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1.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732366

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a school-based karate intervention on academic achievement, psychosocial functioning, and physical fitness in children aged 7-8 years. METHODS: Twenty schools in 5 different European countries (2 second-grade classrooms per school) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (Sport at School trial). Participants were assigned to either a control group, which continued with their habitual physical education lessons, or to an intervention group, which replaced these lessons with a 1-year karate intervention (Karate Mind and Movement program). A total of 721 children (344 girls and 377 boys, 7.4 ± 0.5 years old, mean ± SD) completed the study, of which 333 and 388 were assigned to the control group and intervention group, respectively. Outcomes included academic performance (average grade), psychosocial functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents), and different markers of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and flexibility). RESULTS: The intervention provided small but significant benefits compared to the control group for academic achievement (d = 0.16; p = 0.003), conduct problems (d = -0.28; p = 0.003), cardiorespiratory fitness (d = 0.36; p < 0.001), and balance (d = 0.24; p = 0.015). There was a trend towards significant benefits for flexibility (d = 0.24; p = 0.056). No significant benefits were observed for other variables, including psychosocial difficulties, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, or prosocial behaviour (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 1-year school-based karate intervention was effective in improving academic achievement, conduct problems, and physical fitness in primary school children. The results support the inclusion of karate during physical education lessons.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(12): 2577-2585, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, a modified intermittent fasting protocol was demonstrated to be able to maintain muscle mass and strength, decrease fat mass, and improve some inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy resistance-trained males after 2 months. The present study sought to investigate the long-term effects on these parameters. METHODS: The experiment was a single-blind randomized study. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled and underwent 12 months of either a time-restricted eating (TRE) diet or a normal diet (ND) protocol, along with resistance training. In the TRE protocol, subjects consumed their energy needs in three meals during an 8-h period of time each day (1 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). Subjects in the ND group also had three meals, which were consumed at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution at baseline. RESULTS: After 12 months of TRE, body mass, fat mass, insulin-like growth factor 1, and testosterone were significantly lower compared with ND. Moreover, inflammatory markers (interleukin 6, interleukin 1ß, and tumor necrosis factor α), insulin sensitivity (fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index), and lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL, and LDL) significantly improved after TRE compared with ND. Finally, subjects in TRE spontaneously decreased their daily energy intake, whereas those in ND maintained their starting kilocalories per day. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that long-term TRE combined with a resistance training program is feasible, safe, and effective in reducing inflammatory markers and risk factors related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574676

RESUMO

Exercise generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), creating a redox imbalance towards oxidation when inadequately intense. Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) breathed while not exercising induces antioxidant enzymes expression, but literature is still poor. Twenty-two athletes were assigned to five groups: controls; 30%, or 50% O2; 100% O2 (HBO) at 1.5 or 2.5 atmosphere absolute (ATA). Twenty treatments were administered on non-training days. Biological samples were collected at T0 (baseline), T1 (end of treatments), and T2 (1 month after) to assess ROS, antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation, redox (amino-thiols) and inflammatory (IL-6, 10, TNF-α) status, renal function (i.e., neopterin), miRNA, and hemoglobin. At T1, O2 mixtures and HBO induced an increase of ROS, lipid peroxidation and decreased TAC, counterbalanced at T2. Furthermore, 50% O2 and HBO treatments determined a reduced state in T2. Neopterin concentration increased at T1 breathing 50% O2 and HBO at 2.5 ATA. The results suggest that 50% O2 treatment determined a reduced state in T2; HBO at 1.5 and 2.5 ATA similarly induced protective mechanisms against ROS, despite the latter could expose the body to higher ROS levels and neopterin concentrations. HBO resulted in increased Hb levels and contributed to immunomodulation by regulating interleukin and miRNA expression.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio
4.
Front Physiol ; 12: 681370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267673

