 cells. We suggest that this method may potentially be applied to precise single-cell modulation, as well as in the development of non-invasive and rapid disease treatment strategies.

20.
ACS Nano ; 15(5): 8896-8906, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970601

RESUMO

Phase transition engineering, with the ability to alter the electronic structure and physicochemical properties of materials, has been widely used to achieve the thermodynamically unstable metallic phase MoS2 (1T-MoS2), although the complex operating conditions and low yield of previous strategies make the large-scale fabrication of 1T-MoS2 a big challenge. Herein, we report a facile electron injection strategy for phase transition engineering and fabricate a composite of conductive TiO chemically bonded to 1T-MoS2 nanoflowers (TiO-1T-MoS2 NFs) on a large scale. The underlying mechanism analysis reveals that electron-injection-engineering triggers a reorganization of the Mo 4d orbitals and results in a 100% phase transition of MoS2 from 2H to 1T. In the TiO-1T-MoS2 NFs composite, the 1T-MoS2 demonstrates a higher electronic conductivity, a lower Na+ diffusion barrier, and a more restricted S release than 2H-MoS2. In addition, conductive TiO bonding successfully resolves the stability challenge of the 1T phase. These merits endow TiO-1T-MoS2 NFs electrodes with an excellent rate capability (650/288 mAh g-1 at 50/20 000 mA g-1, respectively) and an outstanding cyclability (501 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 after 700 cycles) in sodium ion batteries. Such an improvement signifies that this facile and scalable phase-transition engineering combined with a deep mechanism analysis offers an important reference for designing advanced materials for various applications.

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