Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 77
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 305-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer can be treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) according to guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was carried out to record anti-thrombotic treatment practice, assess thrombosis recurrence and bleeding, and identify potential risk factors. Adult patients from 18 Oncology Departments throughout Greece were followed-up for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients with CAT receiving anticoagulant treatment were enrolled (35% incidental); 85% were treated for more than 6 months, 95.8% were treated with tinzaparin and smaller percentages with other agents. Thrombosis recurred in three patients and there was minor bleeding in four patients. Bleeding was associated with high body mass index (>35 kg/m2), trauma history, renal insufficiency and bevacizumab use. CONCLUSION: Incidental thrombosis contributes significantly to CAT burden. Long-term use of LMWH seems to be effective and safe. Several risk factors associated with bleeding should be considered during anti-coagulation therapy planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(4): e370-e384, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) results in VEGFAxxxb antiangiogenic isoforms that fail to activate angiogenesis. Bevacizumab, widely used in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), binds both VEGFA and VEGFAxxxb isoforms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumors from metastatic CRC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) + bevacizumab (n = 285) or FOLFIRI only (n = 75) were collected. The relative expression of VEGFA121a, 121b, 145a, 145b, 165a, and 165b was assessed with custom TaqMan-MGB assays and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 101.5 months, left-sided primary CRC was a favorable prognosticator (median survival, 29.2 vs. 18.2 months; P = .015). Positive high VEGFA145b was an unfavorable factor for progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.44; P = .009) in patients who received FOLFIRI + bevacizumab, without prognostic significance in FOLFIRI-only patients (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.44; P = .33). The adverse effect on PFS of 145b was more pronounced in patients with right-sided colon cancer (HR = 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.12; P = .005), especially in those who received bevacizumab (HR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.31-6.21; P = .008). In patients with right-sided colon primary tumors, isoform 121b correlated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.73; 95% CI, 0.94-3.18; P = .076) and overall survival (OS; HR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.08-3.72; P = .028). In patients with left-sided primary tumors, positive high 165b correlated with superior PFS (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; P = .044) and OS (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.90; P = .006). At multivariate analysis, right-sided primary tumor was associated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64), while 145b consistently retained predictive significance for lack of benefit in PFS with bevacizumab (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.53). Multivariate analysis for OS showed that VEGFA165b expression was favorable in patients with left-sided but unfavorable in patients with right-sided primary tumors (Pinteraction < .001). CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic isoform VEGFA145b messenger RNA may predict resistance to bevacizumab. Differences in biological relevance and prognostic significance of various VEGFA isoforms were found for right- versus left-sided primary tumors.

3.
J BUON ; 24(3): 1106-1112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since syndecan-1 is an adhesion molecule involved in tumor invasion and metastasis, we evaluated the relationship between syndecan-1 expression and histopathological features of gastric carcinomas. METHODS: Syndecan-1 expression was evaluated in 104 gastric carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: High, moderate and low syndecan-1 expression in carcinoma cells was observed in 17/104, 25/104 and 62/104 cases, respectively. High, moderate and low syndecan-1 expression in stromal cells was observed in 5/104, 22/104 and 77/104 cases, respectively. Low epithelial syndecan-1 expression was significantly associated with increased depth of invasion (p=0.034) and lymph vessel invasion (p=0.035). Low stromal syndecan-1 expression was significantly associated with histologic type (intestinal vs diffuse/mixed; p=0.04), increased histologic grade (p=0.04) and large tumor size (p=0.026). CONCLUSION: Low levels of tumor and stromal syndecan- 1 expression were associated with adverse histopathological parameters in gastric carcinoma. This suggests that syndecan-1 expression may be helpful for assessing the aggressiveness of gastric carcinomas.

