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1.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300108

RESUMO

Objectives Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an occupational disease mainly due to asbestos exposure. Effective therapies for MPM are lacking, making this tumour type a fatal disease. Materials and Methods In order to meet this need and in view of a future "drug repositioning" approach, here we screened five MPM (Mero-14, Mero-25, IST-Mes2, NCI-H28 and MSTO-211H) and one SV40-immortalized mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) as a non-malignant model, with a library of 1170 FDA-approved drugs. Results Among several potential compounds, we found that fludarabine (F-araA) and, to a lesser extent, risedronic acid (RIS) were cytotoxic in MPM cells, in comparison to the non-malignant Met-5A cells. In particular, F-araA reduced the proliferation and the colony formation ability of the MPM malignant cells, in comparison to the non-malignant control cells, as demonstrated by proliferation and colony formation assays, in addition to measurement of the phospho-ERK/total-ERK ratio. We have shown that the response to F-araA was not dependent upon the expression of DCK and NT5E enzymes, nor upon their functional polymorphisms (rs11544786 and rs2295890, respectively). Conclusion This drug repositioning screening approach has identified that F-araA could be therapeutically active against MPM cells, in addition to other tumour types, by inhibiting STAT1 expression and nucleic acids synthesis. Further experiments are required to fully investigate this.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(6): 456-463, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) is a promising diagnostic biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but various confounders hinder its usefulness in surveillance programmes. We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the mesothelin (MSLN) gene could affect the levels of SMRP. OBJECTIVES: To focus on SNPs located within MSLN promoter as possible critical genetic variables in determining SMRP levels. METHODS: The association between SMRP and SNPs was tested in 689 non-MPM subjects and 70 patients with MPM. Reporter plasmids carrying the four most common haplotypes were compared in a dual luciferase assay, and in silico analyses were performed to investigate the putative biological role of the SNPs. RESULTS: We found a strong association between serum SMRP and variant alleles of rs3764247, rs3764246 (in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2235504) and rs2235503 in non-MPM subjects. Inclusion of the genotype information led to an increase in SMRP specificity from 79.9% to 85.5%. Although not statistically significant, the group with MPM showed the same trend of association. According to the in vitro luciferase study, rs3764247 itself had a functional role. In silico approaches showed that the binding sites for transcription factors such as Staf and ZNF143 could be affected by this SNP. The other SNPs were shown to interact with each other in a more complex way. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the suggestion that SMRP performance is affected by individual (ie, genetic) variables and that MSLN expression is influenced by SNPs located within the promoter regulatory region.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Análise de Variância , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Luciferases , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Masculino , Mesotelioma/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Oncology ; 91(5): 283-288, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Topoisomerase 1 (topo-1) is an important target for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between topo-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcome in metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. METHODS: With the use of specific software (PROMO 3.0), we performed an in silico analysis of topo-1 promoter SNPs; the rs6072249 and rs34282819 SNPs were included in the study. DNA was extracted from 105 mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab in the first line. SNP genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Genotypes were correlated with clinical parameters (objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival). RESULTS: No single genotype was significantly associated with clinical variables. The G allelic variant of rs6072249 topo-1 SNP is responsible for GC factor and X-box-binding protein transcription factor binding. The same allelic variant showed a nonsignificant trend toward a shorter progression-free survival (GG, 7.5 months; other genotypes, 9.3 months; HR 1.823, 95% CI 0.8904-3.734; p = 0.1). CONCLUSION: Further analyses are needed to confirm that the topo-1 SNP rs6072249 and transcription factor interaction could be a part of tools to predict clinical outcome in mCRC patients treated with irinotecan-based regimens.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Genótipo , Humanos , Irinotecano , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Oncotarget ; 7(12): 13464-78, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859576

RESUMO

Hypoxic tumor microenvironment (HTM) is considered to promote metabolic changes, oncogene activation and epithelial mesenchymal transition, and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy, all of which are hallmarks of aggressive tumor behavior. Cancer cells within the HTM acquire phenotypic properties that allow them to overcome the lack of energy and nutrients supply within this niche. These phenotypic properties include activation of genes regulating glycolysis, glucose transport, acidosis regulators, angiogenesis, all of which are orchestrated through the activation of the transcription factor, HIF1A, which is an independent marker of poor prognosis. Moreover, during the adaptation to a HTM cancer cells undergo deep changes in mitochondrial functions such as "Warburg effect" and the "reverse Warburg effect".This review aims to provide an overview of the characteristics of the HTM, with particular focus on novel therapeutic strategies currently in clinical trials, targeting the adaptive response to hypoxia of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
6.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 874, 2015 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26553291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enhancer of zeste-homolog 2 (EZH2) is involved in cancer development through gene silencing by trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). The C/C genotype for the EZH2 rs3757441 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is linked with poor prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but molecular and pathological characterization of this SNP is lacking. METHODS: 119 primary CRCs were analyzed. SNP was evaluated by real-time PCR from colonic healthy tissue, while EZH2 and H3K27me3 expression were studied by immunohistochemistry. We primarily looked for correlation between EZH2 rs3757441 genotypes and EZH2/H3K27me3 expression. Potential associations between EZH2/H3K27me3 expression and clinico-pathological features or KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 mutations were secondary endpoints. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test, T-test or ANOVA. RESULTS: The C/C genotype was significantly associated with higher EZH2 (100 vs. 44 %; P = 0.019) and H3K27me3 (100 vs. 38 %; P = 0.009) staining intensity compared with C/T and T/T. EZH2 3+ staining significantly correlated with stronger H3K27me3 expression (P = 0.039). KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression. CONCLUSION: EZH2 rs3757441 C/C genotype is associated with stronger EZH2 and H3K27me3 immunoreactivity in primary CRC: this SNP may serve as a promising biomarker for EZH2-targeting agents and may add independent information to KRAS and BRAF testing.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/biossíntese , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8922, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25753578

RESUMO

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on a high-incidence Italian population followed by replications on low-incidence cohorts suggested a strong association of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22.33, 2q35, 20q11.22-q12 and 14q24.3. Moreover, six additional susceptibility loci were associated with the disease only among Italians. The present study had two aims, first to identify loci involved in DTC risk and then to assess the cumulative effect of the SNPs identified so far in the Italian population. The combined analysis of the previous GWAS and the present Italian study provided evidence of association with rs7935113 (GALNTL4, OR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.20-1.53, p-value = 7.41 × 10(-7)) and rs1203952 (FOXA2, OR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.16-1.44, p-value = 4.42 × 10(-6)). Experimental ENCODE and eQTL data suggested that both SNPs may influence the closest genes expression through a differential recruitment of transcription factors. The assessment of the cumulative risk of eleven SNPs showed that DTC risk increases with an increasing number of risk alleles (p-trend = 3.13 × 10(-47)). Nonetheless, only a small fraction (about 4% on the disease liability scale) of DTC is explained by these SNPs. These data are consistent with a polygenic model of DTC predisposition and highlight the importance of association studies in the discovery of the disease hereditability.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Itália , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(10): E2084-92, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25029422

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have identified robust associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22.33 (FOXE1), 14q13.3 (NKX2-1), and 2q35 (DIRC3). Our recently published GWAS suggested additional susceptibility loci specific for the high-incidence Italian population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify novel Italian-specific DTC risk variants based on our GWAS and to test them further in low-incidence populations. DESIGN: We investigated 45 SNPs selected from our GWAS first in an Italian population. SNPs that showed suggestive evidence of association were investigated in the Polish and Spanish cohorts. RESULTS: The combined analysis of the GWAS and the Italian replication study (2260 case patients and 2218 control subjects) provided strong evidence of association with rs10136427 near BATF (odds ratio [OR] =1.40, P = 4.35 × 10(-7)) and rs7267944 near DHX35 (OR = 1.39, P = 2.13 × 10(-8)). A possible role in DTC susceptibility in the Italian populations was also found for rs13184587 (ARSB) (P = 8.54 × 10(-6)) and rs1220597 (SPATA13) (P = 3.25 × 10(-6)). Only the associations between rs10136427 and rs7267944 and DTC risk were replicated in the Polish and the Spanish populations with little evidence of population heterogeneity (GWAS and all replications combined, OR = 1.30, P = 9.30 × 10(-7) and OR = 1.32, P = 1.34 × 10(-8), respectively). In silico analyses provided new insights into the possible functional consequences of the SNPs that showed the strongest association with DTC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence for novel DTC susceptibility variants. Further studies are warranted to identify the specific genetic variants responsible for the observed associations and to functionally validate our in silico predictions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/genética , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/patologia , Adenoma Oxífilo , Adulto , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
9.
Pharmacogenomics ; 15(5): 609-18, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24798718

RESUMO

AIM: EZH2 expression is a prognostic marker in radically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Here we investigated its role in locally advanced/metastatic patients, as well as candidate polymorphisms. MATERIALS & METHODS: EZH2 expression and polymorphisms were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 32 laser microdissected tumors, while polymorphisms were also studied in blood samples from two additional cohorts treated with gemcitabine monotherapy (n = 93) or polychemotherapeutic regimens (n = 247). RESULTS: EZH2 expression correlated with survival and with the rs6958683 polymorphism in the first cohort of patients, but this polymorphism was not associated with survival in our larger cohorts. CONCLUSION: EZH2 is a prognostic factor for locally advanced/metastatic PDACs, while candidate polymorphisms cannot predict clinical outcome. Other factors involved in EZH2 regulation, such as miR-101, should be investigated in accessible samples in order to improve the clinical management of advanced PDAC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Oncol Lett ; 6(5): 1487-1491, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24179546

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deadly disease arising from the malignant transformation of cholangiocytes. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is overexpressed in poorly differentiated CCA. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene may affect the role of EZH2 in cholangiocarcinogenesis and chemoresistance. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between EZH2 SNPs and clinical outcome. Using PROMO3.0, GeneCard and MicroSNiper, 4 EZH2 SNPs with functional relevance in CCA were selected in silico. These SNPs were studied in genomic DNA extracted from the blood samples of 75 patients with advanced CCA, who were treated with epirubicin-cisplatin-xeloda (ECX regimen). SNP genotyping was performed with specific PCR assays. The rs887569 TT genotype was correlated with a significantly longer overall survival (OS; TT vs. CT-CC, P=0.026). Moreover, the TT genotype revealed a trend toward a significant association with a reduced risk of mortality (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.33-1.05; P=0.075), by multivariate analysis. These results support future studies on the role of rs887569 EZH2 SNP as a possible predictive marker of OS in advanced CCA patients.

11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 86(2): 97-103, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23266085

RESUMO

Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) have been recently discovered in mammals and have been nicknamed "erasers" for their ability to remove methyl groups from histone substrates. In cancer cells, KDMs can activate or repress gene transcription, behaving as oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending upon the cellular context. In order to investigate the potential role of KDMs in Breast Cancer (BC), we queried the Oncomine database and determined that the expression of KDMs correlates with BC prognosis. High expression of KDM3B and KDM5A is associated with a better prognosis (no recurrence after mastectomy p=0.005 and response to docetaxel p=0.005); conversely, KDM6A is overexpressed in BC patients with an unfavorable prognosis (mortality at 1 year, p=8.65E-7). Our findings suggest that KDMs could be potential targets for BC therapy. Further, altering the interactions between KDMs and Polycomb Group genes (PcG) may provide novel avenues for therapy that specifically targets these genes in BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Mama/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação ao Retinoblastoma/genética , Mama/enzimologia , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 11(8): 1735-46, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22622284

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by overexpression of enhancer of Zeste homolog-2 (EZH2), which plays a pivotal role in cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal through methylation of histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27me3). Against this background, EZH2 was identified as an attractive target, and we investigated the interaction of the EZH2 inhibitor DZNeP with gemcitabine. EZH2 expression was detected by quantitative PCR in 15 PDAC cells, including seven primary cell cultures, showing that expression values correlated with their originator tumors (Spearman R(2) = 0.89, P = 0.01). EZH2 expression in cancer cells was significantly higher than in normal ductal pancreatic cells and fibroblasts. The 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNeP; 5 µmol/L, 72-hour exposure) modulated EZH2 and H3K27me3 protein expression and synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of gemcitabine, with combination index values of 0.2 (PANC-1), 0.3 (MIA-PaCa-2), and 0.7 (LPC006). The drug combination reduced the percentages of cells in G(2)-M phase (e.g., from 27% to 19% in PANC-1, P < 0.05) and significantly increased apoptosis compared with gemcitabine alone. Moreover, DZNeP enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of the nucleoside transporters hENT1/hCNT1, possibly because of the significant reduction of deoxynucleotide content (e.g., 25% reduction of deoxycytidine nucleotides in PANC-1), as detected by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. DZNeP decreased cell migration, which was additionally reduced by DZNeP/gemcitabine combination (-20% in LPC006, after 8-hour exposure, P < 0.05) and associated with increased E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, DZNeP and DZNeP/gemcitabine combination significantly reduced the volume of PDAC spheroids growing in CSC-selective medium and decreased the proportion of CD133+ cells. All these molecular mechanisms underlying the synergism of DZNeP/gemcitabine combination support further studies on this novel therapeutic approach for treatment of PDACs.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Antígeno AC133 , Adenosina/farmacologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caderinas/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Biomark Med ; 6(2): 201-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22448795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an unpredictable, debilitating adverse effect. Recently, genetic polymorphisms have arisen as promising tools to identify patients with a higher risk of drug-related adverse events. AIM: We aimed to examine the association between the aromatase polymorphism g.132810C>T, and the estrogen receptor polymorphisms g.156705T>C and g.156751A>G, and the risk of BP-related ONJ. METHODS: Eighty-three subjects were included in the study. A clinical and radiological examination was conducted on oncologic subjects treated with zoledronic acid. Subjects with histologically confirmed ONJ were included in the test group (n = 30) whereas subjects with good oral health were included in control group (n = 53). Aromatase and estrogen receptor polymorphisms from blood samples were analyzed. RESULTS: The aromatase g.132810C>T polymorphism displayed an over-representation of the TT genotype in the test group (36.67 vs 16.98%; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in either estrogen receptor polymorphism genotype frequency between the test and control groups. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a role for the g.132810C>T polymorphism in predicting ONJ risk. These results can pave the way to the personalization of BP therapy, based on individual genotype.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Maxilomandibulares/enzimologia , Doenças Maxilomandibulares/genética , Osteonecrose/enzimologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Arcada Osseodentária/enzimologia , Doenças Maxilomandibulares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Osteonecrose/genética , Fatores de Risco
14.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 83(2): 184-93, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22112692

RESUMO

Polycomb group genes (PcGs) are epigenetic effectors, essential for stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Two main Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1, PRC2) mediate gene silencing through histone post-translational modifications. PcGs have been the focus of investigation in cancer research. Many cancer types show an over-expression of PcGs, predicting poor prognosis, metastasis and chemoresistance. Genetic polymorphisms of EZH2 (a PRC2 component) are significantly associated to lung cancer risk. Recently, 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNeP) was identified as an efficient inhibitor of PRC2 activity. DZNeP impairs cancer stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Despite the well-established role of PcGs in cancer stem cell biology, few studies dissected the clinical significance of these genes. In this paper, we explore PcGs as predictive and prognostic factors in oncology, with particular emphasis on what they can add to current biomarkers. We also propose a model for the rational development of DZNeP-based anticancer regimens and suggest the therapeutic applications of this drug.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Drug Resist Updat ; 14(6): 280-96, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21955833

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Despite many therapeutic opportunities, prognosis remains dismal for patients with metastatic disease, and a significant portion of early-stage patients develop recurrence after chemotherapy. Epigenetic gene regulation is a major mechanism of cancer initiation and progression, through the inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes. Emerging evidence indicates that epigenetics may also play a key role in the development of chemoresistance. In the present review, we summarize epigenetic mechanisms triggering resistance to three commonly used agents in colorectal cancer: 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Those epigenetic biomarkers may help stratify colorectal cancer patients and develop a tailored therapeutic approach. In addition, epigenetic modifications are reversible through specific drugs: histone-deacetylase and DNA-methyl-transferase inhibitors. Preclinical studies suggest that these drugs may reverse chemoresistance in colorectal tumors. In conclusion, an epigenetic approach to colorectal cancer chemoresistance may pave the way to personalized treatment and to innovative therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Irinotecano , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina , Medicina de Precisão
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