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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2021 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435178

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects about 1% of the global population, with a female-male ratio of 3:1. RA preferably affects the joints, with consequent joint swelling and deformities followed by ankylosis. However, evidence has accumulated showing that patients suffering from RA can also develop extra-articular manifestations, including cardiovascular disease states, neuropathies, and multiorgan dysfunction. In particular, peripheral nerve disorders showed a consistent impact in the course of the disease (prevalence about 20%) mostly associated to vasculitis of the nerve vessels leading to vascular ischemia, axonal degeneration, and neuronal demyelination. The pathophysiological basis of this RA-associated microvascular disease, which leads to impairment of assonal functionality, is still to be better clarified. However, endothelial dysfunction and alterations of the so-called brain-nerve barrier (BNB) seem to play a fundamental role. This review aims to assess the potential mechanisms underlying the impairment of endothelial cell functionality in the development of RA and to identify the role of dysfunctional endothelium as a causative mechanism of extra-articular manifestation of RA. On the other hand, the potential impact of lifestyle and nutritional interventions targeting the maintenance of endothelial cell integrity in patients with RA will be discussed as a potential option when approaching therapeutic solutions in the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
2.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 46(2): 214-225, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of studies on the beneficial effects of a fiber rich diet as well as polyphenols deriving from Citrus fruits on postprandial serum glucose and insulin, clinical evidence on their synergic effects on healthy subjects have never been published. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new dietary approach in controlling glucose and insulin response at breakfast time by testing a brioche enriched with wheat bran and bergamot fiber. METHODS: We enrolled 11 healthy volunteers in a cross-over study. Participants consumed a classic brioche at breakfast and our functional brioche, containing wheat bran and bergamot fiber, on another day. Vital functions, biochemical parameters (including glucose and insulin), anthropometric measurements as well as resting energy expenditure and fat oxidation were evaluated before and after the intake of both meals. RESULTS: The mean age was ~25 years. The mean BMI was 23.5 kg/m2. The consumption of the functional brioche reduced the glucose Cmax(0-120 min) by ~6% and prevented the insulin increase over time by 30%, finally demonstrating insulin Cmax(0-120 min) and iAUC(0-120 min) values significantly lower compared to classic brioche (respectively P value =0.04 and 0.03). The stepwise multivariable analysis confirmed the association between the consumption of the functional brioche containing bran and bergamot fiber and glucose Cmax(0-120 min) (B=-0.45; P=0.034), and insulin iAUC(0-120 min) (B=-764 P=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The association of wheat bran and bergamot fiber significantly influences glucose metabolism and may exert insulin-like effects on healthy volunteers. If confirmed, berga-brioche would be a useful tool in preventing diabetes and controlling the glycometabolic status of type 2 diabetic patients.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291346

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection is associated, alongside with lung infection and respiratory disease, to cardiovascular dysfunction that occurs at any stage of the disease. This includes ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. The common pathophysiological link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the cardiovascular events is represented by coagulation abnormalities and disruption of factors released by endothelial cells, which contribute in maintaining the blood vessels into an anti-thrombotic state. Thus, early alteration of the functionality of endothelial cells, which may be found soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection, seems to represent the major target of a SARS CoV-2 disease state and accounts for the systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to a detrimental effect in terms of hospitalization and death accompanying the disease. In particular, the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor located in the endothelial cell surface, either at the pulmonary and systemic level, leads to early impairment of endothelial function, which, in turn, is followed by vascular inflammation and thrombosis of peripheral blood vessels. This highlights systemic hypoxia and further aggravates the vicious circle that compromises the development of the disease, leading to irreversible tissue damage and death of people with SARS CoV-2 infection. The review aims to assess some recent advances to define the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular complications accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, the molecular mechanisms associated with the interaction of SARS CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor located on the endothelial cells are highlighted to support its role in compromising endothelial cell functionality. Finally, the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in enhancing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are assessed in order to identify early therapeutic interventions able to reduce the impact of the disease in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Vasculite/etiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Trombose/metabolismo , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Vasculite/metabolismo , Vasculite/fisiopatologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849284

