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J Math Biol ; 83(4): 45, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596763


Starting from recent experimental observations of starlings and jackdaws, we propose a minimal agent-based mathematical model for bird flocks based on a system of second-order delayed stochastic differential equations with discontinuous (both in space and time) right-hand side. The model is specifically designed to reproduce self-organized spontaneous sudden changes of direction, not caused by external stimuli like predator's attacks. The main novelty of the model is that every bird is a potential turn initiator, thus leadership is formed in a group of indistinguishable agents. We investigate some theoretical properties of the model and we show the numerical results. Biological insights are also discussed.

Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443466


Bees and their products are useful bioindicators of anthropogenic activities and could overcome the deficiencies of air quality networks. Among the environmental contaminants, mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can accumulate in living organisms. The first aim of this study was to develop a simple analytical method to determine Hg in small mass samples of bees and beehive products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The proposed method was optimized for about 0.02 g bee, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, 0.05 g beeswax and honey, or 0.1 g honeydew with 0.5 mL HCl, 0.2 mL HNO3, and 0.1 mL H2O2 in a water bath (95 °C, 30 min); samples were made up to a final volume of 5 mL deionized water. The method limits sample manipulation and the reagent mixture volume used. Detection limits were lower than 3 µg kg-1 for a sample mass of 0.02 g, and recoveries and precision were within 20% of the expected value and less than 10%, respectively, for many matrices. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the proposed method's performances on real samples collected in six areas of the Lazio region in Italy.

Abelhas/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cucumis melo/química , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Mel/análise , Itália , Pólen/química , Própole/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ceras/análise
Health Care Manag Sci ; 19(1): 58-65, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25070138


Hospital Length of Stay (LoS) is a valid proxy to estimate the consumption of hospital resources. Average LoS, however, albeit easy to quantify and calculate, can be misleading if the underlying distribution is not symmetric. Therefore the average does not reflect the nature of such underlying distribution and may mask different effects. This paper uses routinely collected data of an Italian hospital patients from different departments over a period of 5 years. This will be the basis for a running example illustrating the alternative models of patients length of stay. The models includes a new density model called Hypergamma. The paper concludes by summarizing these various modelling techniques and highlighting the use of a risk measure in bed planning.

Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Departamentos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Estatísticos