Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 62
Filtrar
1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1145-1154, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400865

RESUMO

Very-short- (vSCCPs, C6-9), short- (SCCPs, C10-13), medium- (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs, C>17) were analyzed in indoor air and dust collected from the living rooms and personal 24 h air of 61 adults from a Norwegian cohort. Relatively volatile CPs, i.e., vSCCPs and SCCPs, showed a greater tendency to partition from settled indoor dust to paired stationary indoor air from the same living rooms than MCCPs and LCCPs, with median logarithmic dust-air partition ratios of 1.3, 2.9, 4.1, and 5.4, respectively. Using the stationary indoor air and settled indoor dust concentrations, the combined median daily exposures to vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were estimated to be 0.074, 2.7, 0.93, and 0.095 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Inhalation was the predominant exposure pathway for vSCCPs (median 99%) and SCCPs (59%), while dust ingestion was the predominant exposure pathway for MCCPs (75%) and LCCPs (95%). The estimated inhalation exposure to total CPs was ∼ 5 times higher when the personal 24 h air results were used rather than the corresponding stationary indoor air results in 13 paired samples, indicating that exposure situations other than living rooms contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure. The 95th percentile exposure for CPs did not exceed the reference dose.

2.
EFSA J ; 18(Suppl 1): e181105, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294044

RESUMO

Phthalates are a group of diesters of phthalic acid and have been widely used by the industry as plasticisers giving flexibility and durability to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Commonly their uses vary from plasticisers in food contact materials and toys to emulsifying agents in personal care products. Phthalates are not covalently bound to PVC, thus they can migrate into the air, skin, water, food and the environment. The omnipresence of phthalates results in human exposure via multiple pathways such as dermal, oral and inhalation for prolonged periods. There is evidence that phthalates can induce disruption in oestrogenic activity, reproductive, developmental and liver toxicity both in experimental animals and potentially in humans. The aim of this technical report is to summarise the activities of the fellow performed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH). The goals of the work programme were collecting concentration levels on five specific phthalates from the scientific literature and combining them with consumption/use data reported in a biomonitoring study part of a Horizon 2020 project (EuroMix), and finally, estimate the aggregate phthalate exposure from food and personal care products and compare them with the measured phthalate levels in urine samples collected in the biomonitoring study.

3.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 7(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953926

RESUMO

Up to 18000 ng of total chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was found in hand wipes of individual adult participants in a Norwegian cohort study (n = 60), with a geometric mean (SD) value of 870 (2700) ng. The CPs covered a wide range of alkane chain lengths from C7 to C48 with variable chlorine substitution. Complex mixtures of very-short-chain (vSCCPs, C<10), short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13), medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain (LCCPs, C>17) CPs were found, contributing on average 0.3%, 20%, 58%, and 22%, respectively, of the total CPs. Significant positive correlations were found between CP levels and factors related to the indoor environment and product use, including living in a house/apartment built before the ban of SCCPs, having a sofa, the number of TVs in the home, and owning a car, which mirrors CP usage as flame retardants and/or plasticizers in consumer products. Compared to previous studies of other organic contaminants in hand wipe samples from the same cohort, CPs were the most abundant flame retardants. This is the first report of CPs in hand wipes, and dermal exposure based on these data suggested that hand contact could be an important human exposure pathway for LCCPs.