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate if the combination of static and dynamic postural balance assessments gives more accurate indications on balance performance among healthy older adults. We also aimed at studying the effect of a dual-task condition on static and dynamic postural balance control. Fifty-seven healthy older adults (age = 73.2 ± 5.0 year, height = 1.66 ± 0.08 m, and body mass = 72.8 ± 13.8 kg) completed the study. Static and dynamic balance were assessed both in single-task and dual-task conditions through a force plate and an oscillating platform. The dominant handgrip strength was also measured with a dynamometer. Pearson's correlation revealed non-statistically significant correlations between static and dynamic balance performance. The dual-task worsened the balance performance more in the dynamic (+147.8%) than in the static (+25.10%, +43.45%, and +72.93% for ellipse area, sway path, and AP oscillations, respectively) condition (p < 0.001). A weak correlation was found between dynamic balance performance and handgrip strength both in the single (p < 0.05; r = -0.264) and dual (p < 0.05; r = -0.302) task condition. The absence of correlations between static and dynamic balance performance suggests including both static and dynamic balance tests in the assessment of postural balance alterations among older adults. Since cognitive-interference tasks exacerbated the degradation of the postural control performance, dual-task condition should also be considered in the postural balance assessment.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-68, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250885

RESUMO

Obesity remains a serious relevant public health concern throughout the world despite related countermeasures being well understood (i.e., mainly physical activity and an adjusted diet). Among different nutritional approaches, there is a growing interest in ketogenic diets (KDs) to manipulate body mass (BM) and to enhance fat mass (FM) loss. KDs reduce the daily amount of carbohydrate intake drastically. This results in increased fatty acid utilization, leading to an increase in blood ketone bodies (KBs) (acetoacetate [AcAc], 3-ß-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], and acetone), and therefore metabolic ketosis. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have focused on reducing dietary fat with little or conflicting positive results over the long-term. Moreover, current nutritional guidelines for athletes propose carbohydrate-based diets to augment muscular adaptations. This review discusses the physiological basis of KDs and their effects on BM reduction and body composition improvements in sedentary individuals combined with different types of exercise (resistance training [RT] or endurance training [ET]) in individuals with obesity and athletes. Ultimately, we discuss the strengths and the weaknesses of these nutritional interventions together with precautionary measures that should be observed in both individuals with obesity and athletic populations. A literature search from 1921 to April 2021 using MEDLINE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, PUBMED, WEB OF SCIENCE, SCOPUS, and SPORTDISCUS databases were used to identify relevant studies. In summary, based on the current evidence, KDs are an efficient method to reduce BM and body fat in both individuals with obesity and athletes. However, these positive impacts are mainly because of the appetite suppressive effects of KDs, which can decrease daily calorie intake. Therefore, KDs do not have any superior benefits to non-KDs in BM and body fat loss in individuals with obesity and athletic populations in an isocaloric situation. In sedentary individuals with obesity, it seems that fat-free mass (FFM) changes appear to be as great, if not greater, than decreases following a low-fat diet (LFD). In terms of lean mass, it seems that following a KD can cause FFM loss in resistance-trained individuals. In contrast, the FFM-preserving effects of KDs are more efficient in endurance-trained compared to resistance-trained individuals.

6.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a school-based karate intervention on academic achievement, psychosocial functioning, and physical fitness in children aged 7-8 years. METHODS: Twenty schools in 5 different European countries (2 second-grade classrooms per school) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (Sport at School trial). Participants were assigned to either a control group, which continued with their habitual physical education lessons, or to an intervention group, which replaced these lessons with a 1-year karate intervention (Karate Mind and Movement program). A total of 721 children (344 girls and 377 boys, 7.4 ± 0.5 years old, mean ± standard deviation) completed the study, of which 333 and 388 were assigned to the control group and intervention group, respectively. Outcomes included academic performance (average grade), psychosocial functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents), and different markers of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and flexibility). RESULTS: The intervention provided small but significant benefits compared to the control group for academic achievement (d = 0.16; p = 0.003), conduct problems (d = -0.28; p = 0.003), cardiorespiratory fitness (d = 0.36; p < 0.001), and balance (d = 0.24; p = 0.015). There was a trend towards significant benefits for flexibility (d = 0.24; p = 0.056). No significant benefits were observed for other variables, including psychosocial difficulties, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, or prosocial behavior (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 1-year school-based karate intervention was effective in improving academic achievement, conduct problems, and physical fitness in primary school children. The results support the inclusion of karate during physical education lessons.