4.
ESMO Open ; 4(2): e000441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231556

RESUMO

Introduction: We sought to determine the level of activation of the critical components of the cyclin D1-mediated pathway and to evaluate their prognostic significance across the different molecular subtypes of advanced breast cancer. Patients and methods: The study population comprised 219 female patients with advanced breast cancer who had been found to have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive disease by local testing and were all treated with trastuzumab-based regimens. For all tumours, central testing for HER2 was performed, and cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) amplification, mRNA and protein expression were assessed by FISH, quantitative real-time-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Prognostic impact on clinical endpoints was evaluated with Cox regression analyses. Results: After central testing, only 134 (61.2%) of 219 patients were confirmed to have HER2 gene amplification by FISH and/or 3+ HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. After a median follow-up time of 136.0 months (95% CI 123.3 to 148.9), 105 (78.4%) HER2-positive patients and 76 (89.4%) HER2-negative patients had died, while 80% of the former and 87.1% of the latter had experienced a disease relapse. Patients with positive oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status presented with higher cyclin D1 mRNA expression. In the HER2-negative subgroup, patients with negative cyclin D1 protein expression were at higher risk of progression (HR= 1.66, 95%CI 1.01 to 2.72, Wald's p=0.045). Among de novo metastatic patients, the risk of progression was higher for patients with non-amplified CCND1 tumours (HR= 2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.90, p=0.041). Conclusion: Aberrant activation of the cyclin D1-mediated pathway appears to reduce the risk of progression in HER2-negative tumours, but not in HER2-positive ones.

5.
ESMO Open ; 4(2): e000474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231557

RESUMO

Background: The clinical relevance of mismatch repair (MMR) status in patients with nonmetastatic cancer across tumour types remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the prognostic role of MMR deficiency in patients with stage I-III colorectal and endometrial cancer. Methods: Patients with nonmetastatic colorectal and endometrial cancer with tumour tissue available for analysis were identified through the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)'s tumour repository. Patients had been referred to Departments of Medical Oncology affiliated with HeCOG. MMR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). Results: From May 1990 to September 2012, 1158 patients with nonmetastatic colorectal (N = 991) and endometrial cancer (N = 167) were identified (median age: 64 years, men: 544). All patients with colorectal and 109 (65%) with endometrial cancer had received adjuvant treatment. MMR deficiency was observed in 114 (11.5%) of colorectal and 80 (47.9%) of endometrial tumours. More commonly deficient proteins were PMS2 (69 patients, 7%) and MLH1 (63 patients, 6.5%) in colorectal cancer and MSH2 (58 patients, 34.7%) in endometrial cancer. Colorectal MMR-deficient (dMMR) tumours were more likely to be right sided (65 % dMMR vs 27 % proficient MMR, pMMR; p < 0.001), high grade (31% vs 15%, χ2, p < 0.001) and with a mucinous component (64% vs 42%, p < 0.001). Endometrial dMMR tumours were more often of endometrioid histology (51.4 % endometrioid vs 20 % serous/clear cell, p = 0.020). Compared with MMR proficiency, MMR deficiency was associated with improved OS in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.76, p = 0.006), but not in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.09, p = 0.130). After adjusting for age, stage and grade, MMR deficiency maintained its favourable prognostic significance in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.88, p = 0.021). Conclusions: DMMR was associated with improved outcomes in patients with nonmetastatic endometrial cancer, but not in patients with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy.

6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(4): 2129-2138, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) carries a wide range of survival probabilities. Novel biomarkers in this setting are eagerly awaited. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered one of the reasons for treatment failure. This study sought to determine whether activation of pathways governing the function of CSC's could correlate with treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor specimens from 325 patients were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Hedgehog and Notch pathway activation and results were correlated with prognosis. RESULTS: Positive Notch3 protein expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (HR=2.43, p=0.024 and HR=2.56, p=0.028, respectively). Activation of the Shh pathway showed univariately longer DFS (HR=0.49, p=0.032). Possible crosstalk between the two pathways was indicated. No further associations between pathway activation and outcome were evident. CONCLUSION: Apart from Notch 3, activation of the pathways, as indicated by IHC expression of their components, did not result in differences in terms of DFS or OS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Transl Oncol ; 12(5): 739-748, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Src, CDKN1B, and JAK2 play a crucial role in the coordination of cell signaling pathways. In the present study, we aim to investigate the prognostic significance of these biomarkers in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with trastuzumab (T). METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 197 patients with HER2-positive MBC treated with T were retrospectively collected. All tissue samples were centrally assessed for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2, and PTEN protein expression; EGFR gene amplification; PI3KCA mutational status; and tumor-infiltrating lympocytes density. Src, CDKN1B, and JAK2 mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Only 133 of the 197 patients (67.5%) were found to be HER2-positive by central assessment. CDKN1B mRNA expression was strongly correlated with Src (rho = 0.71) and JAK2 (rho = 0.54). In HER2-positive patients, low CDKN1B conferred higher risk for progression [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.32, P = .018]. In HER2-negative patients, low Src was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.99, P = .045). Upon multivariate analyses, only low CDKN1B and JAK2 mRNA expression remained unfavorable factors for PFS in de novo and relapsed (R)-MBC patients, respectively (HR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.01-5.48, P = .046 and HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.01-3.06, P = .047, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Low CDKN1B and JAK2 mRNA expressions were unfavorable prognosticators in a cohort of T-treated MBC patients. Our results suggest that CDKN1B and JAK2, if validated, may serve as prognostic factors potentially implicated in T resistance, which seems to be associated with distinct pathways in de novo and R-MBC.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207707, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521571

RESUMO

In the current study, we performed a complete analysis, with four different methods, of all four HER family receptors, in a series of patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based regimens and evaluated their prognostic value. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were collected from 227 patients, considered to be HER2-positive when assessed at the local laboratories. We evaluated gene amplification, copy number variations (CNVs), mRNA and protein expression of all four HER family members. In addition, our analysis included the evaluation of several other factors by immunohistochemistry (IHC), such as pHER2Tyr1221/1222, pHER2Tyr877 and PTEN. Central review of HER2 status by IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that of the 227 patients, only 139 (61.2%) were truly HER2-positive. Regarding the 191 patients treated with trastuzumab as first-line therapy, median time to progression (TTP) was 15.3 and 10.4 months for HER2-positive and HER2-negative participants, respectively, whereas median survival was 50.4 and 38.1 months, respectively. In HER2-positive patients, high HER3 mRNA expression was of favorable prognostic significance for TTP and survival (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88, Wald's p = 0.022 and HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88, p = 0.021, respectively), while EGFR copy gain and EGFR protein expression were associated with higher risk for disease progression in HER2-negative patients (HR = 3.53, 95% CI 1.19-10.50, p = 0.023 and HR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.12-10.17, p = 0.031, respectively). Positive HER3 protein expression was a favorable factor for TTP in HER2-negative patients (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.84, p = 0.014). In the multivariate analysis, only EGFR copy gain retained its prognostic significance for TTP in the HER2-negative population (HR = 3.96, 95% CI 1.29-12.16, p = 0.016), while high HER3 mRNA expression retained its favorable prognostic significance for TTP in the HER2-positive subgroup (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.99, p = 0.048). The present study suggests that EGFR copy gain represents a negative prognostic factor for TTP in HER2-negative patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab. In addition, high HER3 mRNA expression appears to be of favorable prognostic significance for TTP in HER2-positive patients. Given the small number of patients included in the current analysis and the retrospective nature of the study, our findings should be validated in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-4/genética , Receptor ErbB-4/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 15(6): 461-471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody against HER2-positive breast cancer. Despite improving the natural history of the disease, there is a number of patients who are resistant to it, whereas all patients will eventually develop resistance and disease will progress. Inconsistent preclinical data show that the IGF-R pathway may contribute to either de novo or acquired resistance to trastuzumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 227 trastuzumab-treated metastatic breast cancer patients were evaluated for IGF-1, IGF-1R, GLP-1R, Akt1, Akt2 Akt3 mRNA expression, and IGF-1Rα, IGF-1Rß, IGF-2R protein expression. RESULTS: Only 139 patients were truly HER2-positive by central assessment. Among HER2-positive patients, high Akt2 and GLP-1R mRNA expression showed a trend towards higher and lower risk of progression, respectively (HR=1.83, 95%CI=0.90-3.72, p=0.094 and HR=0.62, 95%CI=0.36-1.06, p=0.079), while high Akt1 and GLP-1R mRNA expression presented a trend towards unfavorable survival (HR=1.67, 95%CI=0.93-2.99, p=0.086 and HR=1.67, 95%CI=0.94-2.96, p=0.080). Among HER2-negative patients, high GLP-1R mRNA expression and negative stromal IGF-1Rß protein expression showed a trend towards worse survival (HR=2.31, 95%CI=0.87-6.13, p=0.094 and HR=2.03, 95%CI=0.94-4.35, p=0.071, respectively). In the multivariate analyses, HER2-positive patients with high Akt1 and GLP-1R mRNA expression had a worse survival (HR=1.86, 95%CI=1.01-3.43, p=0.045 and HR=1.83, 95%CI=0.99-3.41, p=0.055, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study revealed a crosstalk between the IGF-R pathway and HER2. There was evidence that high Akt1 and GLP-1R mRNA expression might affect survival among HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Cancer Med ; 7(10): 5066-5082, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to be of prognostic value in several cancer types. In early breast cancer, TILs have a prognostic utility, as well, especially in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. TILs presence is broadly associated with improved survival; however, there is controversy regarding TILs subpopulations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Early-stage breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials were included in the study. We evaluated, by qRT-PCR, 826 tumor tissue samples for mRNA expression of CD3, CD8, and FOXP3 for potential prognostic significance in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 133.0 months, 255 patients (30.9%) had died and 314 (38.0%) had disease progression. In the univariate analysis, high CD3 and CD8 mRNA expression was found to be of favorable prognostic value for DFS (P = 0.007 and P = 0.016, respectively). In multivariate analyses, the association of high CD8 mRNA expression with increased DFS was retained (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.998, Wald's P = 0.048), whereas that of high CD3 mRNA expression was of marginal statistical significance (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.01, P = 0.059). Moreover, a significant interaction was observed between HER2 status and CD3 mRNA expression with respect to DFS (interaction P = 0.032). In the HER2-positive subgroup, the hazard ratio associated with high CD3 mRNA expression was of greater magnitude (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.76, P = 0.002) compared with the hazard ratio presented above, for the entire cohort. No significant findings were observed for FOXP3 in terms of DFS, while none of the studied markers were of prognostic value for OS. CONCLUSIONS: High CD3 and CD8 mRNA expression in early-stage breast cancer patients is of prognostic value for decreased risk of relapse and, in the future, could potentially be of importance in deciding the most appropriate therapeutic strategy in light of the recent immune-related treatment developments.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo CD3/genética , Antígenos CD8/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063723