4.
Hepatology ; 72(5): 1758-1770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread and persistent pollutants that have been shown to have hepatotoxic effects in animal models. However, human evidence is scarce. We evaluated how prenatal exposure to PFAS associates with established serum biomarkers of liver injury and alterations in serum metabolome in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used data from 1,105 mothers and their children (median age, 8.2 years; interquartile range, 6.6-9.1) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort (consisting of six existing population-based birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and perfluoroundecanoate in maternal blood. We assessed concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase in child serum. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we found that higher exposure to PFAS during pregnancy was associated with higher liver enzyme levels in children. We also measured child serum metabolomics through a targeted assay and found significant perturbations in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism associated with prenatal PFAS. A latent variable analysis identified a profile of children at high risk of liver injury (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.92) that was characterized by high prenatal exposure to PFAS and increased serum levels of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine), and glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine [PC] aa C36:1 and Lyso-PC a C18:1). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental exposure to PFAS can contribute to pediatric liver injury.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003182, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal smoke exposure is a common and key avoidable risk factor for birth complications and seems to influence later risk of overweight. It is unclear whether this increased risk is also present if mothers smoke during the first trimester only or reduce the number of cigarettes during pregnancy, or when only fathers smoke. We aimed to assess the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy, specifically of quitting or reducing smoking and maternal and paternal smoking combined, with preterm birth, small size for gestational age, and childhood overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis among 229,158 families from 28 pregnancy/birth cohorts from Europe and North America. All 28 cohorts had information on maternal smoking, and 16 also had information on paternal smoking. In total, 22 cohorts were population-based, with birth years ranging from 1991 to 2015. The mothers' median age was 30.0 years, and most mothers were medium or highly educated. We used multilevel binary logistic regression models adjusted for maternal and paternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. Compared with nonsmoking mothers, maternal first trimester smoking only was not associated with adverse birth outcomes but was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.02-1.35], P value = 0.030). Children from mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy had higher risks of preterm birth (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.15], P value = 0.012), small size for gestational age (OR 2.15 [95% CI 2.07-2.23], P value < 0.001), and childhood overweight (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.35-1.48], P value < 0.001). Mothers who reduced the number of cigarettes between the first and third trimester, without quitting, still had a higher risk of small size for gestational age. However, the corresponding risk estimates were smaller than for women who continued the same amount of cigarettes throughout pregnancy (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.52-2.34] instead of OR 2.20 [95% CI 2.02-2.42] when reducing from 5-9 to ≤4 cigarettes/day; OR 2.79 [95% CI 2.39-3.25] and OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.46-2.57] instead of OR 2.95 [95% CI 2.75-3.15] when reducing from ≥10 to 5-9 and ≤4 cigarettes/day, respectively [P values < 0.001]). Reducing the number of cigarettes during pregnancy did not affect the risks of preterm birth and childhood overweight. Among nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking was associated with childhood overweight (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.16-1.27], P value < 0.001) but not with adverse birth outcomes. Limitations of this study include the self-report of parental smoking information and the possibility of residual confounding. As this study only included participants from Europe and North America, results need to be carefully interpreted regarding other populations. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that as compared to nonsmoking during pregnancy, quitting smoking in the first trimester is associated with the same risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age, but with a higher risk of childhood overweight. Reducing the number of cigarettes, without quitting, has limited beneficial effects. Paternal smoking seems to be associated, independently of maternal smoking, with the risk of childhood overweight. Population strategies should focus on parental smoking prevention before or at the start, rather than during, pregnancy.


Assuntos
Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/tendências
7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1444-1449, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762124

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although blood pressure (BP) levels have been reported to be lower in SCD patients compared to general population. Aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of BP phenotypes and levels of arterial stiffness in pediatric patients with SCD and to assess the differences with children at risk for hypertension. We included in the study 16 pediatric SCD (HbS/ß-thalassemia, S/ß-thal) patients and 16 consecutive children at risk for hypertension referred to our hypertension clinic that served as high-risk controls. All patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring and measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). S/ß-thal patients had lower office systolic BP than the high-risk control group (115.43 ± 10.03 vs 123.37 ± 11.92, P = .05) but presented similar levels of day and night ambulatory BP. Office hypertension was found in 12.5% of the S/ß-thal patients and in 43.8% of the high-risk controls (P = .06), while 18.8% of the S/ß-thal patients and 25% of the high-risk controls presented hypertension by ambulatory BP levels (P = .21). All of the S/ß-thal patients with ambulatory hypertension had night hypertension (one combined night and day hypertension) with office normotension (masked hypertension). S/ß-thal patients and high-risk controls presented equal prevalence of masked hypertension (18.8%). Children and adolescents with S/ß-thal present similar prevalence of BP phenotypes and levels of PWV with children at risk for hypertension. A significant number of children and adolescents with S/ß-thal may have masked nighttime hypertension despite normal office BP levels.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 292: 113298, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate mental health in university students in Greece, during lockdown due to COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were collected online and anonymously, during lockdown; they included 1104 females (aged 22.08±4,96) and 431 males (aged 22.35±3.11). The analysis included transformation of the data with post-stratification method, descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Factorial Analysis of Variance and Relative Risk ratios RESULTS: : The results suggest that during, lockdown major depression was present in 12.43% with 13.46% experiencing severe distress. Risk factors were female sex, history of self-injury, suicidal attempts and following theoretical studies (RR=2-5.71). Conspiracy theories were accepted by 20-68%, with students of theoretical studies manifesting higher rates. DISCUSSION: The results of the current study confirmed that students are at high risk to develop depression and suicidality in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak. They also identified specific risk factors and pointed to the role of believing in conspiracy theories in copying with stress. They also identified populations with higher prevalence of these beliefs. Further targeted research is necessary as well as targeted intervention in vulnerable groups but concerning mental health as well as the reduction of believing in conspiracy theories.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113111, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450416

RESUMO

The COVID-19 hit also Greece but due to early measures and their exceptional success, the death toll is one of the lowest in the world. Here we report the results from the analysis of the responses to an online survey, from the first 1000 university students, concerning the impact of the lockdown on their mental health. Overall, there was a 'horizontal' increase in scores; 42.5% for anxiety, 74.3% for depression, and 63.3% increase in total suicidal thoughts. Quantity of sleep increased in 66.3% but quality worsened in 43.0%. Quality of life worsened in 57.0% (same in 27.9%). There was a 25-3 fold increase in possible clinical cases of depression and an almost 8-fold increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost a third accept and one fifth are open to conspiracy theories concerning COVID-19. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting data concerning the impact of lockdown and quarantine on the mental health of university students. While the acute impact seems clear, the long-term consequences are unknown and although suicidal thoughts have risen substantially, it seems unlikely this will result in deaths. However, the results constitute a clear message that vulnerable populations are at a need for specific interventions concerning their mental health issues.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
10.
Environ Int ; 138: 105622, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as encompassing all environmental exposures one undergoes from conception onwards. Challenges of the application of this concept to environmental-health association studies include a possibly high false-positive rate. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reduce the dimension of the exposome using information from DNA methylation as a way to more efficiently characterize the relation between exposome and child body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Among 1,173 mother-child pairs from HELIX cohort, 216 exposures ("whole exposome") were characterized. BMI and DNA methylation from immune cells of peripheral blood were assessed in children at age 6-10 years. A priori reduction of the methylome to preselect BMI-relevant CpGs was performed using biological pathways. We then implemented a tailored Meet-in-the-Middle approach to identify from these CpGs candidate mediators in the exposome-BMI association, using univariate linear regression models corrected for multiple testing: this allowed to point out exposures most likely to be associated with BMI ("reduced exposome"). Associations of this reduced exposome with BMI were finally tested. The approach was compared to an agnostic exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) ignoring the methylome. RESULTS: Among the 2284 preselected CpGs (0.6% of the assessed CpGs), 62 were associated with BMI. Four factors (3 postnatal and 1 prenatal) of the exposome were associated with at least one of these CpGs, among which postnatal blood level of copper and PFOS were directly associated with BMI, with respectively positive and negative estimated effects. The agnostic ExWAS identified 18 additional postnatal exposures, including many persistent pollutants, generally unexpectedly associated with decreased BMI. DISCUSSION: Our approach incorporating a priori information identified fewer significant associations than an agnostic approach. We hypothesize that this smaller number corresponds to a higher specificity (and possibly lower sensitivity), compared to the agnostic approach. Indeed, the latter cannot distinguish causal relations from reverse causation, e.g. for persistent compounds stored in fat, whose circulating level is influenced by BMI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Obes Rev ; 21(7): e13016, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162413

RESUMO

Children and adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer dietary behaviours compared to their counterparts with a higher socioeconomic position. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such socioeconomic inequalities is vital to identify targets for interventions aimed at tackling these inequalities. This systematic review aimed to summarize existing evidence regarding the mediators of socioeconomic differences in dietary behaviours among youth. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases yielded 20 eligible studies. The dietary behaviours included in the reviewed studies were the intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, unhealthy snacks/fast food and breakfast. The consistent mediators of the effects of socioeconomic position on dietary behaviours among youth were: self-efficacy, food preferences and knowledge at the intrapersonal level; and availability and accessibility of food items at home, food rules and parental modelling at the interpersonal level. Few studies including mediators at the organisational, community or policy levels were found. Our review found several modifiable factors at the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels that could be targeted in interventions aimed at combating inequalities in dietary behaviours among youth. Rigorous studies exploring organisational, community and policy level mediators are warranted.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201007, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176304

RESUMO

Importance: The balance of mercury risk and nutritional benefit from fish intake during pregnancy for the metabolic health of offspring to date is unknown. Objective: To assess the associations of fish intake and mercury exposure during pregnancy with metabolic syndrome in children and alterations in biomarkers of inflammation in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective birth cohort study used data from studies performed in 5 European countries (France, Greece, Norway, Spain, and the UK) between April 1, 2003, and February 26, 2016, as part of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Mothers and their singleton offspring were followed up until the children were aged 6 to 12 years. Data were analyzed between March 1 and August 2, 2019. Exposures: Maternal fish intake during pregnancy (measured in times per week) was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires, and maternal mercury concentration (measured in micrograms per liter) was assessed using maternal whole blood and cord blood samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: An aggregate metabolic syndrome score for children was calculated using the z scores of waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. A higher metabolic syndrome score (score range, -4.9 to 7.5) indicated a poorer metabolic profile. Three protein panels were used to measure several cytokines and adipokines in the plasma of children. Results: The study included 805 mothers and their singleton children. Among mothers, the mean (SD) age at cohort inclusion or delivery of their infant was 31.3 (4.6) years. A total of 400 women (49.7%) had a high educational level, and 432 women (53.7%) were multiparous. Among children, the mean (SD) age was 8.4 (1.5) years (age range, 6-12 years). A total of 453 children (56.3%) were boys, and 734 children (91.2%) were of white race/ethnicity. Fish intake consistent with health recommendations (1 to 3 times per week) during pregnancy was associated with a 1-U decrease in metabolic syndrome score in children (ß = -0.96; 95% CI, -1.49 to -0.42) compared with low fish consumption (<1 time per week) after adjusting for maternal mercury levels and other covariates. No further benefit was observed with fish intake of more than 3 times per week. A higher maternal mercury concentration was independently associated with an increase in the metabolic syndrome score of their offspring (ß per 2-fold increase in mercury concentration = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.01-0.34). Compared with low fish intake, moderate and high fish intake during pregnancy were associated with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in children. An integrated analysis identified a cluster of children with increased susceptibility to metabolic disease, which was characterized by low fish consumption during pregnancy, high maternal mercury levels, decreased levels of adiponectin in children, and increased levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor α, and the cytokines interleukin 6 and interleukin 1ß in children. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that moderate fish intake consistent with current health recommendations during pregnancy was associated with improvements in the metabolic health of children, while high maternal mercury exposure was associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile in children.


Assuntos
Peixes , Inflamação/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Environ Int ; 134: 105244, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711019

RESUMO

Exposure to PFASs may result in adverse health effects. This study aimed to characterise the exposure to PFASs from diet, house dust, indoor air, and dermal contact and the relative contribution from different external exposure pathways to human serum concentrations. Daily intakes of 18 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and 12 PFAA precursors from diet, dust ingestion, inhalation of indoor air and dermal absorption were estimated using a comprehensive dataset comprising 61 adults from the Oslo area, Norway. Concentrations of PFAAs and PFAA precursors in house dust, indoor air, hand wipes, foods and drinks were utilised to estimate the daily intakes. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS in serum for this study group. On a median level, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) contributed most to the total estimated daily intake of PFAAs, with a median intake of 280 (range: 72-1810) pg·kg bw-1·day-1, covering both direct and indirect (precursors) exposure. Out of this, only 3% (range: <1-48%) of the total PFOA intake came from indirect exposure. Dietary exposure from ingestion of food and drinks was in general the predominant exposure pathway, followed by exposure from ingestion of house dust, inhalation of indoor air, and dermal absorption, but considerable variations were observed among individuals. House dust ingestion and indoor air inhalation contributed most to the total intakes for some participants, for which most of them were among the 20% participants with the highest total estimated intakes. Some statistical significant associations between concentrations of PFASs measured in serum and estimated intakes were observed. Measured serum concentrations and modelled serum concentrations based on external exposure estimates were in the same order of magnitude for PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA, but only PFOA concentrations were comparable, 1.9 and 2.0 ng mL-1 for observed and modelled serum concentrations, respectively. The estimated daily intakes of PFASs in this study were lower than the health-based guidance values, e.g. the tolerable weekly intakes derived by EFSA. This study underlines the importance of performing studies considering multiple exposure pathways on an individual basis.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Noruega
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107005, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to exposures to food contaminants, and a balanced diet during these periods is critical for optimal nutritional status. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between diet and measured blood and urinary levels of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs from six European birth cohorts (n=818 mothers and 1,288 children). METHODS: We assessed the consumption of seven food groups and the blood levels of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and heavy metals and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites, phenolic compounds, and organophosphate pesticide (OP) metabolites. Organic food consumption during childhood was also studied. We applied multivariable linear regressions and targeted maximum likelihood based estimation (TMLE). RESULTS: Maternal high (≥4 times/week) versus low (<2 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 15% higher PCBs [geometric mean (GM) ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.29], 42% higher perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (GM ratio=1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 89% higher mercury (Hg) (GM ratio=1.89; 95% CI: 1.47, 2.41) and a 487% increase in arsenic (As) (GM ratio=4.87; 95% CI: 2.57, 9.23) levels. In children, high (≥3 times/week) versus low (<1.5 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 23% higher perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (GM ratio=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.40), 36% higher PFUnDA (GM ratio=1.36; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), 37% higher perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (GM ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.54), and >200% higher Hg and As [GM ratio=3.87 (95% CI: 1.91, 4.31) and GM ratio=2.68 (95% CI: 2.23, 3.21)] concentrations. Using TMLE analysis, we estimated that fish consumption within the recommended 2-3 times/week resulted in lower PFAS, Hg, and As compared with higher consumption. Fruit consumption was positively associated with OP metabolites. Organic food consumption was negatively associated with OP metabolites. DISCUSSION: Fish consumption is related to higher PFAS, Hg, and As exposures. In addition, fruit consumption is a source of exposure to OPs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5324.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Arsênico , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Funções Verossimilhança , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez
15.
Environ Res ; 178: 108731, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539819

RESUMO

Sixty-one serum samples from a Norwegian cohort were analyzed for 43 emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). BDE-47, -153, -197 and -209 were detected in >56% of the samples with median concentrations of 0.23, 1.0, 0.64 and 1.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. BDE-49, -85, -99, -100, -154, -206, -207, -208 as well as HBB, syn- and anti-DDC-CO, OBTMPI, DBDPE, α-HBCDD and TBBPA were also detected in some serum samples (detection frequencies of 2-36%). Other tri-octaBDEs, TBP-AE, α- and ß-DBE-DBCH, BATE, pTBX, αß-TBCO, PBBz, TBCT, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, EH-TBB, BTBPE, BEH-TEBP, HCDBCO, ß- and γ-HBCDD were below the limits of detection (mLOD). Concentrations of individual BDE congeners detected in this study were within the range from previous European studies. Positive correlations were seen between concentrations of BDE-47 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, between BDE-153 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, and between BDE-153 masses in handwipes and BDE-47 concentrations in serum (Spearman's rank, 0.29 < r < 0.43). Associations between the number of phones/mobiles, numbers of electronic equipment per person in the home and the consumption of specific food categories (such as soups/spices/sauces and alcoholic beverages) with BDE-47 and -153 serum levels were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. The measured median serum level of BDE-47 was slightly over-predicted by a factor of 5.5 whereas other BDE congeners were under-predicted by factors of 13-6000 when compared to serum concentrations predicted from external exposure media (inhalation, dermal uptake, dietary intake from duplicate diet and dust ingestion) using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. BDE-153 was not detected and BDE-197 not analyzed in food so no dietary intake assessments for these could be made, which may partially explain the discrepancies between their measured and predicted serum concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that exposure via diet is the most important exposure pathway for BDE-47 and -209, with diet being responsible for more than 96% of the total daily intake of these two BDEs in the Norwegian cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Noruega
16.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 299-308, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate stores or intakes of essential minerals in pregnancy, or too high exposure to both toxic and essential elements, can have adverse effects on mother and child. The main aims of this study were to 1) describe the concentrations and patterns of essential and toxic elements measured in maternal whole blood during pregnancy; 2) identify dietary, lifestyle and sociodemographic determinants of element status; and 3) explore the impact of iron deficiency on blood element concentrations. METHODS: This study is based on blood samples collected from 2982 women in gestational week 18 in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) which were analyzed as part of the Norwegian Environmental Biobank. We derived blood element patterns by exploratory factor analysis, and associations between blood element patterns and diet were explored using sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression. RESULTS: Blood concentrations were determined for the essential elements (in the order of most abundant) Zn > Cu > Se > Mn > Mo > Co, and the toxic metals Pb > As > Hg > Cd > Tl. The concentrations were in ranges that were similar to or sometimes more favorable than in other pregnant and non-pregnant European women. We identified two blood element patterns; one including Zn, Se and Mn and another including Hg and As. For the Zn-Se-Mn pattern, use of multimineral supplements was the most important dietary determinant, while a high score in the Hg-As pattern was mainly determined by seafood consumption. Concentrations of Mn, Cd and Co were significantly higher in women with iron deficiency (plasma ferritin < 12 µg/L) than in women with plasma ferritin ≥ 12 µg/L. CONCLUSION: Our study illustrates complex relationships and coexistence of essential and toxic elements. Their potential interplay adds to the challenges of studies investigating health effects related to either diet or toxicants.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Int ; 127: 462-472, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978481

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have largely replaced the market of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concerns about PFR contamination and its impact on human health have consequently increased. A comprehensive investigation on the human exposure pathways to PFRs is to be endeavoured. This study investigated the occurrence of PFR metabolites in human urine, serum and hair, correlating them with external exposure data that was presented in our previous studies. Participants from Oslo (n = 61) provided a set of samples, including dust, air, handwipes, food, urine, serum and hair. Associations between PFR metabolites analyzed in the biological samples and the PFRs in environmental samples were explored. Different sampling strategies for dosimeters (e.g. floor/surface dust, personal/stationary air) were also compared to understand which is better for predicting human exposure to PFRs. Seven out of the eleven target PFR metabolites, including diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl)-1-hydroxy-2-propyl phosphate (BCIPHIPP), were frequently detected (DF > 30%) in urine. DPHP was the most frequently detected metabolite in both serum and hair. Several PFR metabolites had higher levels in morning urine than in afternoon urine. Floor dust appeared to be a better proxy for estimating PFR internal exposure than surface dust, air, and handwipes. Some PFRs in handwipes and air were also correlated with their metabolites in urine and hair. Age, beverage consumption and food consumption were negatively associated with DPHP levels in urine. Discrepancies observed between the external and internal exposure for some PFRs call for further investigation on PFR bioaccessibility and clearance.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
19.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 864-872, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to environmental chemical contaminants at critical periods of development can lead to lifelong health consequences. Traditionally, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are thought to experience higher contaminant exposures; however, this relationship may not hold for all contaminants. METHODS: Using data from six European birth cohorts (1301 mother-child pairs), we determined biomarkers of exposure to 41 contaminants in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metals, phthalate metabolites, phenols, and organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites. We analyzed these biomarkers with several socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators (maternal education, employment status and family affluence scale). RESULTS: Higher SEP was associated with higher concentrations of several chemicals during pregnancy, including certain PFASs, mercury, arsenic, several phenols, and OP pesticides. Similarly, childhood concentrations of OCs, PFASs, mercury, arsenic, and bisphenol A were higher in higher SEP groups. Conversely, cadmium exposure during pregnancy and exposure to lead and phthalate metabolites in childhood were higher in lower SEP. Principal components representing multiple pollutant exposures showed similar association with SEP. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that environmental chemical contaminant exposure during fetal and childhood life is not exclusively associated to lower SEP and that for several contaminants higher SEP groups incur higher exposure levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(4): 1985-1993, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663877

RESUMO

The indoor environment contributes considerably to human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study estimated the human exposure to PFASs from the indoor environment through hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts using hand wipes. An analytical method was developed to determine 25 PFASs in hand wipe samples collected as a composite sample from both hands of 60 adults. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) were the predominant PFASs in the hand wipe samples (medians between 0.21 and 0.54 ng per sample). Positive and significant correlations were observed between PAPs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in hand wipes. Low frequency of daily hand washing (≤8 times day-1) was associated with 30-50% higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and 8:2diPAP in hand wipes. Further, significant correlations between paired hand wipes and house dust samples were observed for PFOS, PFOA, and 6:2diPAP. Also, a significant correlation between PFOS in hand wipes and EtFOSE in indoor air was found. This finding indicates either a common source of exposure or a transformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in the environment or on the hands. The contributions of direct and indirect exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) showed that PFOA contributed the highest exposure to adults via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts, followed by PFOS. The median of estimated daily intakes via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts (for hands only) for PFOA were 0.83 and 0.50 pg·kg bw-1·day-1, respectively. This study gives a first indication that PFAS concentrations in hand wipes can be used as a proxy for the exposure to PFASs from indoor environments, but further studies are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Poeira , Humanos , Boca
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA