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1.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For human papilloma virus positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), management recommendations for patients with a single metastatic lymph node <6 cm in diameter remain nebulous, leading to treatment heterogeneity in this common subgroup of patients. METHODS: We utilized the National Cancer Database to perform survival and multivariable analyses of patients with HPV+ OPSCC with one positive lymph node <6 cm and negative surgical margins. RESULTS: We found that 5-year survival is comparable between patients who receive surgery and adjuvant radiation versus surgery alone. In multivariable analyses, we found no significant difference in the hazard ratio of overall survival after adjusting for various potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that patients with margin-negative HPV+ OPSCC with a single positive lymph node <6 cm have comparable survival with or without adjuvant radiation. Future studies exploring outcomes for this specific group in randomized-controlled trials will be critical for further evaluating these initial observations.

2.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race has been shown to have variable prognostic importance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, previous studies are limited by a lack of comprehensive treatment, epidemiologic, and comorbidity data. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for overall survival. RESULTS: A cohort of 9995 patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Race, insurance, comorbidity, treatment, stage, age, and histology were independent prognosticators. Among patients with keratinizing NPC, Asians and Hispanics had superior survival (aHR 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.69], aHR 0.76 [95% CI 0.61-0.96]) compared to white patients. Among patients with non-keratinizing differentiated NPC, Asians and black patients had improved survival (aHR 0.71 [95% CI 0.56-0.91], aHR 0.72 [95% CI 0.54-0.95]) compared to white patients. Race was not prognostic in non-keratinizing undifferentiated NPC. CONCLUSION: The prognostic significance of race varies across histological subtypes of NPC.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273

RESUMO

Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

4.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 246-253, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-third of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) present with locally advanced disease involving the regional lymph nodes, but indications for regional lymph node radiation therapy (rLN-RT) are not well established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 patients with locally advanced MCC were retrospectively reviewed. Regional lymph nodes were addressed with observation, lymph node dissection (LND) alone, definitive nodal radiotherapy (DnRT), or LND plus adjuvant nodal radiotherapy (AnRT). Cox regression was used to compare treatment modalities in terms of regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, improved RRFS (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.40, p = 0.003), DRFS (HR: 0.28, CI: 0.11-0.76, p = 0.01), DFS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.09-0.58, p = 0.002), and DSS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.06-0.90, p = 0.03). AnRT improved DFS and DSS in high-risk subgroups (e.g., extranodal extension (ENE), ≥ 2 positive lymph nodes, or bulkier lymph nodes). The benefit of AnRT increased with higher disease burden. After controlling for these adverse factors, AnRT significantly improved RRFS (HR: 0.04, CI: 0.01-0.37, p = 0.004), DRFS (HR: 0.14, CI: 0.04-0.50, p = 0.003), DFS (HR: 0.09, CI: 0.02-0.33, p < 0.001), and DSS (HR: 0.21, CI: 0.05-0.89, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, reduces relapse and death from MCC in patients with node-positive disease. AnRT is particularly beneficial for patients with ENE, multiple involved lymph nodes, or larger nodal foci of disease. These results argue for more liberal use of nodal RT for MCC patients who present with node-positive disease.

