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1.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be discriminated easily from actinic keratosis (AK) based on clinical and dermatoscopic features. However, at the initial stage of dermal invasion, SCC might still be clinically flat and discrimination from AK remains challenging, even with the addition of dermatoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and dermatoscopic criteria that could suggest early invasion and serve as potent predictors to discriminate early SCC from AK. METHODS: Clinical and dermatoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed AKs and early SCCs were evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria by 3 independent investigators. RESULTS: A total of 50 early SCCs and 45 AKs were included. The main positive dermatoscopic predictors of early SCC were dotted/glomerular vessels (odds ratio [OR] 3.83), hairpin vessels (OR 12.12), and white structureless areas (OR 3.58), whereas background erythema represented a negative SCC predictor (OR 0.22). LIMITATIONS: The retrospective evaluation of images. Moreover, the differential diagnosis included in the study is restricted between AK and early SCC. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potent predictors for the discrimination of AK and early SCC that may better guide management decisions in everyday clinical practice.

3.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14618, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263945

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions (SLRs) may develop in association with various malignancies, as well as in association to certain oncologic drugs, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed to perform a narrative review with regard to the development of ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs, and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and therapeutic challenges raised in this scenario. Apropos of a melanoma patient developing SLRs while treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab, we searched for clinically evident, ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs in the English literature. We recorded the oncologic characteristics, including type of malignancy and type of ICI, the phenotypic characteristics of sarcoidosis/SLRs, as well as the impact on immunotherapy. Including our patient, we identified 80 ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs cases. Both sexes were equally affected (40 F/40 M) and the most common malignancy was melanoma (65/80, 81.3%). Concerning the oncologic treatment, there was a predilection for pembrolizumab (23/80, 28.7%), followed by the ipilimumab/nivolumab combination (21/80, 26.3%), ipilimumab (18/80, 22.5%), nivolumab (16/80, 20.0%). Although in the majority of the cases (52/80, 65.0%) there was no need for systemic prednisolone for the management of sarcoidosis, a significant proportion of patients finally discontinued ICIs treatment (44/80, 55.0%). Phenotypically, sarcoidosis and SLRs highly imitate oncologic progression posing diagnostic difficulties. A therapeutic dilemma is also raised when there is a need for systemic prednisolone, since the latter may jeopardize the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy. Sarcoidosis and SLRs, though rare, can present in oncologic patients treated with ICIs. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and the related diagnostic and therapeutic challenges they have to face in this scenario.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314891

RESUMO

The indisputable contribution of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis of melanoma is widely recognized. In the last quinquennium, new data concerning specific melanoma subtypes have come to light. The dermatoscopic morphology of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) has been extensively investigated in the literature. Atypical network, irregular dots, irregular globules, irregular streaks and irregular blotch correspond to histopathologic alterations at the level of the junction, blue-white veil and atypical vessels suggest intradermal growth, whereas regression structures, negative network and white shiny streaks might reflect junctional or dermal alterations. The list of melanoma specific criteria has been recently updated to include features that typify early melanoma, such as irregular hyperpigmented areas and prominent skin markings and features seen in melanoma on sun damaged skin such as angulated lines. Nodular melanoma lacks most of the aforementioned criteria and is typified by the coexistence of blue and black color, atypical vessels and pink color. Lentigo maligna dermatoscopic criteria mainly develop at the outline of the follicular openings. However, at an early stage these features might be very subtle and the diagnosis should be based on the exclusion of benign tumors (inverse approach). Acral lentiginous melanoma is typified by a parallel ridge pattern, but also SSM criteria should be taken into consideration. The diagnosis of subungual melanoma is based on the assessment of the color and characteristics of the pigmented nail band. For the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma, the assessment of colors is more informative than the assessment of structures and the detection of blue, white or gray should raise the suspicion of melanoma. White shiny streaks and regression structures are the most common features of desmoplastic melanoma. The diagnosis of nevoid melanoma might be highly challenging and require information on the lesion's history. Melanoma on small- and medium-sized congenital nevi is typified by an eccentric location of the suspicious area, negative network and gray angulated lines. Recent advances in knowledge on the dermatoscopic characteristics of peculiar subtypes of the tumor significantly enrich the diagnostic armamentarium of clinicians. The challenge of the forthcoming years is to better characterize biologically aggressive melanomas and to optimize the screening strategies so as to identify them.

6.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14414, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064345

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in white skin individuals. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but several other therapeutic choices are available and might also be efficient and cost-effective in selected cases of low-risk BCC or when surgery is complicate or contraindicated. The aim of the current study was to analyze the applied treatments for BCC in the real-life practice of a tertiary hospital, and investigate factors associated to the tumor and the patients that might influence the treatment selection of clinicians. Data on all BCCs treated from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019 were extracted. A total of 751 BCCs from 585 patients were included. The baseline characteristics of patients and tumors, the type of applied treatment and the histopathologic report when available were analyzed. Most tumors were located on the head/neck (64.2%). The most frequently applied treatment was surgical excision (580/751, 77.2%). In 22.8% of tumors a nonsurgical treatment was selected. The most frequently selected alternative treatments were, imiquimod, cryosurgery, their combination (immunocryosurgery), and vismodegib. A pretreatment diagnosis of superficial BCC was associated with a 12-fold increased probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment except of vismodegib. Every added year of age increased the probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment by 3-fold. Every added mm of diameter increased the possibility of vismodegib use by 4%. Surgery is the most frequently applied BCC treatment, but nonsurgical modalities do also have an essential role in real settings.

7.
Dermatology ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is useful for the evaluation of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). The classical "setting sun" pattern is characteristic of JXG, but its sensibility appears to be limited. An extensive description of other dermoscopic findings is not available in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to valuate and describe the clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of a series of JXG cases. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study, including cases with histopathologic diagnosis of JXG, and the availability of clinical and dermoscopic images, assessed for the presence of dermoscopic features based on the available literature. RESULTS: A total of 17 lesions were analyzed. 70.6% showed global symmetry, 35.3% presented the typical "setting sun" pattern. All lesions showed yellow-orange and/or pink-red structureless color. Other dermoscopic features were yellow globules (35.3%), shiny white streaks (23.5%), brown globules (17.6%), pale-brown network (11.8%), negative network (11.8%), erosion/ulceration (11.8%), rosettes (5.9%), and hemorrhage (5.9%). Scales were seen in 64.7% of patients. Vascular structures were observed in all the lesions, mostly in an irregular distribution (76.5%). The observed vessel types were dotted (52.9%), linear (52.9%), branching-arboriform (29.4%), comma-like (23.5%), hairpin-like (17.6%), globular (17.6%), coiled (11.8%), and milky-red globules (5.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Symmetry, yellow/orange-pink/red color, yellow globules, shiny white streaks, and irregularly distributed different types of vascular structures are the main dermoscopic features of JXG. This is the largest dermoscopic registry of JXG published to date.

12.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even with the addition of dermoscopy, a significant morphologic overlap exists between irritated seborrheic keratosis (ISK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic criteria that could serve as potent predictors for the differential diagnosis between ISK and SCC. METHODS: Dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed ISKs and SCCs were evaluated by 3 independent investigators for the presence of predefined criteria. RESULTS: A total of 104 SCCs and 61 ISKs were included. The main dermoscopic predictors of SCC were dotted vessels (odds ratio [OR], 10.4), branched linear vessels (OR, 5.30), white structureless areas (OR, 6.78), white circles surrounding follicles (OR, 23.45), a diffuse irregular (OR, 2.55) or peripheral (OR, 2.8) vessel arrangement, and a central scale arrangement (OR, 3.35). Dermoscopic predictors of ISK were hairpin vessels (OR, 0.38), a diffuse regular vessel arrangement (OR, 0.39 and OR, 0.36), and white halos surrounding vessels covering more than 10% of the lesion (OR, 0.29 and OR, 0.12). LIMITATIONS: First, the retrospective design of the study; second, the differential diagnosis included in the study was restricted to ISK and SCC. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the significant morphologic overlap between ISK and SCC, but we also identified potent predictors for the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities.

13.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 82(2): 398-406, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In retrospective studies, a second primary melanoma (SPM) develops in 2%-20% of melanoma patients. Scarce evidence exists on the usefulness of total-body photography (TBP) and digital dermatoscopic documentation (DDD) for detecting SPMs. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to quantify the risk and investigate the time of occurrence of SPMs. Secondary aims were to identify risk factors for SPM and to assess the usefulness of TBP and DDD for SPM detection. METHODS: This prospective cohort included patients with recently diagnosed melanoma that underwent sequential clinical and dermatoscopic examinations for up to 5 years. Life table analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. Multivariate Cox models were constructed to identify factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: An SPM developed in 46 of 977 (4.7%) patients. Life table analysis revealed a 5-year cumulative risk of 8.0% for SPM. High nevus count, fair phototype, and occupational sun exposure were potent predictors of SPM. Of all new melanomas, 17.3% were diagnosed by clinical and dermatoscopic examination, 48.1% by TBP, and 34.6% by DDD. LIMITATIONS: All patients followed the same protocol and diagnostic bias associated with sequential dermatoscopic imaging. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, melanoma patients were at 8% risk of an SPM developing within 5 years. TBP and DDD significantly contributed to the early detection of SPM.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dermoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Fotografação , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol ; 154(4): 457-465, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762033

RESUMO

Since their first description by Sophie Spitz, Spitz nevi have been a subject of controversy among clinicians for many decades, and remain a clinical conundrum until today as their etiology, morphology, biological behavior and natural evolution is still not totally clear. This is because their clinical, dermoscopic and histopathologic features sometimes overlap with those of melanoma, rendering the management of spitzoid lesions particularly difficult. In addition, cases of histopatologically equivocal lesions do exist and their classification might sometimes be very challenging. Among several terms that have been used to describe these morphologically "intermediate" lesions, atypical Spitz tumor (AST) is the most widely used. The aim of this review paper was to describe the dermoscopic patterns and structures seen in Spitz/Reed nevi, spitzoid melanoma and AST. Finally, this article provides an evidence-based update on the available options for the management of spitzoid lesions, before and after histopathologic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Nevo de Células Epitelioides e Fusiformes/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/patologia , Nevo de Células Epitelioides e Fusiformes/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
19.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(4): 414-419, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466542

RESUMO

Importance: The accuracy of melanoma-specific dermoscopic criteria has been tested mainly in studies including invasive tumors. Scarce evidence exists on the usefulness of these criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma in situ (MIS). Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for the diagnosis of MIS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A diagnostic accuracy study with retrospective patient enrollment was conducted in 3 centers specializing in skin cancer diagnosis and management. A total of 1285 individuals with histopathologically diagnosed MIS or other flat, pigmented skin tumors that were histopathologically diagnosed or monitored for at least 1 year were included. Dermoscopic images of MIS and other flat, pigmented skin tumors were evaluated by 3 independent investigators for the presence of predefined criteria. Evaluators were blinded to the clinic dermoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of dermoscopic criteria per diagnosis were calculated. Crude odds ratios, adjusted odds ratios, and corresponding 95% CIs were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. Results: A total of 1285 patients were included in the study (642 [50%] male); mean age was 45.9 years (range, 9-91 years). Of a total of 1285 lesions obtained from these patients, 325 (25.3%) were MIS; 574 (44.7%) were nevi (312 [24.3%] excised and 262 [20.4%] not excised); 67 (5.2%) were seborrheic keratoses, solar lentigines, or lichen planus-like keratoses; 91 (7.1%) were pigmented superficial basal cell carcinomas; 26 (2.0%) were pigmented intraepithelial carcinomas; 100 (7.8%) were Reed nevi; and 102 (7.9%) were invasive melanomas with a Breslow thickness less than 0.75 mm. The most frequent dermoscopic criteria for MIS were regression (302 [92.9%]), atypical network (278 [85.5%]), and irregular dots and/or globules (163 [50.2%]). The multivariate analysis revealed 5 main positive dermoscopic indicators of MIS: atypical network (3.7-fold; 95% CI, 2.5-5.4), regression (4.7-fold; 95% CI, 2.8-8.1), irregular hyperpigmented areas (5.4-fold; 95% CI, 3.7-8.0), prominent skin markings (3.4-fold; 95% CI, 1.9-6.1), and angulated lines (2.2-fold; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1). When compared only with excised nevi, 2 of these criteria remained potent MIS indicators, namely, irregular hyperpigmented areas (4.3-fold; 95% CI, 2.7-6.8) and prominent skin markings (2.7-fold; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinicians should take into consideration the aforementioned dermoscopic indicators for the diagnosis of MIS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermoscopia , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratose Seborreica/diagnóstico por imagem , Lentigo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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