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1.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22989, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35415037

RESUMO

Aim To investigate the reasons for disparity regarding the country-specific COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) within the 30 countries of the European Economic Area (EEA). Materials and methods Data regarding population, area, COVID-19-associated infections/deaths, vaccination, life expectancy, elderly population, infant mortality, gender disparity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), income per capita, health spending per capita, physicians, nursing personnel, hospital beds, ICU beds, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking from all EEA countries were collected from official sources on January 16, 2022. Correlation coefficients were computed, and optimal scaling using ridge regression was used to reach the most parsimonious multivariate model assessing any potential independent correlation of public health parameters with COVID-19 CFR. Results COVID-19 CFR ranges from 0.1% (Iceland) to 4.0% (Bulgaria). All parameters but population density, GDP, total health spending (% of GDP), ICU beds, diabetes, and obesity were correlated with COVID-19 CFR. In the most parsimonious multivariate model, elderly population rate (P = 0.018), males/total ratio (P = 0.013), nurses/hospital beds (P = 0.001), physicians/hospital beds (P = 0.026), public health spending (P = 0.013), smoking rate (P = 0.013), and unvaccinated population rate (P = 0.00005) were demonstrated to present independent correlation with COVID-19 CFR. In detail, the COVID-19 CFR is estimated to increase by 1.24 times in countries with vaccination rate of <0.34, 1.11 times in countries with an elderly population rate of ≥0.20, 1.14 times in countries with male ratio values ≥0.493, 1.12 times in countries spending <2,000$ annually per capita for public health, 1.14 and 1.10 times in countries with <2.30 nurses and <0.88 physicians per hospital bed, respectively, and 1.12 in countries with smoking ratio ≥0.22, while holding all other independent variables of the model constant. Conclusion COVID-19 CFR varies substantially among EEA countries and is independently linked with low vaccination rates, increased elderly population rate, diminished public health spending per capita, insufficient physicians and nursing personnel per hospital bed, and prevalent smoking habits. Therefore, public health authorities are awaited to consider these parameters in prioritizing actions to manage the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 238: 109016, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447311

RESUMO

Aiming to reduce mortality in COVID-19 with severe respiratory failure we administered a combined rescue treatment (COMBI) on top of standard-of-care (SOC: dexamethasone/heparin) consisted of inhaled DNase to dissolve thrombogenic neutrophil extracellular traps, plus agents against cytokine-mediated hyperinflammation, namely anti-IL-6-receptor tocilizumab and JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg were analysed. COMBI group (n = 22) was compared with similar groups that had received SOC alone (n = 26) or SOC plus monotherapy with either IL-1-receptor antagonist anakinra (n = 19) or tocilizumab (n = 11). COMBI was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality and intubation rate, shorter duration of hospitalization, and prolonged overall survival after a median follow-up of 110 days. In vitro, COVID-19 plasma induced tissue factor/thrombin pathway in primary lung fibroblasts. This effect was inhibited by the immunomodulatory agents of COMBI providing a mechanistic explanation for the clinical observations. These results support the conduct of randomized trials using combined immunomodulation in COVID-19 to target multiple interconnected pathways of immunothrombosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19 , Desoxirribonucleases , Insuficiência Respiratória , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxirribonucleases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 31(1): 85-97, 2022 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have suggested that mutations in MEFV, the gene responsible for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), are frequently detected in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We aimed to provide further evidence regarding a potential correlation between MEFV gene mutations and IBD by identifying all relevant studies and analyzing their results. METHODS: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar were used to identify all studies that published until January 2021 and reported MEFV mutation patterns in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis (IC) with or without a control group. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to appraise the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies, including 937 patients and 977 controls, were analyzed. MEFV mutation rate in IBD patients was 0.238 (95%CI: 0.209-0.270; I 2 =95%); MEFV mutated alleles were more frequent in IBD patients when compared with controls (p=0.03 for UC, p=0.01 for CD and IC). Subgroup analysis indicated that MEFV mutations were increased in patients with IC when compared with UC and CD (I 2 =91%, p<0.001). Patients with extra-intestinal manifestations and pancolitis had 2.57 (95%CI 1.07-6.14; p=0.03) and 2.02 (95%CI: 1.01-4.04, P=0.049) odds ratios to carry MEFV mutant genotypes, respectively. Exon 10 mutations had the most serious impact. No source of heterogeneity was detected. CONCLUSIONS: MEFV mutations are common in IBD and are linked with the presence of extra-intestinal manifestations and pancolitis. Further research to assess the clinical significance and evolutionary significance of MEFV mutations in IBD patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Doença Crônica , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Mutação , Pirina/genética
4.
Diabetol Int ; 13(1): 315-319, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059270

RESUMO

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) implicates poor tissue perfusion, functionally defective mucosal barrier, and corrosive injury of the esophageal mucosa, typically characterized by diffuse, circumferential greyish or black discoloration of the esophagus in esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Low-volume states, as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), predispose to AEN. Cola drinks diminish the esophageal pH by decreasing the lower esophageal sphincter pressure. We report a 47-year-old male shepherd with chest pain, nausea, odynophagia and gradual decline in level of consciousness, who reported consumption of 6-7 L of cola beverages per day, and was diagnosed with DKA. The patient had a record of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease, and he was administered empagliflozin 25 mg q24 hours, vildagliptin 50 mg bid, metformin 1000 mg bid, and insulin glargine 24 IU q 24. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was indicative of a diffuse, edematous, and eroded mucosa of grey colour from the upper to the lower esophageal sphincter. CT scan supported the diagnosis, revealing diffuse thickening and edematous imaging of the esophageal wall with an abnormal edge of the mucosa in the lower half of the esophagus. Seven days after rigorous treatment with fluid resuscitation, insulin restoration, esomeprazole, fluconazole, cefoxitine, and metronidazole, the patient was ameliorated. A second endoscopy revealed obvious improvement. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DKA/AEN intertwining are thoroughly discussed. In conclusion, clinicians should not disregard AEN in the differential diagnosis of patients with DKA and clinical symptoms of esophagitis. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00537-y.

5.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(2): 1197-1204, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) is a reliable point-based score that predicts mortality and morbidity in emergency surgery patients. However, it has been validated only in the U.S. PATIENTS: We aimed to prospectively validate ESS in a Greek patient population. METHODS: All patients who underwent an emergent laparotomy were prospectively included over a 15-month period. A systematic chart review was performed to collect relevant preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables based on which the ESS was calculated for each patient. The relationship between ESS and 30-day mortality, morbidity (i.e., the occurrence of at least one complication), and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated and compared between the Greek and U.S. patients using the c-statistics methodology. The study was registered on "Research Registry" with the unique identifying number 5901. RESULTS: A total of 214 patients (102 Greek) were included. The mean age was 64 years, 44% were female, and the median ESS was 7. The most common indication for surgery was hollow viscus perforation (25%). The ESS reliably and incrementally predicted mortality (c-statistics = 0.79 [95% CI 0.67-0.90] and 0.83 [95% CI 0.74-0.92]), morbidity (c-statistics = 0.83 [95% CI 0.76-0.91] and 0.79 [95% CI 0.69-0.88]), and ICU admission (c-statistics = 0.88 [95% CI 0.81-0.96] and 0.84 [95% CI 0.77-0.91]) in both Greek and U.S. CONCLUSION: The correlation between the ESS and the surgical outcomes was statistically significant in both Greek and U.S. patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. ESS could prove globally useful for preoperative patient counseling and quality-of-care benchmarking.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
6.
Virchows Arch ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503185

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of various non-infectious inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. We investigated the presence and possible associations of NETs with various histopathologic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We retrospectively assessed 20 liver biopsy specimens from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including 17 specimens with NASH, and 14 control specimens. NETs were identified with confocal microscopy as extracellular structures with co-localization of neutrophil elastase (NE) and citrullinated histone-3. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-17A were assessed with the same methodology. Histologic features of NAFLD were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and correlated with presence of NETs, neutrophil density, and platelet density/aggregates (assessed by immunohistochemistry for NE and CD42b, respectively). NETs were identified in 94.1% (16/17) of the NASH biopsy specimens; they were absent from all other NAFLD and control specimens. The presence of NETs was strongly correlated with steatosis (p = 0.003), ballooning degeneration (p < 0.001), lobular inflammation (p < 0.001), portal inflammation (p < 0.001), NAS score (p = 0.001), stage (p = 0.001), and diagnosis of NASH (p < 0.001). NETs were decorated with IL-1ß and IL-17A. Platelet aggregates were much larger in NASH specimens, as compared to controls. In conclusion, NETs are implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Their associations with inflammation, ballooning degeneration (a hallmark of NASH), and stage emphasize their role in the disease process. In this setting, NETs provide a vehicle for IL-1ß and IL-17A. In addition, platelet aggregation in hepatic sinusoids implies a role for thromboinflammation in NASH, and may explain the low peripheral blood platelet counts reported in patients with NASH.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573544

RESUMO

Dairy sheep farming is a vital sector of the agricultural economy in Greece. Information on the effect of the farming system on sheep milk characteristics is critical for producing dairy products with improved nutritional value according to the current guidelines for healthy food consumption. This study aimed to investigate the basic composition, physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, and nutritional indices of milk produced in intensive and semi-intensive sheep farms. Bulk tank milk samples from 20 intensive and 20 semi-intensive sheep farms were examined. Sheep in the intensive farms were kept indoors and were fed with roughage, silage, and concentrates. Sheep in the semi-intensive farms were kept indoors during the night and were moved to the pastures during the day. Sheep were fed with roughage, silage, and concentrates in combination with grazing. Milk composition and somatic cell count were determined with automatic analyzers. The physicochemical characteristics were determined with standard laboratory methods. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. The farming system did not affect milk chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics. However, milk fatty acid composition and nutritional value were significantly improved in milk from farms using the semi-intensive production system, and this favorable effect was attributed to the inclusion of pasture in sheep diet.

8.
JCI Insight ; 6(18)2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324440

RESUMO

Innate immunity and chronic inflammation are involved in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, leading to target organ damage in essential hypertension (EH). However, the role of neutrophils in EH is still elusive. We investigated the association between angiotensin II (Ang II) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in pathogenesis of EH. Plasma samples, kidney biopsies, and surgical specimens of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) from patients with EH were used. Cell-based assays, NETs/human aortic endothelial cell cocultures, and in situ studies were performed. Increased plasma levels of NETs and tissue factor (TF) activity were detected in untreated, newly diagnosed patients with EH. Stimulation of control neutrophils with plasma from patients with untreated EH generated TF-enriched NETs promoting endothelial collagen production. Ang II induced NETosis in vitro via an ROS/peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 and autophagy-dependent pathway. Circulating NETs and thrombin generation levels were reduced substantially in patients with EH starting treatment with Ang II receptor blockers, whereas their plasma was unable to trigger procoagulant NETs. Moreover, TF-bearing NETotic neutrophils/remnants accumulated in sites of interstitial renal fibrosis and in the subendothelial layer of AAAs. These data reveal the important pathogenic role of an Ang II/ROS/NET/TF axis in EH, linking thromboinflammation with endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Hipertensão Essencial/sangue , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Autofagia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno/metabolismo , Endotélio/metabolismo , Endotélio/patologia , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , /sangue
10.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(10): 1135-1144, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139938

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with cancer are at risk of thrombotic events, mainly deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. The thrombosis risk is generally 4-6 times higher than in a healthy population and depends on factors related to patient characteristics, tumor factors, and treatment-related factors. The decision-making for prophylactic anticoagulation is individualized according to the relative risks and benefits. The VTE risk has been quantified using different assessment scores.Areas covered: This article reviews current data and ongoing research on predictive factors involved in cancer-related thrombosis and highlights the currently suggested strategies for prophylaxis. Several trials that compared the two treatment options, direct factor Xa inhibitor or LMWH, with placebo and not each other are discussed. This article analyzed the safety and efficacy features that led several international organizations such as ASCO, NCCN, and others, to issue guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients at high risk of thrombosis by using LMWH, fondaparinux, and DOACs.Expert opinion: ASCO, NCCN, and other international organizations recommend thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients. However, further investigation is needed to define better biomarkers for more accurate identification of cancer patients that will benefit from anticoagulant treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 269, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) affecting negatively the patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and real-life management of anemia in IBD patients in Greece. METHODS: This study was conducted in 17 Greek IBD referral centers. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, IBD and anemia treatment data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 1394 IBD patients [560 ulcerative colitis (UC), 834 Crohn's disease (CD)] were enrolled. Anemia at any time was reported in 687 (49.3%) patients of whom 413 (29.6%) had episodic and 274 (19.7%) had recurrent/persistent anemia. Anemia was diagnosed before IBD in 45 (6.5%), along with IBD in 269 (39.2%) and after IBD in 373 (54.3%) patients. In the multivariate analysis the presence of extraintestinal manifestations (p = 0.0008), IBD duration (p = 0.026), IBD related surgeries and hospitalizations (p = 0.026 and p = 0.004 accordingly) were risk factors of recurrent/persistent anemia. Serum ferritin was measured in 839 (60.2%) IBD patients. Among anemic patients, 535 (77.9%) received treatment. Iron supplementation was administered in 485 (90.6%) patients, oral in 142 (29.3%) and intravenous in 393 (81%). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of anemia in IBD patients, followed at Greek referral centers, is approximately 50%. Development of recurrent/persistent anemia may be observed in 20% of cases and is independently associated with the presence of extraintestinal manifestations, IBD duration, IBD related surgeries and hospitalizations. Anemia treatment is administered in up to [Formula: see text] of anemia IBD patients with the majority of them receiving iron intravenously.


Assuntos
Anemia , Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Diabetol Int ; 12(4): 445-459, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777611

RESUMO

AIMS: COVID-19 is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and euglycaemic DKA (EDKA); however, evidence regarding parameters affecting outcome and mortality rates is scarce. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, and Google Scholar from January 2020 to 7 January 2021 to identify all studies describing clinical profile, outcome and mortality rates regarding DKA, HHS, DKA/HHS and EDKA cases in COVID-19 patients. The appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute tools were used for quality assessment; quality of evidence was approached using GRADE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess correlations between clinical characteristics and outcome based on case reports. Combined mortality rates (CMR) were estimated from data reported in case report series, cross-sectional studies, and meta-analyses. The protocol was submitted to PROSPERO (ID: 229356/230737). RESULTS: From 312 identified publications, 44 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Critical COVID-19 necessitating ICU (P = 3 × 10-8), DKA/HHS presence (P = 0.021), and AKI (P = 0.037) were independently correlated with death. Increased COVID-19 severity (P = 0.003), elevated lactates (P < 0.001), augmented anion gap (P < 0.001), and AKI (P = 0.002) were associated with DKA/HHS. SGLT-2i were linked with EDKA (P = 0.004) and negatively associated with AKI (P = 0.023). CMR was 27.1% (95% CI 11.2-46.9%) with considerable heterogeneity (I 2 = 67%). CONCLUSION: Acute diabetes-related metabolic emergencies in COVID-19 patients lead to increased mortality; key determinants are critical COVID-19 illness, coexistence of DKA/HHS and AKI. Previous SGLT-2i treatment, though associated with EDKA, might preserve renal function in COVID-19 patients. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00502-9.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1544-1554, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily implicated in the pathogenesis of several immunoinflammatory disorders. Based on our previous studies demonstrating that overexpression of activin-A in murine lung causes pathology sharing key features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we hypothesized that activins and their natural inhibitor follistatin might be particularly relevant to COVID-19 pathophysiology. METHODS: Activin-A, activin-B, and follistatin were retrospectively analyzed in 574 serum samples from 263 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in 3 independent centers, and compared with demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. Optimal scaling with ridge regression was used to screen variables and establish a prediction model. RESULT: The activin/follistatin axis was significantly deregulated during the course of COVID-19, correlated with severity and independently associated with mortality. FACT-CLINYCoD, a scoring system incorporating follistatin, activin-A, activin-B, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, intensive care unit admission, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, age, comorbidities, and D-dimers, efficiently predicted fatal outcome (area under the curve [AUC], 0.951; 95% confidence interval, .919-.983; P <10-6). Two validation cohorts indicated similar AUC values. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a link between activin/follistatin axis and COVID-19 mortality and introduces FACT-CLINYCoD, a novel pathophysiology-based tool that allows dynamic prediction of disease outcome, supporting clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Ativinas/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Folistatina/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
16.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
17.
Ochsner J ; 20(3): 272-278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071659

RESUMO

Background: The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the era of individualized therapy mandates a multidisciplinary approach and therefore the cooperation of physicians from multiple medical specialties. Treatment selection is based on the stage of the disease. The most prominent staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification system. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with HCC treated in our department. Patients were originally staged based on the BCLC classification system. However, a multidisciplinary team refined the BCLC classes, using clinical data and biomarkers to tailor an individualized course of treatment. Results: The study population was 63 patients who were BCLC staged at diagnosis as follows: very early (5 patients, 7.9%), early (38 patients, 60.3%), intermediate (14 patients, 22.2%), and advanced (6 patients, 9.5%). Thirty-two patients (50.8%) were treated with surgery and 31 patients (49.2%) with locoregional treatments. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates in the surgery group were 81.3%, 52.9%, and 18.9%, respectively, whereas in the locoregional treatment group, the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 71.0%, 38.7%, and 19.0%, respectively. The mean overall survival was 35.42 ± 23.54 months for the surgery group and 28.42 ± 23.0 months for the locoregional treatment group. In the surgery group, the mean overall survival of the patients treated with surgery alone was 26.68 ± 21.97 months compared to 48.18 ± 20.26 months for the patients treated with surgery followed by locoregional treatment for recurrence. Conclusion: In this study, patients treated with hepatic resection had higher survival rates than patients treated with locoregional treatments. However, this superiority did not reach statistical significance (P=0.426). Thus, locoregional treatments are highlighted as a valuable alternative to surgery, particularly when hepatic resection is not feasible. Finally, patients who received locoregional treatment following surgery had significantly higher survival compared to patients treated with surgery alone (P=0.038).

18.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 5575-5588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequently diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Its rapid progression, combined with the limited treatment options at late stages, imposes the need for early detection and aggressive intervention. Based on the knowledge that hepatocarcinogenesis is significantly influenced by histone acetylation, we directed our search for novel HCC therapeutics among histone deacetylation inhibitors (HDACi). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HDAC1/2 inhibitor Romidepsin in the well-established mouse model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C56BL/6 mice were treated with Romidepsin at the critical point of 10 months after DEN challenge and their livers were examined 2 months later using histopathology and morphometry. Protein levels were assessed in serum using ELISA and in liver tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry (in-situ detection). Gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Romidepsin suppressed cancer progression. This effect was associated with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of cancer cells. The cell cycle regulator CK2a, the anti-inflammatory molecule PPAR-γ, and the tumor suppressors PTEN and CYLD were upregulated in treated HCC. By contrast, the expression of PI3K, NF-κB p65 and c-Jun was reduced. In line with this result, the levels of two major apoptosis regulators, ie, BAD and the multifunctional protein c-Met, were lower in the blood serum of treated mice compared to the untreated mice with HCC. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that Romidepsin, a drug currently used in the treatment of lymphoma, could also be considered in the management of early-stage HCC.

19.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 33(4): 398-404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested there may be statistically significant differences in mean platelet volume (MPV) between the onset and remission of acute pancreatitis (AP). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to better characterize the correlation between MPV and AP by identifying all relevant studies and summarizing their results. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar from January 2000 to December 2019 to identify all studies that reported MPV at the onset or remission of AP, or both. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to appraise the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Ten observational studies, including 1019 patients and 363 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. MPV was smaller at the onset of AP than on remission (standardized mean difference= -0.33 fL, 95% confidence interval -0.54 to -0.12 fL; P=0.002); however, a moderate degree of heterogeneity (I 2=72%, P≤0.001) was observed. Subgroup analysis indicated comparable MPV in relation to the severity of AP. Similarly, no statistically significant difference was detected between AP patients and controls at either onset (P=0.760) or remission (P=0.700) of the disease. No statistically significant publication bias was detected (Eggers' regression P=0.938). Subgroup analysis suggested age (P<0.001) and sex (P=0.01) adjustment as potential sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: MPV is smaller at the onset of AP. Further clinical evaluation is needed to assess its potential prognostic value.

20.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(4): 541-553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495951

RESUMO

Higher-risk Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients undergoing treatment with 5-azacytidine (AZA) are typically elderly with several comorbidities. However, the effect of comorbidities on the effectiveness and safety of AZA in real-world settings remains unclear. We analyzed data from 536 AZA-treated patients with higher-risk MDS, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative neoplasms and low blast count Acute Myeloid Leukemia enrolled to the Hellenic National Registry of Myelodysplastic and Hypoplastic Syndromes. Multivariate analysis adjusted also for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), its revised version (IPSS-R) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS), demonstrated independent associations of overall and leukemia-free survival with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45 mL min-1 /1.73 m2 (P = .039, P = .023, respectively), ECOG performance status <2 (P = .015, P = .006), and presence of peripheral blood blasts (P = .008, P = .034), while secondary MDS also correlated with significantly shorter leukemia-free survival (P = .039). Addition of eGFR <45 mL min-1 /1.73 m2 , in IPSS-R and FPSS increased the predictive power of both models. Only FPSS ≤2 and eGFR <45 mL min-1 /1.73 m2 predicted worse response to AZA in multivariate analysis, whereas eGFR <45 mL min-1 /1.73 m2 correlated significantly with death from hemorrhage (P = .003) and cardiovascular complications (P = .006). In conclusion, in the second largest real-world series of AZA-treated MDS patients, we show that an eGFR <45 mL min-1 /1.73 m2 is an independent predictor of worse response and survival. This higher cut-off, instead of the commonly used serum creatinine >2 mg/dL, can be utilized as a more precise indicator of renal comorbidity during AZA therapy. Incorporation of eGFR in the prognostic assessment of AZA-treated MDS patients may prove useful not only in routine practice, but also for the appropriate patient stratification in clinical trials with AZA combinations.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
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