RESUMO

Several studies support an important role of angiogenesis in breast cancer growth and metastasis. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands (VEGF-A and VEGF-C) and receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3) in breast cancer and their associations with clinicopathological parameters, cancer subtypes/subgroups and patient outcome. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were collected from early-stage breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within a randomized trial. Immunohistochemistry was performed on serial 2.5 µm thick tissue sections from tissue microarray blocks. High VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 protein expression was observed in 11.8% (N = 87), 80.8% (N = 585), 28.1% (N = 202), 64.6% (N = 359) and 71.8% (N = 517) of the cases, respectively. Significant associations were observed among all proteins (all p-values <0.05), with the exception of the one between VEGF-C and VEGFR1 (chi-square test, p = 0.15). Tumors with high VEGF-A protein expression, as compared to tumors with low expression were more frequently ER/PgR-negative (33.3% vs. 20.8%, chi-square test, p = 0.009) and HER2-positive (44.8% vs. 20.6%, p<0.001). In addition, tumors with high VEGFR1 expression, were more frequently HER2-positive (32.8% vs. 19.6%, p<0.001), while tumors with high VEGFR3 expression were more frequently ER/PgR-negative (24.9% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.024) and HER2-positive (26.9% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.001). High VEGF-A and VEGF-C protein expression was associated with increased DFS in the entire cohort (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92, Wald's p = 0.020 and HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96, p = 0.025, respectively), as well as in specific subtypes/subgroups, such as HER2-positive (VEGF-A, HR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74, p = 0.008) and triple-negative (VEGF-C, HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91, p = 0.027) patients. High vs. low VEGFR1 expression was an unfavorable factor for DFS in triple-negative patients (HR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.26-5.98, p = 0.011), whereas the opposite was observed among the ER/PgR-positive patients (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.98, p = 0.041). Regarding OS, high VEGF-C protein expression was associated with increased OS in the entire cohort (HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.89, Wald's p = 0.008), as well as in in specific subtypes/subgroups, such as ER/PgR-negative (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.71, p = 0.003) and triple-negative (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.90, p = 0.026) patients. In conclusion, high expression of angiogenesis-related proteins is associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters in early-stage breast cancer patients and may be surrogate markers of biologically distinct subgroups of ER/PgR-negative or triple-negative tumors with superior outcome. Further validation of our findings in independent cohorts is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0180489, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND-AIM: To evaluate the prognostic role of elaborate molecular clusters encompassing cyclin D1, cyclin E1, p21, p27 and p53 in the context of various breast cancer subtypes. METHODS: Cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p53, p21 and p27 were evaluated with immunohistochemistry in 1077 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer patients who had been treated within clinical trials. Jaccard distances were computed for the markers and the resulted matrix was used for conducting unsupervised hierarchical clustering, in order to identify distinct groups correlating with prognosis. RESULTS: Luminal B and triple-negative (TNBC) tumors presented with the highest and lowest levels of cyclin D1 expression, respectively. By contrast, TNBC frequently expressed Cyclin E1, whereas ER-positive tumors did not. Absence of Cyclin D1 predicted for worse OS, while absence of Cyclin E1 for poorer DFS. The expression patterns of all examined proteins yielded 3 distinct clusters; (1) Cyclin D1 and/or E1 positive with moderate p21 expression; (2) Cyclin D1 and/or E1, and p27 positive, p53 protein negative; and, (3) Cyclin D1 or E1 positive, p53 positive, p21 and p27 negative or moderately positive. The 5-year DFS rates for clusters 1, 2 and 3 were 70.0%, 79.1%, 67.4% and OS 88.4%, 90.4%, 78.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulators in the absence of p53 protein is associated with favorable prognosis in operable breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Ciclina D1/análise , Ciclina E/análise , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/análise , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/análise , Proteínas Oncogênicas/análise , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Transl Oncol ; 10(4): 589-598, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of bone metastases is a major issue for breast cancer patients, as it would improve quality of life in a population where long survival is anticipated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Early breast cancer patients, who had been treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials, were included in the study. We evaluated, by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 819 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples for mRNA expression of RANK, OPG, and RANKL, as well as their ratios, for potential prognostic significance for the development of bone metastases and also for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. RESULTS: Median age was 52.7years, whereas 54.2% of the patients were postmenopausal and 78.3% estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor positive. After a median follow-up of 119.9months, 226 patients (27.6%) had died and 291 patients (35.5%) had disease progression. Low mRNA expression of RANKL was associated with postmenopausal status and greater number of positive lymph nodes (P=.002 and P<.001, respectively). In the univariate analysis, low RANKL mRNA expression was found to be an unfavorable factor for DFS [hazard ratio (HR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.68, Wald's P=.018] and bone metastasis-free survival (HR=1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P=.018), although it did not retain its significance in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Low RANKL mRNA expression in early breast cancer patients is of prognostic significance for increased risk for relapse and bone metastases and might potentially guide clinical decision-making for the use of anti-RANKL agents in the treatment of early breast cancer patients at high risk for metastatic spread, provided that our findings are validated in independent cohorts.

