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1.
Environ Int ; 163: 107213, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have demonstrated endocrine disrupting properties. Several of these chemicals are carcinogenic and positive associations have been suggested with breast cancer risk. In general population, diet represents the main source of exposure. METHODS: Associations between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and breast cancer were evaluated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from nine European countries using multivariable Cox regressions. The present study included 318,607 women (mean ± SD age: 50.7 ± 9.7) with 13,241 incident invasive breast cancers and a median follow-up of 14.9 years (IQR = 13.5-16.4). Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority. RESULTS: Exposure to dioxins, dioxins + Dioxin-Like-PCBs, Dioxin-Like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), and Non-Dioxin-Like-PCBs (NDL-PCBs) estimated from reported dietary intakes were not associated with breast cancer incidence, with the following hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for an increment of 1 SD: HRdioxins = 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), HRdioxins+DL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), HRDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), and HRNDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03). Results remained unchanged when analyzing intakes as quintile groups, as well as when analyses were run separately per country, or separating breast cancer cases based on estrogen receptor status or after further adjustments on main contributing food groups to PCBs and dioxins intake and nutritional factors. CONCLUSIONS: This large European prospective study does not support the hypothesis of an association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403197

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with and without CHD risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPIC-CVD is a case-cohort study of 29 333 participants that included 13 582 incident CHD cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Self-reported physical activity was summarized using the Cambridge physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Participants were categorized into sub-groups based on the presence or the absence of the following risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥6.2 mmol/L), history of diabetes, hypertension (self-reported or ≥140/90 mmHg), and current smoking. Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the association between physical activity and incident CHD events (non-fatal and fatal).Compared to inactive participants without the respective CHD risk factor (referent), excess CHD risk was highest in physically inactive and lowest in moderately active participants with CHD risk factors. Corresponding excess CHD risk estimates amongst those with obesity were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32-64%] and 21% (95%CI 2-44%), with hypercholesterolaemia were 80% (95%CI 55-108%) and 48% (95%CI 22-81%), with hypertension were 80% (95%CI 65-96%) and 49% (95%CI 28-74%), with diabetes were 142% (95%CI 63-260%), and 100% (95%CI 32-204%), and amongst smokers were 152% (95%CI 122-186%) and 109% (95%CI 74-150%). CONCLUSIONS: In people with CHD risk factors, moderate physical activity, equivalent to 40 mins of walking per day, attenuates but does not completely offset CHD risk.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with four methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available GWAS were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (Relative Risk Estimate (RRE)IVW=0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.97;1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) exhibit significantly increased chronic diseases and premature death. Abnormalities in DNA methylation are associated with development of chronic diseases and reduced life expectancy. We investigated the hypothesis that anti-cancer treatments are associated with long-term DNA methylation changes that could be key drivers of adverse late health effects. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed using MethylationEPIC arrays in paired samples (before/after therapy) from 32 childhood cancer patients. Separately, methylation was determined in 32 samples from different adult CCS (mean 22-years post-diagnosis) and compared with cancer-free controls (n = 284). RESULTS: Widespread DNA methylation changes were identified post-treatment in childhood cancer patients, including 146 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which were consistently altered in the 32 post-treatment samples. Analysis of adult CCS identified matching methylation changes at 107/146 of the DMRs, suggesting potential long-term retention of post-therapy changes. Adult survivors also exhibited epigenetic age acceleration, independent of DMR methylation. Furthermore, altered methylation at the DUSP6 DMR was significantly associated with early mortality, suggesting altered methylation may be prognostic for some late adverse health effects in CCS. CONCLUSIONS: These novel methylation changes could serve as biomarkers for assessing normal cell toxicity in ongoing treatments and predicting long-term health outcomes in CCS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172329

RESUMO

Educational inequalities in all-cause mortality have been observed for decades. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are not well known. We aimed to assess the role of DNA methylation changes in blood captured by epigenetic clocks in explaining these inequalities. Data were from eight prospective population-based cohort studies, representing 13,021 participants. First, educational inequalities and their portion explained by Horvath DNAmAge, Hannum DNAmAge, DNAmPhenoAge, and DNAmGrimAge epigenetic clocks were assessed in each cohort via counterfactual-based mediation models, on both absolute (hazard difference) and relative (hazard ratio) scales, and by sex. Second, estimates from each cohort were pooled through a random effect meta-analysis model. Men with low education had an excess mortality from all causes of 57 deaths per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 38, 76) compared to their more advantaged counterparts. For women, the excess mortality was 4 deaths per 10,000 person-years (95% CI: -11, 19). On the relative scale, educational inequalities corresponded to hazard ratios of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.57) for men and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.37) for women. DNAmGrimAge accounted for the largest proportion, approximately 50%, of the educational inequalities for men, while the proportion was negligible for women. Most of this mediation was explained by differential effects of unhealthy lifestyles and morbidities of the WHO risk factors for premature mortality. These results support DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging as a signature of educational inequalities in life expectancy emphasizing the need for policies to address the unequal social distribution of these WHO risk factors.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 1914-1926, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1255-1268, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843121

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling  = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 312, 2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we observed a higher risk of breast cancer associated with higher blood concentrations of one metabolite (acetylcarnitine) and a lower risk associated with higher blood concentrations of seven others (arginine, asparagine, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) aa C36:3, ae C34:2, ae C36:2, ae C36:3, and ae C38:2). METHODS: To identify determinants of these breast cancer-related metabolites, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify their lifestyle and anthropometric correlates in 2358 women, who were previously included as controls in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and not using exogenous hormones at blood collection. Associations of each metabolite concentration with 42 variables were assessed using linear regression models in a discovery set of 1572 participants. Significant associations were evaluated in a validation set (n = 786). RESULTS: For the metabolites previously associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, concentrations of PCs ae C34:2, C36:2, C36:3, and C38:2 were negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with total and saturated fat intakes. PC ae C36:2 was also negatively associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with two scores reflecting adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Asparagine concentration was negatively associated with adiposity. Arginine and PC aa C36:3 concentrations were not associated to any of the factors examined. For the metabolite previously associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, acetylcarnitine, a positive association with age was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These associations may indicate possible mechanisms underlying associations between lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and risk of breast cancer. Further research is needed to identify potential non-lifestyle correlates of the metabolites investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959986

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may promote oxidative stress and inflammation and have been linked to multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. However, the association of AGEs with mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has not been previously investigated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between dietary intake of AGEs with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 5801 participant cases diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study between 1993 and 2013. Dietary intakes of AGEs were estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires, linked to an AGE database, that accounted for food preparation and processing. During a median of 58 months of follow-up, 2421 cases died (1841 from CRC). Individually or combined, dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality among cases. However, there was a suggestion for a positive association between AGEs and all-cause or CRC-specific mortality among CRC cases without type II diabetes (all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.05) and CRC cases with the longest follow-up between recruitment and cancer diagnosis (CRC-specific, Pinteraction = 0.003; all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study suggests that pre-diagnostic dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC patients. Further investigations using biomarkers of AGEs and stratifying by sex, diabetes status, and timing of exposure to AGEs are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805742

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have consistently reported that postmenopausal hormone therapy use is associated with lower colon cancer risk, but epidemiologic studies examining the associations between circulating concentrations of endogenous estrogens and colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. Methods: We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with colon cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 1028 postmenopausal European women (512 colon cancer cases, 516 matched controls) who were noncurrent users of exogenous hormones at blood collection. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the association between circulating sex hormones and colon cancer risk. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies of circulating estrone and estradiol with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: In the multivariable model, a nonstatistically significantly positive relationship was found between circulating estrone and colon cancer risk (odds ratio per log2 1-unit increment = 1.17 [95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.38]; odds ratioquartile4-quartile1 = 1.33 [95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.97], P trend = .20). Circulating concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, progesterone, and SHBG were not associated with colon cancer risk. In the dose-response meta-analysis, no clear evidence of associations were found between circulating estradiol and estrone concentrations with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our observational and meta-analysis results do not support an association between circulating concentrations of endogenous sex hormones and colon or rectal cancer in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Androstenodiona/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrona/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Progesterona/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e019814, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796724

RESUMO

Background There is controversy about associations between total dietary fatty acids, their classes (saturated fatty acids [SFAs], monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the relevance of food sources of SFAs to CHD associations is uncertain. Methods and Results We conducted a case-cohort study involving 10 529 incident CHD cases and a random subcohort of 16 730 adults selected from a cohort of 385 747 participants in 9 countries of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We estimated multivariable adjusted country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per 5% of energy intake from dietary fatty acids, with and without isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled results using random-effects meta-analysis. We found no evidence for associations of the consumption of total or fatty acid classes with CHD, regardless of macronutrient substitutions. In analyses considering food sources, CHD incidence was lower per 1% higher energy intake of SFAs from yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99]), cheese (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00]), and fish (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75-1.00]), but higher for SFAs from red meat (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]) and butter (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.00-1.04]). Conclusions This observational study found no strong associations of total fatty acids, SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with incident CHD. By contrast, we found associations of SFAs with CHD in opposite directions dependent on the food source. These findings should be further confirmed, but support public health recommendations to consider food sources alongside the macronutrients they contain, and suggest the importance of the overall food matrix.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Nutrientes
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003834, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food biodiversity, encompassing the variety of plants, animals, and other organisms consumed as food and drink, has intrinsic potential to underpin diverse, nutritious diets and improve Earth system resilience. Dietary species richness (DSR), which is recommended as a crosscutting measure of food biodiversity, has been positively associated with the micronutrient adequacy of diets in women and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the relationships between DSR and major health outcomes have yet to be assessed in any population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the associations between DSR and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 451,390 adults enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study (1992 to 2014, median follow-up: 17 years), free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack, or stroke at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed at recruitment with country-specific dietary questionnaires (DQs). DSR of an individual's yearly diet was calculated based on the absolute number of unique biological species in each (composite) food and drink. Associations were assessed by fitting multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. In the EPIC cohort, 2 crops (common wheat and potato) and 2 animal species (cow and pig) accounted for approximately 45% of self-reported total dietary energy intake [median (P10-P90): 68 (40 to 83) species consumed per year]. Overall, higher DSR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality rate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing total mortality in the second, third, fourth, and fifth (highest) quintiles (Qs) of DSR to the first (lowest) Q indicate significant inverse associations, after stratification by sex, age, and study center and adjustment for smoking status, educational level, marital status, physical activity, alcohol intake, and total energy intake, Mediterranean diet score, red and processed meat intake, and fiber intake [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.76 to 0.83), 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72), and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66), respectively; PWald < 0.001 for trend]. Absolute death rates among participants in the highest and lowest fifth of DSR were 65.4 and 69.3 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Significant inverse associations were also observed between DSR and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, digestive disease, and respiratory disease. An important study limitation is that our findings were based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through single baseline food frequency questionnaires (FFQs); thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: In this large Pan-European cohort, higher DSR was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other known dietary risk factors. Our findings support the potential of food (species) biodiversity as a guiding principle of sustainable dietary recommendations and food-based dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Causas de Morte , Alimentos , Mortalidade , Adulto , Bebidas , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578868

RESUMO

The Diet and Androgen-5 (DIANA-5) trial aimed at testing whether a dietary change based on the Mediterranean diet and on macrobiotic principles can reduce the incidence of breast cancer (BC)-related events. We analyzed the adherence to the DIANA-5 dietary recommendations by randomization group after 1 year of intervention. We evaluated the association between dietary adherence and changes in body weight and metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters. BC women aged 35-70 years were eligible. After the baseline examinations, women were randomized into an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A total of 1344 BC women (689 IG and 655 CG) concluded the first year of dietary intervention. IG showed greater anthropometric and metabolic improvements compared to CG. These changes were significantly associated with increased adherence to the dietary recommendations. Women who increased recommended foods consumption or reduced discouraged foods consumption showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.37 (0.70-2.67) and 2.02 (1.03-3.98) to improve three or more MS parameters. Moreover, women in the higher category of dietary change showed a four times higher OR of reducing body weight compared to the lower category (p < 0.001). The DIANA-5 dietary intervention is effective in reducing body weight and MS parameters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2179-2187, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale. RESULTS: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease. IMPACT: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.See related commentary by Michaud and Kelsey, p. 2176.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
18.
Clin Nutr ; 40(9): 5079-5088, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a worldwide shift towards increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with concurrent rising prevalence of obesity. We examined the relationship between the consumption of UPF and weight gain and risk of obesity. METHODS: This prospective cohort included 348 748 men and women aged 25-70 years. Participants were recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 9 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Two body weight measures were available, at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5 years. Foods and drinks were assessed at baseline by dietary questionnaires and classified according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to estimate the association between UPF consumption and body weight change (kg/5 years). To estimate the relative risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years we used Poisson regression stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, higher UPF consumption (per 1 SD increment) was positively associated with weight gain (0·12 kg/5 years, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·15). Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of UPF consumption was associated with a 15% greater risk (95% CI 1·11, 1·19) of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight participants, and with a 16% greater risk (95% CI 1·09, 1·23) of becoming obese in participants who were overweight at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These results are supportive of public health campaigns to substitute UPF for less processed alternatives for obesity prevention and weight management.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.

20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(9): 1196-1205, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279548

RESUMO

Importance: Premature death from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes is higher among persons with diabetes. Objective: To investigate the association between time spent cycling and all-cause and CVD mortality among persons with diabetes, as well as to evaluate the association between change in time spent cycling and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 7459 adults with diabetes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Questionnaires regarding medical history, sociodemographic, and lifestyle information were administered in 10 Western European countries from 1992 through 2000 (baseline examination) and at a second examination 5 years after baseline. A total of 5423 participants with diabetes completed both examinations. The final updated primary analysis was conducted on November 13, 2020. Exposures: The primary exposure was self-reported time spent cycling per week at the baseline examination. The secondary exposure was change in cycling status from baseline to the second examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, adjusted for other physical activity modalities, diabetes duration, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Of the 7459 adults with diabetes included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 55.9 (7.7) years, and 3924 (52.6%) were female. During 110 944 person-years of follow-up, 1673 deaths from all causes were registered. Compared with the reference group of people who reported no cycling at baseline (0 min/wk), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-0.99), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.91) for cycling 1 to 59, 60 to 149, 150 to 299, and 300 or more min/wk, respectively. In an analysis of change in time spent cycling with 57 802 person-years of follow-up, a total of 975 deaths from all causes were recorded. Compared with people who reported no cycling at both examinations, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.71-1.14) in those who cycled and then stopped, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46-0.92) in initial noncyclists who started cycling, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80) for people who reported cycling at both examinations. Similar results were observed for CVD mortality. Conclusion and Relevance: In this cohort study, cycling was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk among people with diabetes independent of practicing other types of physical activity. Participants who took up cycling between the baseline and second examination had a considerably lower risk of both all-cause and CVD mortality compared with consistent noncyclists.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/reabilitação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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