RESUMO

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the world. However, no effective pharmacological treatment for this condition has been found. Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of a nutraceutical containing bioactive components from Bergamot citrus and wild cardoon as a treatment for individuals with fatty liver disease. The primary outcome measure was the change in liver fat content. Methods: A total of 102 patients with liver steatosis were enrolled in a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The intervention group received a nutraceutical containing a Bergamot polyphenol fraction and Cynara Cardunculus extract, 300 mg/day for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo daily. Liver fat content, by transient elastography, serum transaminases, lipids and glucose were measured at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: We found a greater liver fat content reduction in the participants taking the nutraceutical rather than placebo (-48.2 ± 39 vs. -26.9 ± 43 dB/m, p = 0.02); The percentage CAP score reduction was statistically significant in those with android obesity, overweight/obesity as well as in women. However, after adjustment for weight change, the percentage CAP score reduction was statistically significant only in those over 50 years (44 vs. 78% in placebo and nutraceutical, respectively, p = 0.007). Conclusions: This specific nutraceutical containing bioactive components from Bergamot and wild cardoon reduced the liver fat content during 12 weeks in individuals with liver steatosis over 50 years. If confirmed, this nutraceutical could become the cornerstone treatment of patients affected by liver steatosis. Clinical Trial Registration: www.isrctn.com, identifier ISRCTN12833814.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Citrus/química , Cynara/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fitoterapia
5.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 10(3): 268-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670822

RESUMO

Background and aim: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causing an enhancement of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Although insulin resistance appears the link between NAFLD and T2DM, current pharmacological treatments of T2DM failed to produce relevant benefits in preventing T2DM-related liver dysfunction. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we evaluated the effect of Bergacyn, an innovative formulation originating from the combination of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) and Cynara cardunculus (CyC). Experimental procedure: 80 adult patients with a history of at least 12 months of T2DM and NAFLD received orally BPF (300 mg/daily) Cyc (300 mg/daily), separately or formulated in combination 50/50% (Bergacyn; 300 mg/daily), or placebo all containing 300 mg of bergamot albedo fibers micronized and co-grinded as excipients. Results and conclusion: Serum measurements and liver ultrasound analyses showed that concomitant administration of BPF and CyC produced significant improvement of NAFLD biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This effect was associated with a substantial reduction of oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers, thus contributing to a significant improvement of NO-mediated reactive vasodilation. Furthermore, the effect of Bergacyn showed a synergistic effect of both extracts, thus suggesting that this peculiar formulation represents a novel therapeutic strategy to counteract vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients suffering from T2DM and NAFLD. Further studies in larger cohort of diabetic patients are required to better identify the potential of Bergacyn on metabolic disorders accompanying T2DM and NAFLD.

6.
CVIR Endovasc ; 3(1): 29, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of percutaneous arterial catheterization in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures has led to a parallel increase of vascular access site complications. The incidence of these events is between 0.2-1%. A detailed analysis of injuries by type of procedure shows a higher incidence of injuries after therapeutic procedures (3%) than those observed for diagnostic ones (1%), due to the greater size of the vascular devices used and the necessity to frequently administer anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy during procedures. The iatrogenic arterial injuries requiring treatment are the pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, arterial rupture and dissection. Less frequent complications include distal embolization of the limbs, nerve damage, abscess and lymphocele. Moreover, the use of percutaneous vascular closure devices (VCD) has further expanded the types of complications, with an increased risk of stenosis, thrombosis, distal embolism and infection. Our work aims to bring the personal 10 years' experience in the percutaneous treatment of vascular access-site complications. RESULTS: Ninety-two pseudoaneurysms (PSA), 12 arteriovenous fistulas (AVF), 15 retrograde dissections (RD) and 11 retroperitoneal bleedings (RB) have been selected and treated. In 120/130 cases there were no periprocedural complications with immediate technical success (92.3%). Nine femoral PSA, treated with percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection, showed a failure to close the sac and therefore they were treated by PTA balloon inflation with a contralateral approach and cross-over technique. Only one case of brachial dissection, in which the prolonged inflation of the balloon has not led to a full reimbursement of the dissection flap, was then surgically repaired. At the 7 days follow-up, complications were two abscesses in retroperitoneal bleedings, treated by percutaneous drainage. At 3 months, acute occlusion of 3 covered femoral stents occurred, then treated by loco-regional thrombolysis and PTA. A total of 18 major complications was recorded at 2 years, with a complication rate at 2 years of 13.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous treatment of vascular access-site complications is the first-choice treatment. It represents a safe and effective option, validated by a high technical success rate and a low long-term complication rate, that allows avoiding the surgical approach in most cases.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429274

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia and insulin-resistance are often associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) thereby representing a true issue worldwide due to increased risk of developing cardiovascular and systemic disorders. Although clear evidence suggests that circulating fatty acids contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, further studies are required to better identify potential beneficial approaches for counteracting such a disease. Recently, several artichoke extracts have been used for both reducing hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD, though the mechanism is unclear. Here we used a wild type of Cynara Cardunculus extract (CyC), rich in sesquiterpens and antioxidant active ingredients, in rats fed a High Fat Diet (HFD) compared to a Normal Fat Diet (NFD). In particular, in rats fed HFD for four consecutive weeks, we found a significant increase of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum glucose. This effect was accompanied by increased body weight and by histopathological features of liver steatosis. The alterations of metabolic parameters found in HFDs were antagonised dose-dependently by daily oral supplementation of rats with CyC 10 and 20 mg/kg over four weeks, an effect associated to significant improvement of liver steatosis. The effect of CyC (20 mg/kg) was also associated to enhanced expression of both OCTN1 and OCTN2 carnitine-linked transporters. Thus, present data suggest a contribution of carnitine system in the protective effect of CyC in diet-induced hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD.


Assuntos
Cynara , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/efeitos dos fármacos , Simportadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277498

RESUMO

The maintenance of physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) produced by eNOS represents a key element for vascular endothelial homeostasis. On the other hand, NO overproduction, due to the activation of iNOS under different stress conditions, leads to endothelial dysfunction and, in the late stages, to the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs) represent the major candidates to trigger biomolecular processes accompanying endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation leading to atherosclerosis, though the pathophysiological mechanism still remains to be elucidated. Here, we summarize recent evidence suggesting that oxLDLs produce significant impairment in the modulation of the eNOS/iNOS machinery, downregulating eNOS via the HMGB1-TLR4-Caveolin-1 pathway. On the other hand, increased oxLDLs lead to sustained activation of the scavenger receptor LOX-1 and, subsequently, to NFkB activation, which, in turn, increases iNOS, leading to EC oxidative stress. Finally, these events are associated with reduced protective autophagic response and accelerated apoptotic EC death, which activates atherosclerotic development. Taken together, this information sheds new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of oxLDL-related impairment of EC functionality and opens new perspectives in atherothrombosis prevention.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Inflamação/enzimologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167512

RESUMO

: Bergamot flavonoids counteract dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia but fail to induce a significant weight loss. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of bergamot polyphenol extract complex (BPE-C), a novel bergamot juice-derived formulation enriched with flavonoids and pectins, on several metabolic syndrome parameters. Obese patients with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) over 0.34 and mild hyperglycemia were recruited to a double-blind randomized trial comparing two doses of BPE-C (650 and 1300 mg daily) with placebo. Fifty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria and were assigned to three experimental groups. Fifteen subjects per group completed 90 days-trial. BPE-C reduced significantly fasting glucose by 18.1%, triglycerides by 32% and cholesterol parameters by up to 41.4%, leading to a powerful reduction of AIP (below 0.2) in the high dose group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin levels were also reduced. Moreover, BPE-C decreased body weight by 14.8% and body mass index by 15.9% in BPE-C high group. This correlated with a significant reduction of circulating hormones balancing caloric intake, including leptin, ghrelin and upregulation of adiponectin. All effects showed a dose-dependent tendency. This study suggests that food supplements, containing full spectrum of bergamot juice components, such as BPE-C efficiently induce a combination of weight loss and insulin sensitivity effects together with a robust reduction of atherosclerosis risk.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Perda de Peso
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226852

RESUMO

The exchange of solutes between the blood and the nerve tissue is mediated by specific and high selective barriers in order to ensure the integrity of the different compartments of the nervous system. At peripheral level, this function is maintained by the Blood Nerve Barrier (BNB) that, in the presence, of specific stressor stimuli can be damaged causing the onset of neurodegenerative processes. An essential component of BNB is represented by the endothelial cells surrounding the sub-structures of peripheral nerves and increasing evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction can be considered a leading cause of the nerve degeneration. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main mechanisms involved in the impairment of endothelial cells in specific diseases associated with peripheral nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction and inflammation of the sciatic nerve.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoneural/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Endotélio/patologia , Disfunção Erétil/patologia , Neuralgia/patologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoneural/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoneural/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Endotélio/metabolismo , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Erétil/metabolismo , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia
11.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 115, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiological studies show that bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) ameliorates the serum lipemic profile, normalizes blood pressure and improves non alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome. Despite this evidence, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects remain unclear. The aim of our study is to clarify the effects of BPF on the lipoprotein assembly and to identify oxidative stress biomarkers correlating hyperlipidaemia and BPF-induced metabolic changes. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to receive a standard diet, a hypercholesterolemic diet or a hypercholesterolemic diet+BPF (20 mg/Kg/rat daily, gavage), respectively, for 90 days. Total cholesterol (tChol), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose were evaluated at the baseline as well as at the end of the treatment. To assess the effect of BPF on the Lipid Transfer Protein System, detection of ACAT, LCAT, CETP, PON1, Apo A1 and Apo B have also been carried out. Finally, the lipid peroxidation biomarker (TBARS) and oxyLDL were also measured. RESULTS: BPF prevented tChol, LDL-C, TG and fasting plasma glucose enhancement and improved HDL-C. Treatment of hyperlipæmic rats with BPF significantly restored altered the serum concentration of lipemic biomarkers and the activity of ACAT, LCAT, CETP and PON1, an effect accompanied by the concomitant normalization of Apo A1 and APO B levels. In addition, TBARS levels were reduced significantly by the treatment with BPF. CONCLUSIONS: BPF prevents diet-induced alteration of the lipid profile in rats, counteracting oxidative stress and improving the dysregulation of the Lipid Transfer Protein System. These data add new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of BPF in the therapy of hyperlipidaemia, thus suggesting a novel approach in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperlipemia represents an independent risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis in patients undergoing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Moreover, the pharmacological treatment of dyslipemia in patients undergoing type 2 DM (e.g. by means of statins), is accompanied by relevant side effects and oral supplementation with natural antioxidants, such as Citrus polyphenols, has recently been suggested to improve cardioprotection in such patients. However, due to the poor gastrointestinal absorption of polyphenols, novel formulations have recently been developed for getting a better bioavailability of polyphenolic rich fractions of citrus species extract rich in polyphenols. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effect of standard bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF®) as well as of its phytosomal formulation (BPF Phyto), in patients with type 2 DM and hyperlipemia. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 60 patients suffering from type 2 DM and mixed hyperlipemia. Patients were divided into three groups: one receiving placebo, the second receiving standard BPF and the third BPF Phyto. RESULTS: In the groups receiving BPF and BPF Phyto, a significant reduction of fasting plasma glucose, serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides accompanied by increased HDL cholesterol was observed. This effect was associated with significant reduction of small dense atherogenic LDL particles, as detected by means of proton NMR Spectroscopy, thus confirming the hypolipemic and hypoglycemic effect of bergamot extract both when using standard formulation as well as BPF Phyto. No differences were seen in the therapeutic response among groups receiving BPF and BPF Phyto, thus suggesting a substantial bioequivalence in their hypoglycemic and hypolipemic profile. However, when comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of naringin (the major component of BPF) and its metabolites, in patients treated with BPF Phyto, an at least 2,5 fold increase in its absorption was found, confirming in human studies the better profile of BPF Phyto compared to standard BPF. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that better absorption and tissue distribution of BPF Phyto formulation represents an innovative approach in supplementation treatments of cardiometabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lecitinas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fracionamento Químico , Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Lecitinas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
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