14.
Anticancer Res ; 37(5): 2323-2334, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Notch pathway has been implicated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Herein, we studied the subcellular localization of the less investigated Notch2 and Notch3 and that of the Jagged1 (Jag1) ligand in patients with operable TNBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We applied immunohistochemistry for Notch2, Notch3 and Jag1 in 333 tumors from TNBC patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We evaluated cytoplasmic (c), membranous (m) and nuclear (n) protein localization. RESULTS: c-Notch2 (35% positive tumors), c-Notch3 (63%), c-Jag1 (43%), m-Notch3 (23%) and n-Jag1 (17%) were analyzed individually and by using hierarchical clustering for prognostic evaluation. Upon multivariate analysis, compared to high m-Notch3 in the absence of n-Jag1 (cluster 4), all other marker combinations (clusters 1, 2, 3) conferred significantly higher risk for relapse (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific Notch3 and Jag1 subcellular localization patterns may provide clues for the behavior of the tumors and potentially for Jag1 targeting in TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Anticancer Res ; 37(6): 2947-2957, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28551632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retinoblastoma (RB) gene is a tumor-suppressor gene that plays a central role in regulating the cell cycle. Inactivation of this gene is involved in breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 827 patients with breast cancer treated with taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the study. Protein expression of RB, phosphorylated RB (pRB), p16, cyclin D1 and p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Neither of the retinoblastoma markers (RB and pRB) reached statistical significance in terms of their association with disease-free or overall survival. Nevertheless, when clustering analysis was performed, patients with tumors featuring low levels of p16, cyclin D1 and p53 with concomitantly high levels of pRB had reduced risk for relapse (Wald's p=0.015). CONCLUSION: The p53-mediated sensitivity of breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents appears to be driven mostly by pRB. Using agents that enhance RB phosphorylation might possibly increase the chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 14(3): 181-195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aberrations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) but their impact on prognosis and, therefore, druggability, remain controversial. Herein, we studied EGFR aberrations at different molecular levels and assessed their prognostic impact in patients with operable TNBC treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic impact of EGFR gene status by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), EGFR coding mutations by Sanger and next-generation sequencing, relative EGFR messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by qPCR (upper quartile) and EGFR and p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in 352 centrally-assessed tumors from an equal number of TNBC patients. RESULTS: Approximately 53.5% of the tumors expressed EGFR, 59.3% p53 and 35.9% both EGFR and p53 proteins; 4.1% showed EGFR gene amplification and 4.4% carried EGFR mutations. The latter were located outside the druggable kinase domain region and presented at low frequencies. Amplification and mutations overlapped only in one case of glycogen-rich carcinoma. EGFR and CEN7 copies were higher in tumors from older patients (p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). Patients with amplified tumors (n=11) had excellent prognosis (0 relapses and deaths). Upon multivariate analysis, high EGFR copies conferred significantly favorable disease-free survival (HR=0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.90, Wald's p=0.017) and high CEN7 copies favorable overall survival (HR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.83, Wald's p=0.008). Patients with EGFR-/p53+ and EGFR+/p53- tumors had significantly higher risk for relapse than those with EGFR-/p53- and EGFR+/p53+ tumors (HR=1.73, 95% CI=1.12-2.67, Wald's p=0.013). CONCLUSION: EGFR gene amplification and mutations are rare in TNBC, the latter of no apparent clinical relevance. Surrogate markers of EGFR-related chromosomal aberrations and combined EGFR/p53 IHC phenotypes appear to be associated with favorable prognosis in patients with operable TNBC receiving conventional adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/genética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 30, 2017 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The shift towards an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) highlights the need for biomarkers that would identify patients at risk for relapse and metastatic spread and indicate the potential value of additional treatment strategies. Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein that has been suggested to be a potential biomarker in BC. In the present study, we used archived BC patient samples to assess the clinical utility of OPN. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 975 patients were collected from two large phase III randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trials (HE10/97 and HE10/00) that included patients with high risk BC. All tissue samples were assessed for ER, PgR, Ki67 and HER2 protein expression. OPN protein and mRNA expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: OPN mRNA expression data were available for 814 patients, whereas OPN protein expression data were available for 546 patients. The majority of patients were ER/PgR-positive (78.3%), HER2-negative (76.5%) and Ki67-positive (55.2%) and had received adjuvant radiation therapy (76.8%) and hormonal therapy (81.1%). OPN mRNA expression was significantly associated with age (60.9% in high OPN tumors vs. 54.1% in low OPN tumors, p = 0.047), ER/PgR-negative status (25.7 vs. 17.2%, p = 0.004) and BC subtypes (p = 0.021). In addition, high OPN mRNA expression was significantly associated with reduced DFS (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.59, Wald's p = 0.050) and OS (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019), while it retained its prognostic significance for both DFS (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, p = 0.007) and OS (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.61-2.05, p = 0.003) in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that high OPN mRNA expression is associated with decreased DFS and OS in a large cohort of BC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in a clinical trial setting. Our results suggest that OPN may serve as a prognostic factor and a potential target for therapy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; HE10/97 ACTRN12611000506998; HE10/00 ACTRN12609001036202.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Am J Cancer Res ; 7(1): 98-114, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123851

RESUMO

The preservation of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations in tumor tissues is usually not questioned, while it remains unknown whether these interact with somatic genotypes for patient outcome. Herein we compared germline and tumor genotypes in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluated their combined effects on prognosis. We analyzed baseline germline and primary tumor genotype data obtained by Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing in 194 TNBC patients. We also performed multiple tests interrogating the preservation of germline mutations in matched tumors and breast tissue from carriers with available material. Patients had been treated within clinical trials with adjuvant anthracyclines-taxanes based chemotherapy. We identified 50 (26%) germline mutation carriers (78% in BRCA1) and 136 (71%) tumors with somatic mutations (83% in TP53). Tumor mutation patterns differed between carriers and non-carriers (P<0.001); PIK3CA mutations were exclusively present in non-carriers (P=0.007). Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were not detected in matched tumors and breast tissues from 14 out of 33 (42%) evaluable carriers. Microsatellite markers revealed tumor loss of the germline mutant allele in one case only. Tumors that had lost the germline mutation demonstrated a higher incidence of somatic TP53 mutations as compared to tumors with preserved germline mutations (P=0.036). Germline mutation status significantly interacted with tumor TP53 mutations for patient disease-free survival (interaction P=0.026): In non-carriers, tumor TP53 mutations did not affect outcome; In carriers, those with mutated TP53 tumors experienced more relapses compared to those with wild-type TP53 tumors (36% vs. 9% relapse rate, respectively). In conclusion, we show that loss of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is not a rare event in TNBC. This finding, the observed differences in tumor genotypes with respect to germline status and the prognostic interaction between germline BRCA1-related and tumor TP53 mutation status prompt for combined germline and tumor genotyping for the classification of TNBC, particularly in the context of clinical trials evaluating synthetic lethality drugs.