5.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2246-e2258, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there is shared regional or global functional connectivity dysfunction in a large cohort of patients with isolated focal dystonia affecting different body regions compared to control participants. In this case-control study, we obtained resting-state MRI scans (three or four 7.3-minute runs) with eyes closed in participants with focal dystonia (cranial [17], cervical [13], laryngeal [18], or limb [10]) and age- and sex-matched controls. METHODS: Rigorous preprocessing for all analyses was performed to minimize effect of head motion during scan acquisition (dystonia n = 58, control n = 47 analyzed). We assessed regional functional connectivity by computing a seed-correlation map between putamen, pallidum, and sensorimotor cortex and all brain voxels. We assessed significant group differences on a cluster-wise basis. In a separate analysis, we applied 300 seed regions across the cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus to comprehensively sample the whole brain. We obtained participant whole-brain correlation matrices by computing the correlation between seed average time courses for each seed pair. Weighted object-oriented data analysis assessed group-level whole-brain differences. RESULTS: Participants with focal dystonia had decreased functional connectivity at the regional level, within the striatum and between lateral primary sensorimotor cortex and ventral intraparietal area, whereas whole-brain correlation matrices did not differ between focal dystonia and control groups. Rigorous quality control measures eliminated spurious large-scale functional connectivity differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Regional functional connectivity differences, not global network level dysfunction, contributes to common pathophysiologic mechanisms in isolated focal dystonia. Rigorous quality control eliminated spurious large-scale network differences between patients with focal dystonia and control participants.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios Distônicos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
6.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In-office recurrent laryngeal nerve conduction studies (NCSs) are a technique that can potentially provide information about laryngeal innervation. NCS is essential in the management of other neuropathies including carpal tunnel syndrome and spinal cord injury. We hypothesize that laryngeal NCS may have similar utility in managing patients with vocal fold paralysis, atrophy, and neurodegenerative disease. NCSs are technically challenging because they require transcervical stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study combines radiographic data with cadaveric dissection to describe the anatomic parameters for optimal RLN stimulation. STUDY DESIGN: Radiographic and Cadaveric Study. METHODS: Fifty computed tomography scans were reviewed to determine the dimensions for ideal needle electrode placement. These values were compared to measurements from 12 fresh human cadaveric neck dissections. Ultrasound imaging was utilized in select cases. The neck was dissected to assess the accuracy of electrode placement. RESULTS: Radiographically, the mean transcervical depth to the RLN was 33.2 mm ± 8.3 mm in males versus 29.4 mm ± 9.4 mm in females. The working space between the lateral trachea and carotid artery was 15.3 mm ± 3.6 mm on the right and 14.1 mm ± 2.9 mm on the left. After placement of stimulating electrodes into the cadaveric neck, the electrode tips were consistently within 8 mm of the RLN. Ultrasound guidance improved placement accuracy of the stimulating electrode. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngeal NCSs can provide detailed and objective information about laryngeal innervation that could dramatically improve the management of various neuropathies. In-office NCSs require technical precision, and this study describes anatomic factors that may affect the feasibility of performing this technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2020.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5140-5152, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aims of this study were to determine if pembrolizumab would be safe, result in pathologic tumor response (pTR), and lower the relapse rate in patients with resectable human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (200 mg) was administered and followed 2 to 3 weeks later by surgical tumor ablation. Postoperative (chemo)radiation was planned. Patients with high-risk pathology (positive margins and/or extranodal extension) received adjuvant pembrolizumab. pTR was quantified as the proportion of the resection bed with tumor necrosis, keratinous debris, and giant cells/histiocytes: pTR-0 (<10%), pTR-1 (10%-49%), and pTR-2 (≥50%). Coprimary endpoints were pTR-2 among all patients and 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology (historical: 35%). Correlations of baseline PD-L1 and T-cell infiltration with pTR were assessed. Tumor clonal dynamics were evaluated (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02296684). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients enrolled. After neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, serious (grades 3-4) adverse events and unexpected surgical delays/complications did not occur. pTR-2 occurred in eight patients (22%), and pTR-1 in eight other patients (22%). One-year relapse rate among 18 patients with high-risk pathology was 16.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-41.4%). pTR ≥10% correlated with baseline tumor PD-L1, immune infiltrate, and IFNγ activity. Matched samples showed upregulation of inhibitory checkpoints in patients with pTR-0 and confirmed clonal loss in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with locally advanced, HPV-unrelated HNSCC, pembrolizumab was safe, and any pathologic response was observed in 44% of patients with 0% pathologic complete responses. The 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology was lower than historical.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104819, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in radiation are multifactorial, frequent, and associated with poor outcomes. This study investigates the effect of both primary and adjuvant radiation therapy duration and their interaction with other measures of treatment delay on survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: We built a retrospective cohort using the National Cancer Database, consisting of primary oral cavity, hypopharynx, larynx and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastasis and with at least six weeks of radiation. The primary exposure was the duration of radiation therapy (DRT), and the primary outcome was death. We estimated the association between DRT and 5-year overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier curves and hazard ratios (HRs) with Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: In both primary (definitive) and adjuvant (post-surgical) radiation settings, increased DRT results in decreased survival. In the primary radiation cohort, 5-year OS was 59.7% [59.1%-60.3%] among those with 47-53 days DRT, which decreased significantly with each subsequent week to completion (81+ days: 38.4% [36.2%-40.7%]). In the surgical cohort, survival decreased 16.5% when DRT extended beyond 75 days (40-46 days: 68.2% [67.3%-69.1%] vs. 75+ days: 53.3% [50.1%-56.7%]). Multivariate analyses showed increased hazard of death with increased DRT (primary radiation: 81+ days HR: 1.69 [1.58-1.81]); surgical: 75+ days HR: 1.61 [1.37-1.88]), with effects intensifying when restricting to those receiving full-dose radiation. CONCLUSION: A prolonged DRT was associated with worse OS in head and neck cancer. Radiation treatment delays of even a week lead to a significant survival disadvantage. DRT had a stronger association with survival than time to initiation of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(4): 102536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487337

RESUMO

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify factors associated with skin graft take in fibula free flaps (FFF) and radial forearm free flaps (RFFF) donor sites. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine which factors are associated with decreased skin graft take at the donor site in FFF and RFFF in head and neck patients. DESIGN: Retrospective Chart Review Case Series. SETTING: Multicenter Tertiary Care. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was performed at three institutions identifying patients who underwent free tissue transfer, specifically either FFF or RFFF, between 2007 and 2017. Patient demographics, medical history, and social history were examined including age, gender, BMI, smoking status, diabetes and preoperative anticoagulation use. Preoperative, intraoperative data, and postoperative data were also examined including tourniquet use, type of flap, area of skin graft, if the skin graft had a donor site or if it was taken from the flap, wound NPWT use, cast use, use of physical therapy, DVT prophylaxis, limb ischemia, heparin drip, and postoperative aspirin use. Statistical analysis was used to determine which factors were significantly associated with skin graft take. RESULTS: 1415 patients underwent a forearm or fibula flap and 938 patients underwent split-thickness skin graft. Of these, 592 patients had sufficient information and were included in the final analysis. There were 371 males and 220 females. The average age was 55.7. Complete skin graft take was seen in 480 patients (81.1%). On univariate analysis, patients with diabetes (p = .003), type of flap (fibula p < .001), skin graft area (p = .006), tourniquet use (p = .003), DVT prophylaxis (p = .008) and casting (p = .003) were significantly associated with decreased skin graft take rate. In a multivariate analysis, diabetes (OR 2.17 (95%CI 1.16-3.98)), fibula flaps (OR 2.86 (95%CI 1.79-4.76)), an increase in skin graft area (OR 1.01 (95%CI 1.01-1.01)), post-operative aspirin (OR 2.63 (95%CI 1.15-5.88), and casting (OR 2.94 (95%CI 1.22-7.14)) were associated with poor rates of skin graft take. CONCLUSION: Several factors affect skin graft take rate and should be considered when performing a skin graft for a donor site defect.


Assuntos
Fíbula/cirurgia , Antebraço/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/transplante , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Transplantes , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Surdez , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Torniquetes , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
10.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(5): 837-841, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel surgical therapy for the treatment of medically refractory neuropathic cough, in which carefully selected subjects undergo surgical transection of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (iSLN). METHODS: Subjects with a diagnosis of neuropathic cough, who were not improved after two medication trials, underwent iSLN block with local anesthetic in the office. While anesthetized, they underwent provocative testing to determine whether the nerve block improved their symptoms; if so, a modified barium swallow study (MBSS) was performed to determine whether they still swallowed safely without supraglottic sensation. Those who passed this screening were offered operative iSLN transection. We retrospectively reviewed our results to date. RESULTS: Six subjects (5 females, ages 46-71), with neuropathic cough symptoms for 2-15 years, passed the screening and underwent iSLN transection procedures. At a mean follow-up of 8.2 months, significant symptomatic relief was experienced by 5/6 subjects, with Cough Severity Index (CSI) scores averaging 34.83 ± 6.94 pre-op (range 36-40) and 15.5 ± 11.81 post-op (range 0-29) (p = 0.043). Operative time averaged 49 min (range 30-64). There were no major complications. No subjects experienced post-op aspiration problems. CONCLUSION: This preliminary data supports iSLN transection as a viable option for subjects with refractory neuropathic cough. Our screening algorithm identifies subjects that would be expected to improve with this procedure and confirms a safe swallow.

11.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(3): 102404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our objective was to understand which variables are associated with hematoma formation at both the donor and recipient sites in head and neck free tissue transfer and if hematoma rates are affected by tourniquet use. METHODS: Patients were identified who underwent free tissue transfer at three institutions, specifically either a radial forearm free flap (RFFF) or a fibula free flap (FFF), between 2007 and 2017. Variables including use of tourniquet, anticoagulation, treatment factors, demographics, and post-operative factors were examined to see if they influenced hematoma formation at either the free tissue donor or recipient site. RESULTS: 1410 patients at three institutions were included in the analysis. There were 692 (49.1%) RFFF and 718 (50.9%) FFF. Tourniquets were used in 764 (54.1%) cases. There were 121 (8.5%) hematomas. Heparin drips (p < .001) and DVT prophylaxis (p = .03) were significantly associated with hematoma formation (OR 95% CI 12.23 (4.98-30.07), 3.46 (1.15-10.44) respectively) on multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin Drips and DVT prophylaxis significantly increased hematoma rates in free flap patients while tourniquets did not affect rates of hematoma.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/transplante , Hematoma/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Torniquetes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
12.
Laryngoscope ; 130(7): 1764-1769, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection injuries may occur during thyroidectomy and other surgical procedures. Laser nerve welding has been shown to cause less technique-related axonal damage than the traditional suture method. We compared functional adductor results using these two methods of RLN repair. STUDY DESIGN: Animal model. METHODS: Canine hemilarynges underwent pretreatment testing of laryngeal adductor function, followed by RLN transection and repair using potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser welding (n = 8) or microneural suture (n = 16) techniques. Six months later, adductor function was measured again and expressed as a proportion of the pretreatment value. RESULTS: The mean laryngeal adductor pressure ratios were 82.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.8%-92.0%) for the laser repair group and 55.5% (95% CI: 49.4%-61.6%) for the suture control group, with a difference of 26.9% (95% CI: 15.3%-38.5%). Both spontaneous and stimulated glottic closure was observed in the laser welding and microsuture repair groups. CONCLUSIONS: Laser nerve welding resulted in greater strength of adduction than suture repair of an acutely transected RLN. Suture anastomosis may traumatize more axons than the laser. Stronger vocal fold adduction is associated clinically with better protection from aspiration and improved voice outcomes. KTP laser welding should be considered for anastomosis of the RLN and other nerves. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 130:1764-1769, 2020.


Assuntos
Nervos Laríngeos/cirurgia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Fonação/fisiologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação , Nervos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia
13.
Laryngoscope ; 130(4): 939-945, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the prognostic significance of extranodal extension (ENE) in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-positive OPSCC). METHODS: Retrospective cohort of cases diagnosed with HPV-positive OPSCC from 2010 to 2015 in the National Cancer Database. Inclusion of all OPSCC HPV-positive cases with appropriate International Classification of Diseases-0-3 codes that received surgery with a neck dissection. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Hazard ratios (HR) for the independent effects of ENE and N stage on overall survival were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Cases that were ENE-negative had the highest 5-year survival (92.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.5%-94.7%). ENE-positive cases had the lowest 5-year survival (84.0%; 95% CI: 80.7%-87.4%). After adjusting for confounding variables, ENE-positivity was associated with almost twice the hazard of death (HR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.35-2.67) compared to ENE-negative cases. Nodal (N) category 1, ENE-positive status was associated with an increased risk of death (HR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26-2.80) compared with N1, ENE-negative status. Compared to N1/ENE-negative cases, N2/ENE-positive cases had the poorest survival (HR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.94-4.43). Both microscopic and macroscopic ENE were associated with worse outcomes compared to node-positive/ENE-negative status. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition staging system provides a much-improved framework to develop and discuss treatment plans for HPV-positive OPSCC. We feel that careful consideration should be given to the importance of ENE in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:939-945, 2020.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Extensão Extranodal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 146(1): 50-56, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697348

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) of the base of the tongue (BOT) has not been sufficiently studied. Objective: To investigate the rate of and risk factors for occult contralateral nodal disease in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC undergoing transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective case series reviewed the medical records of patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC who underwent transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2018, at the tertiary care center of Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Patients had a median follow-up of 30.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0-60.4 months). Patients with recurrent disease or multiple synchronous OPSCC primary tumors were excluded for a total of 89 patients. Data were analyzed from January 1 through June 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of contralateral occult nodal disease. Secondary outcomes were potential risk factors for contralateral occult nodal disease and regional recurrence rates. Results: Eighty-nine patients were included in the series, of whom 81 (91.0%) were men. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9) years. Overall, 34 patients (38.2%) had pathologic contralateral nodal metastases. Seventy patients had no clinical evidence of contralateral nodal disease. Of these 70, occult nodes were identified in 15 (21.4%). Risk of contralateral disease was higher when the primary tumor crossed midline (odds ratio, 6.23; 95% CI, 1.71-22.77). Of the 55 patients with no occult disease identified, only 2 (3.6%) received radiotherapy to the contralateral neck, and no regional recurrence of disease was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: Given the rate of occult contralateral nodal disease of 21.4%, it appears that contralateral elective neck dissection or radiotherapy should be recommended in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC. Patients with a pathologically negative result of contralateral neck dissection may not benefit from radiotherapy to that nodal basin. Future prospective investigations should evaluate functional and oncologic outcomes of contralateral elective neck dissection compared with elective radiotherapy in the contralateral neck for HPV-related BOT OPSCC.

15.
Med Oncol ; 36(11): 93, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595355

RESUMO

In patients with locally advanced human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC), cisplatin and radiation therapy (CisRT) resulted in a local-regional recurrence (LRR) rate of 35%, progression-free survival (PFS) of 49%, and overall survival (OS) of 60%. We, and others, showed that nab-paclitaxel is an active agent in metastatic and locally advanced HNSCC. The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel-based induction chemotherapy and CisRT in HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We performed a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients treated with nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy and CisRT. Key inclusion criteria included stage III-IV HPV-unrelated HNSCC. Induction chemotherapy included nab-paclitaxel and cisplatin (AP), AP + 5-fluorouracil (APF), or APF + Cetuximab (APF-C). Endpoints included LRR, overall relapse, PFS, and OS. Thirty-eight patients were the subject of this analysis. Patient characteristics included median age 59 years (IQR: 54-64) and smoking history in 36 patients (95%). Primary tumor sites included larynx/hypopharynx (27), p16 negative oropharynx (10), and oral cavity (1). Most patients had bulky disease: 82% T3-4 (n = 31) and 74% N2b-3 (n = 28). Median follow-up was 44 months (IQR: 23-59). The three-year LRR rate was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7-34) and the overall relapse rate was 22% (95% CI 11-41). The three-year PFS was 64% (95% CI 46-77) and OS was 72% (95% CI 54-84). Among patients with HPV-unrelated HNSCC, nab-paclitaxel-based induction chemotherapy and CisRT resulted in a lower-than-expected rate of LRR and more favorable PFS and OS compared to historical results with CisRT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(28): 2548-2555, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246526

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The volume treated with postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is a mediator of toxicity, and reduced volumes result in improved quality of life (QOL). In this phase II trial, treatment volumes were reduced by omitting PORT to the pathologically negative (PN0) neck in patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgical resection and neck dissection with a PN0 neck and high-risk features mandating PORT to the primary and/or involved neck were eligible. The primary end point was greater than 90% disease control in the unirradiated neck. QOL was evaluated using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory and the University of Michigan patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were enrolled, and 72 were evaluable. Median age was 56 years (range, 31 to 81 years); 58 patients were male, and 47 (65%) had a smoking history. Sites included oral cavity (n = 14), oropharynx (n = 37), hypopharynx (n = 4), larynx (n = 16), and unknown primary tumor (n = 1). According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual (7th edition), 67 patients (93%) had stage III/IV disease, and 71% of tumors involved or crossed midline. No patient had contralateral neck PORT. In 17 patients (24%), only the primary site was treated. At a median follow-up of 53 months, two patients experienced treatment failure of the PN0 unirradiated neck; they also experienced treatment failure locally. Unirradiated neck control was 97% (95% CI, 93.4% to 100.0%). Five-year rates of local control, regional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 84%, 93%, 60%, and 64%, respectively. QOL measures were not significantly different from baseline at 12 and 24 months post-PORT (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Eliminating PORT to the PN0 neck resulted in excellent control rates in the unirradiated neck without long-term adverse effects on global QOL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(5): 413-421, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920592

RESUMO

Importance: Better biomarkers are needed for human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) to identify patients at risk of recurrence. Lymphopenia and an elevated ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (NLR) have been associated with poor disease outcomes in a number of solid tumors. Objective: To test the hypothesis that postradiotherapy lymphopenia and elevated NLR are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-institution retrospective analysis included patients with HPV-negative OPC treated from January 1, 1997, through January 4, 2017. Median follow-up was 37 months (range, 2-197 months). A total of 108 patients with HPV-negative OPC and at least 1 complete blood cell count 2 to 12 months after the start of radiotherapy were included. Data were analyzed from August 26 to September 7, 2017. Interventions: Surgery followed by radiotherapy vs definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Absolute lymphocyte (ALC) and absolute neutrophil (ANC) counts were tested as variables affecting locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Of a total of 108 patients included in the analysis (87.0% male; mean age, 56 years [range, 35-84 years]), 57 received surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy and 51 received definitive radiotherapy. During treatment, 67 of 79 patients (84.8%) had grades 3 to 4 lymphopenia and 17 of 79 (21.5%) had grade 4 lymphopenia. The ANC recovered by 6 months after radiotherapy, but ALC remained depressed to 1 year after radiotherapy. Posttreatment lymphopenia and elevated NLR were associated with worse recurrence-free and overall survival. The estimated 3-year LRC in patients with and without grades 3 to 4 lymphopenia at 3 months after radiotherapy start was 73% vs 82% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.19-1.8); estimated 3-year recurrence-free survival, 36% vs 63% (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87); and estimated 3-year overall survival, 34% vs 64% (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.88). In multivariable analysis, an association with worse overall survival was found for definitive radiotherapy (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6-7.1) and grades 3 to 4 lymphopenia (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.5) at 3 months after radiotherapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Lymphopenia and NLR as early as 3 months after treatment start may serve as biomarkers of clinical outcomes in patients with HPV-negative OPC. These patients may benefit from adjuvant treatment intensification or closer surveillance.


Assuntos
Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/etiologia , Neutrófilos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/sangue , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfopenia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Head Neck ; 41(3): 722-729, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine practice patterns and outcomes of laryngeal small cell cancer (LSCC) across the United States. METHODS: Patients with LSCC were identified in the National Cancer Database. Overall survival (OS) was compared with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2014, the 5-year OS for early stage (n = 47), locally advanced stage (n = 133), and metastatic disease (n = 53) was 34%, 26%, and 9%, respectively. Chemoradiation was given in 66% of cases. Chemotherapy was less likely given in early stage disease (P = .001), and definitive radiation was less likely given in metastatic disease (P < .001). Definitive radiation improved median OS in locally advanced LSCC (20 vs. 7 months, log-rank P = .04). In multivariable modeling, radiation dose ≥40 Gy was associated with better OS (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation was the most common practice for treating locally advanced LSCC, and radiation dose ≥40 Gy was associated with improved OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Laríngeas/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Laryngoscope ; 129(12): 2744-2747, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Injection laryngoplasty has become valuable in treating laryngologic disorders including vocal cord atrophy, paralysis, and paresis. Although materials such as carboxymethylcellulose and calcium hydroxylapatite are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, they are not without limitations. Juvederm (hyaluronic acid) is an alternative treatment that is not FDA approved. Although studies have examined Juvederm's longevity in cutaneous injections, there are limited data examining durability of Juvederm used in laryngoplasty. We aimed to determine the longevity and effectiveness of Juvederm used in injection laryngoplasty. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Subjects who underwent injection laryngoplasty using Juvederm were reviewed. Longevity was defined as the time between injection and the date that a patient first noted subjective deterioration of their voice. All subjects were subsequently followed using videostroboscopy to evaluate for Juvederm resorption. Longevity was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier survival model, and effectiveness of laryngoplasty was determined using the Voice-Related Quality of Life index scores and analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test. RESULTS: Fifty-nine subjects met inclusion criteria and underwent Juvederm injection laryngoplasty. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a mean longevity of 10.6 months (95% confidence interval: 9.1-12.0 months). Wilcoxon signed ranks analysis of the pre- and postinjection Voice Related Quality of Life (VRQOL) scores revealed improvement, with a mean preinjection VRQOL of 49.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 25.8) and mean postinjection VRQOL of 68.2 (SD = 27.5) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Injection laryngoplasty using Juvederm is an effective treatment for vocal cord atrophy, paralysis, and paresis. Knowledge of the patient-defined duration of benefit following laryngoplasty using Juvederm plays an important role in counseling patients as well as in the planning of future interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:2744-2747, 2019.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico/análogos & derivados , Laringoplastia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Viscossuplementos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 127(10): 667-671, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) without an identifiable cause is termed idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis (IUVFP). Some authors have postulated that select cases of IUVFP have a viral etiology, but the causality has not been established. We set out to review institutional cases of IUVFP and determine if there is a correlation between upper respiratory infection symptoms and presentation of IUVFP. METHODS: Cases of IUVFP were reviewed over a 10-year period (2002-2012). The history was investigated to review presenting symptoms. We specifically reviewed for symptoms of upper respiratory infection at the onset of UVFP and tallied the frequency. Symptoms included sore throat, laryngitis, cough, influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, otalgia, and sinusitis. The seasonal onset (if possible) was determined based on the history provided from the initial consultation. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. RESULTS: Overall, 107 patients presented with IUVFP; 35.5% of patients reported symptoms of upper respiratory infection at the onset of UVFP. Among these individuals, pharyngitis/laryngitis was the most common presenting symptom; 34.2% reported cough. In total, 40.0% of patients with IUVFP reported an onset of symptoms between December and February. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that symptoms of upper respiratory infection frequently occur with the presentation of IUVFP. The onset of symptoms tended to occur between December and February. The mechanism of viral-mediated UVFP has not been established. Future studies to explore this pathophysiology are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/etiologia , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia
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