7.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
8.
Exp Gerontol ; 153: 111469, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246731

RESUMO

Motor neuron degeneration, denervation, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) fragmentation and loss of motor units (MUs), play a key-role in the development of sarcopenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of regular practice of dancing in physically active elders on concentration of C-terminal Agrin fragment (CAF), a marker of NMJ instability, muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in a group of 16 recreationally active older dancers (AOD; 70.1 ± 3.4 yr) compared to 15 age-matched sedentary peers (OS; 70.9 ± 6.2 yr). Circulating concentration of CAF was measured in serum, while morphology of the vastus lateralis and multifidus muscles was assessed by ultrasound imaging. In addition, the participants underwent two functional performance tests, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the 10-meter walk test (10-MWT), a lower and upper limb isometric strength test, a static and a dynamic balance test. Although no statistically significant differences were detected for both muscle morphology and isometric strength, higher CAF concentration (20%, p < 0.01) was found in OS. AOD showed a better performance in TUG (22%, p < 0.001), 10-MWT (17%, p < 0.001) and dynamic balance (25%, p < 0.01) than OS. Notably, CAF concentration correlated with dynamic balance performance (r = 0.3711, p < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that the regular practice of dancing in older age, together with non-structured light aerobic physical activities, is associated to lower CAF concentration and improved walking and balance performance. Our findings also suggest that NMJ instability, as indicated by elevated CAF serum concentration, seems to precede the loss of muscle size and alterations in muscle architecture normally associated with sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Agrina , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Marcha , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Equilíbrio Postural
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066564

RESUMO

Body contouring surgery after the massive weight loss due to bariatric surgery deals with different kinds of complications. The aim of this review is to analyze the role that some nutrients may play in tissue healing after surgery, thus helping plastic surgeons to improve the aesthetic and health outcomes in massive weight loss patients under a multidisciplinary approach. As a matter of fact, preoperative nutritional deficiencies have been shown for vitamins and minerals in a large percentage of post-bariatric patients. Preoperative deficiencies mainly concern iron, zinc, selenium, and vitamins (both fat-soluble and water-soluble), but also total protein. During the postoperative period, these problems may increase because of the patients' very low intake of vitamins and minerals after bariatric surgery (below 50% of the recommended dietary allowance) and the patients' low compliance with the suggested multivitamin supplementation (approximately 60%). In the postoperative period, more attention should be given to nutritional aspects in regard to the length of absorptive area and the percentage of weight loss.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Contorno Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Pele/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072641

RESUMO

Even though scientific literature shows numerous heath complications and performance decrements associated with rapid weight loss (RWL), its prevalence remains exceedingly high across various combat sports. The aim of this study was to thoroughly search the existing literature to explore the influence of RWL on kidney function in Olympic and non-Olympic combat sport athletes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for the relevant studies. Only original articles published from 2005 onwards, written in English, that included healthy males and females who prompted ~5% weight loss within a week or less, were included in the study. Retrieved studies showed that creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine specific gravity values were significantly increased after RWL in the majority of the included studies. This observation indicates that RWL caused dehydration and subsequent acute kidney damage despite various degrees of weight lost during the RWL phase, which can lead to adverse events in other body systems. Alternative methods of weight reduction that prioritize athletes' health should be considered.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino
11.
Physiol Behav ; 237: 113453, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984329

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of intermittent fasting (IF) in combination with resistance training (RT) on body composition outcomes. Studies examining IF vs. non-IF diets in individuals performing RT, published up to February 2021, were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and SCOPUS databases. Eight studies, including 221 participants were analyzed using a random-effects model to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results indicated that IF had a significant effect on body mass (WMD = -2.08 kg; 95% CI: -3.04, -1.13), fat mass (WMD = -1.36 kg; 95% CI: -1.94, -0.78), body mass index (WMD = -0.52 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.19), and body fat percentage (WMD = -1.49%; 95% CI: -2.24, -0.74) relative to non-IF diets, without a significant effect for fat-free mass (WMD = -0.27 kg; 95% CI: -0.82, 0.28). The present systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates potentially beneficial effects of IF in combination with RT for reducing body mass and body fat relative to non-IF control diets, with similar preservation of fat-free mass.


Assuntos
Jejum , Treinamento de Força , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Humanos
12.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 14(1): 202-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055138

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare the activation of the lower lumbar erector spinae, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris in two trunk positions (straight, and inclined) during three lunge exercises (static, step-forwarding, and walking) in trained young women in a randomized crossover design. Twelve women (24 ± 3 years) were selected and performed the lunge exercise with an overload of 30% of body weight in six conditions to analyze muscle activation via surface electromyography signals. Higher activation in the erector spinae (%MVIC) were observed (p < 0.05) when trunk position was inclined (straight = 20 ± 15, inclined = 40 ± 29) and during the walking lunge condition (static = 24 ± 16, forward = 26 ± 22, walking = 40 ± 33). Higher activation in the gluteus maximus was observed during step-forward and walking lunges conditions (static = 31 ± 12, forward = 54 ± 20, walking = 58 ± 30). All conditions displayed similar activations in the biceps femoris and rectus femoris (p > 0.05). Results indicate that positioning the trunk in a forward-inclined position induces greater lower lumbar erector spinae activation and dynamic lunge variations elicit greater muscular activation in the gluteus maximus than static lunges. Additionally, it seems that trunk and exercise variations do not influence the activation of tight muscles.

13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011672, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used for the management of respiratory dysfunction in preterm infants. This approach runs the risk of under-treating those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), for whom surfactant administration is of paramount importance. Several techniques of minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. This review focuses on surfactant administration to spontaneously breathing infants via a thin catheter briefly inserted into the trachea. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives In non-intubated preterm infants with established RDS or at risk of developing RDS to compare surfactant administration via thin catheter with: 1. intubation and surfactant administration through an endotracheal tube (ETT); or 2. continuation of non-invasive respiratory support without surfactant administration or intubation. Secondary objective 1. To compare different methods of surfactant administration via thin catheter Planned subgroup analyses included gestational age, timing of intervention, and use of sedating pre-medication during the intervention. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions(R); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), on 30 September 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials comparing surfactant administration via thin catheter (S-TC) with (1) surfactant administration through an ETT (S-ETT), or (2) continuation of non-invasive respiratory support without surfactant administration or intubation. We also included trials comparing different methods/strategies of surfactant administration via thin catheter. We included preterm infants (at < 37 weeks' gestation) with or at risk of RDS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors independently assessed study quality and risk of bias and extracted data. Authors of all studies were contacted regarding study design and/or missing or unpublished data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies (18 publications; 2164 neonates) in this review. These studies compared surfactant administration via thin catheter with surfactant administration through an ETT with early extubation (Intubate, Surfactant, Extubate technique - InSurE) (12 studies) or with delayed extubation (2 studies), or with continuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and rescue surfactant administration at pre-specified criteria (1 study), or compared different strategies of surfactant administration via thin catheter (1 study). Two trials reported neurosensory outcomes of of surviving participants at two years of age. Eight studies were of moderate certainty with low risk of bias, and eight studies were of lower certainty with unclear risk of bias. S-TC versus S-ETT in preterm infants with or at risk of RDS Meta-analyses of 14 studies in which S-TC was compared with S-ETT as a control demonstrated a significant decrease in risk of the composite outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (risk ratio (RR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.73; risk difference (RD) -0.11, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.07; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 9, 95% CI 7 to 16; 10 studies; 1324 infants; moderate-certainty evidence); the need for intubation within 72 hours (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.74; RD -0.14, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.09; NNTB 8, 95% CI; 6 to 12; 12 studies, 1422 infants; moderate-certainty evidence); severe intraventricular haemorrhage (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.96; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.00; NNTB 22, 95% CI 12 to 193; 5 studies, 857 infants; low-certainty evidence); death during first hospitalisation (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.06; NNTB 20, 95% CI 12 to 58; 11 studies, 1424 infants; low-certainty evidence); and BPD among survivors (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.74; RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.04; NNTB 13, 95% CI 9 to 24; 11 studies, 1567 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was no significant difference in risk of air leak requiring drainage (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.02; RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.00; 6 studies, 1036 infants; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported on the outcome of death or survival with neurosensory disability. Only one trial compared surfactant delivery via thin catheter with continuation of CPAP, and one trial compared different strategies of surfactant delivery via thin catheter, precluding meta-analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Administration of surfactant via thin catheter compared with administration via an ETT is associated with reduced risk of death or BPD, less intubation in the first 72 hours, and reduced incidence of major complications and in-hospital mortality. This procedure had a similar rate of adverse effects as surfactant administration through an ETT. Data suggest that treatment with surfactant via thin catheter may be preferable to surfactant therapy by ETT. Further well-designed studies of adequate size and power, as well as ongoing studies, will help confirm and refine these findings, clarify whether surfactant therapy via thin tracheal catheter provides benefits over continuation of non-invasive respiratory support without surfactant, address uncertainties within important subgroups, and clarify the role of sedation.


Assuntos
Cateteres , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Intubação Intratraqueal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Viés , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917584

RESUMO

Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effect of a circuit-training SR on subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adults. METHODS: Fourteen volunteers were randomly assigned to spot reduction (SR) or to a traditional resistance training (RT) protocol. Body composition via bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via skinfold and ultrasound were measured before and after eight weeks of training. RESULTS: SR significantly reduced body mass (p < 0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: circuit-training SR may be an efficient strategy to reduce in a localized manner abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue depot.


Assuntos
Exercícios em Circuitos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Lipólise
15.
Sports Med ; 51(7): 1561-1580, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions, and facilitate future follow-up study. OBJECTIVES: To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated 'lockdown', affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT prior to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and through authors' professional and personal networks. Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25, 38]), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7 years [IQR = 4, 12]) participated. Outcomes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/recorded, time of day, and training goals. Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue RT. RESULTS: A majority of individuals (82.8%) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown. Marginal probabilities from generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-lockdown. There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7%) and increased probability of training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89%); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51%); reduced probability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13%) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81%), and increased probability of bodyweight training (~ 62% to ~ 82%); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62-82% to ~ 55-66%) and greater probability of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49%); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training (r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their training goals. Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower during-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types of training performed. However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effective and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown. These results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive pandemic-related public health measures. PRE-REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/qcmpf . PREPRINT: The preprint version of this work is available on SportRχiv: https://osf.io/preprints/sportrxiv/b8s7e/ .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 2941-2952, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530512

RESUMO

Background: Ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach that restricts daily carbohydrates, replacing most of the reduced energy with fat, while maintaining an adequate quantity of protein. Despite the widespread use of KD in weight loss in athletes, there are still many concerns about its use in sports requiring muscle mass accrual. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the influence of a KD in competitive natural body builders. Methods: Nineteen volunteers (27.4 ± 10.5 years) were randomly assigned to ketogenic diet (KD) or to a western diet (WD). Body composition, muscle strength and basal metabolic rate were measured before and after two months of intervention. Standard blood biochemistry, testosterone, IGF-1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL1ß, TNFα) were also measured. Results: Body fat significantly decreased in KD (p = 0.030); whilst lean mass increased significantly only in WD (p < 0.001). Maximal strength increased similarly in both groups. KD showed a significant decrease of blood triglycerides (p < 0.001), glucose (p = 0.001), insulin (p < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines compared to WD whilst BDNF increased in both groups with significant greater changes in KD (p < 0.001). Conclusions: KD may be used during body building preparation for health and leaning purposes but with the caution that hypertrophic muscle response could be blunted.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Glicemia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Carboidratos , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta Ocidental , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Masculino , Músculos , Treinamento de Força , Testosterona/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(6): 481-493, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440445

RESUMO

The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated. Outcomes regarded heart rate(HR), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV of which baPWV for brachial-ankle and cfPWV for carotid-femoral waveforms), heart rate variability and endothelial vascular function. Subsequently, the effects of each outcome were quantitatively synthetized using meta-analytic synthesis with random-effect models. A total of 16 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. Groups were also stratified according to cross-sectional or longitudinal stretching interventions. Quality assessment through the NHLBI tools observed a "fair-to-good" quality of the studies. The meta-analytic synthesis showed a significant effect of d=0.38 concerning HR, d=2.04 regarding baPWV and d=0.46 for cfPWV. Stretching significantly reduces arterial stiffness and HR. The qualitative description of the studies was also supported by the meta-analytic synthesis. No adverse effects were reported, after stretching, in patients affected by cardiovascular disease on blood pressure. There is a lack of studies regarding vascular adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral/métodos , Análise de Dados , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
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