19.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164013, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND-AIM: Early breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and, therefore, prognostic tools have been developed to evaluate the risk for distant recurrence. In the present study, we sought to develop a risk for recurrence score (RRS) based on mRNA expression of three proliferation markers in high-risk early breast cancer patients and evaluate its ability to predict risk for relapse and death. In addition the Adjuvant! Online score (AOS) was also determined for each patient, providing a 10-year estimate of relapse and mortality risk. We then evaluated whether RRS or AOS might possibly improve the prognostic information of the clinical treatment score (CTS), a model derived from clinicopathological variables. METHODS: A total of 1,681 patients, enrolled in two prospective phase III trials, were treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sufficient RNA was extracted from 875 samples followed by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for assessing RACGAP1, TOP2A and Ki67 mRNA expression. The CTS, slightly modified to fit our cohort, integrated the prognostic information from age, nodal status, tumor size, histological grade and treatment. Patients were also classified to breast cancer subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices were used to estimate the relative increase in the amount of information provided when either RRS or AOS is added to CTS. RESULTS: The optimal RRS, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), was based on the co-expression of two of the three evaluated genes (RACGAP1 and TOP2A). CTS was prognostic for DFS (p<0.001), while CTS, AOS and RRS were all prognostic for OS (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). The use of AOS in addition to CTS added prognostic information regarding DFS (LR-Δχ2 8.7, p = 0.003), however the use of RRS in addition to CTS did not. For estimating OS, the use of either AOS or RRS in addition to CTS added significant prognostic information. Specifically, the use of both CTS and AOS had significantly better prognostic value vs. CTS alone (LR-Δχ2 20.8, p<0.001), as well as the use of CTS and RRS vs. CTS alone (LR-Δχ2 4.8, p = 0.028). Additionally, more patients were scored as high-risk by AOS than CTS. According to immunohistochemical subtypes, prognosis was improved in the Luminal A (LR-Δχ2 7.2, p = 0.007) and Luminal B (LR-Δχ2 8.3, p = 0.004) subtypes, in HER2-negative patients (LR-Δχ2 23.4, p<0.001) and in patients with >3 positive nodes (LR-Δχ2 23.9, p<0.001) when AOS was added to CTS. CONCLUSIONS: The current study has shown a clear benefit in predicting overall survival of high-risk early breast cancer patients when combining CTS with either AOS or RRS. The combination of CTS and AOS adds significant prognostic information compared to CTS alone for DFS, while the combination of CTS with either AOS or RRS has better prognostic value than CTS alone for OS. These findings could possibly add on the information needed for the best risk prediction strategy in high-risk early breast cancer patients in a rather simple and inexpensive way, especially in Luminal A and B subtypes, HER2-negative patients and those with >3 positive nodes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 29(4): 390-416, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708505

RESUMO

There is discrepancy and failure to adhere to current international guidelines for the management of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in hospitals in Greece and Cyprus. The aim of the present document is to provide a consensus on the multidisciplinary management of metastastic CRC, considering both special characteristics of our Healthcare System and international guidelines. Following discussion and online communication among the members of an executive team chosen by the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology (HeSMO), a consensus for metastastic CRC disease was developed. Statements were subjected to the Delphi methodology on two voting rounds by invited multidisciplinary international experts on CRC. Statements reaching level of agreement by ≥80% were considered as having achieved large consensus, whereas statements reaching 60-80% moderate consensus. One hundred and nine statements were developed. Ninety experts voted for those statements. The median rate of abstain per statement was 18.5% (range: 0-54%). In the end of the process, all statements achieved a large consensus. The importance of centralization, care by a multidisciplinary team, adherence to guidelines, and personalization is emphasized. R0 resection is the only intervention that may offer substantial improvement in the oncological outcomes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA