Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 53, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective evidence on the association between meat consumption and many common, non-cancerous health outcomes. We examined associations of meat intake with risk of 25 common conditions (other than cancer). METHODS: We used data from 474,985 middle-aged adults recruited into the UK Biobank study between 2006 and 2010 and followed up until 2017 (mean follow-up 8.0 years) with available information on meat intake at baseline (collected via touchscreen questionnaire), and linked hospital admissions and mortality data. For a large sub-sample (~ 69,000), dietary intakes were re-measured three or more times using an online, 24-h recall questionnaire. RESULTS: On average, participants who reported consuming meat regularly (three or more times per week) had more adverse health behaviours and characteristics than participants who consumed meat less regularly, and most of the positive associations observed for meat consumption and health risks were substantially attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). In multi-variable adjusted (including BMI) Cox regression models corrected for multiple testing, higher consumption of unprocessed red and processed meat combined was associated with higher risks of ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio (HRs) per 70 g/day higher intake 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.07-1.23), pneumonia (1.31, 1.18-1.44), diverticular disease (1.19, 1.11-1.28), colon polyps (1.10, 1.06-1.15), and diabetes (1.30, 1.20-1.42); results were similar for unprocessed red meat and processed meat intakes separately. Higher consumption of unprocessed red meat alone was associated with a lower risk of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA: HR per 50 g/day higher intake 0.80, 95% CIs 0.72-0.90). Higher poultry meat intake was associated with higher risks of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (HR per 30 g/day higher intake 1.17, 95% CIs 1.09-1.26), gastritis and duodenitis (1.12, 1.05-1.18), diverticular disease (1.10, 1.04-1.17), gallbladder disease (1.11, 1.04-1.19), and diabetes (1.14, 1.07-1.21), and a lower IDA risk (0.83, 0.76-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Higher unprocessed red meat, processed meat, and poultry meat consumption was associated with higher risks of several common conditions; higher BMI accounted for a substantial proportion of these increased risks suggesting that residual confounding or mediation by adiposity might account for some of these remaining associations. Higher unprocessed red meat and poultry meat consumption was associated with lower IDA risk.

2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 353, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-meat eaters. METHODS: In EPIC-Oxford, dietary information was collected at baseline (1993-2001) and at follow-up (≈ 2010). Participants were categorised into four diet groups at both time points (with 29,380 meat eaters, 8037 fish eaters, 15,499 vegetarians, and 1982 vegans at baseline in analyses of total fractures). Outcomes were identified through linkage to hospital records or death certificates until mid-2016. Using multivariable Cox regression, we estimated the risks of total (n = 3941) and site-specific fractures (arm, n = 566; wrist, n = 889; hip, n = 945; leg, n = 366; ankle, n = 520; other main sites, i.e. clavicle, rib, and vertebra, n = 467) by diet group over an average of 17.6 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with meat eaters and after adjustment for socio-economic factors, lifestyle confounders, and body mass index (BMI), the risks of hip fracture were higher in fish eaters (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% CI 1.02-1.54), vegetarians (1.25; 1.04-1.50), and vegans (2.31; 1.66-3.22), equivalent to rate differences of 2.9 (0.6-5.7), 2.9 (0.9-5.2), and 14.9 (7.9-24.5) more cases for every 1000 people over 10 years, respectively. The vegans also had higher risks of total (1.43; 1.20-1.70), leg (2.05; 1.23-3.41), and other main site fractures (1.59; 1.02-2.50) than meat eaters. Overall, the significant associations appeared to be stronger without adjustment for BMI and were slightly attenuated but remained significant with additional adjustment for dietary calcium and/or total protein. No significant differences were observed in risks of wrist or ankle fractures by diet group with or without BMI adjustment, nor for arm fractures after BMI adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, had higher risks of either total or some site-specific fractures, particularly hip fractures. This is the first prospective study of diet group with both total and multiple specific fracture sites in vegetarians and vegans, and the findings suggest that bone health in vegans requires further research.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk, but evidence for other cancer sites and for poultry intake is limited. We therefore examined associations between total, red and processed meat and poultry intake and incidence for 20 common cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 474 996 participants (54% women) in UK Biobank. Participants were aged 37-73 years and cancer-free at baseline (2006-10). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between baseline meat intake and cancer incidence. Trends in risk across the baseline categories were calculated, assigning re-measured intakes from a subsample. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 28 955 participants were diagnosed with malignant cancer. After correction for multiple testing, red and processed meat combined, and processed meat, were each positively associated with colorectal cancer risk [hazard ratio (HR) per 70 g/day higher intake of red and processed meat 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.53; HR per 20 g/day higher intake of processed meat 1.18, 1.03-1.31] and red meat was associated with colon cancer risk (HR per 50 g/day higher intake of red meat 1.36, 1.13-1.64). Positive associations of red meat intake with colorectal and prostate cancer, processed meat intake with rectal cancer and poultry intake with cancers of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues did not survive multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of red and processed meat was specifically associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer; there was little evidence that meat intake was associated with risk of other cancers.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e037554, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the health impacts and environmental consequences of adherence to national dietary recommendations (the Eatwell Guide (EWG)) in the UK. DESIGN AND SETTING: A secondary analysis of multiple observational studies in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Oxford(EPIC-Oxford), UK Biobank and Million Women Study, and adults and children aged 5 and over from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS).Primary and secondary outcome measures risk of total mortality from Cox proportional hazards regression models, total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) and blue water footprint (WF) associated with 'very low' (0-2 recommendations), 'low' (3-4 recommendations) or 'intermediate-to-high' (5-9 recommendations) adherence to EWG recommendations. RESULTS: Less than 0.1% of the NDNS sample adhere to all nine EWG recommendations and 30.6% adhere to at least five recommendations. Compared with 'very low' adherence to EWG recommendations, 'intermediate-to-high adherence' was associated with a reduced risk of mortality (risk ratio (RR): 0.93; 99% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and -1.6 kg CO2eq/day (95% CI: -1.5 to -1.8), or 30% lower dietary GHGe. Dietary WFs were similar across EWG adherence groups. Of the individual Eatwell guidelines, adherence to the recommendation on fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with the largest reduction in total mortality risk: an RR of 0.90 (99% CI: 0.88 to 0.93). Increased adherence to the recommendation on red and processed meat consumption was associated with the largest decrease in environmental footprints (-1.48 kg CO2eq/day, 95% CI: -1.79 to 1.18 for GHGe and -22.5 L/day, 95% CI: -22.7 to 22.3 for blue WF). CONCLUSIONS: The health and environmental benefits of greater adherence to EWG recommendations support increased government efforts to encourage improved diets in the UK that are essential for the health of people and the planet in the Anthropocene.

6.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4014-4021, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709735

RESUMO

Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is positively associated with the risks of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer, but evidence for other less common cancers is limited. In this study, we investigated associations between serum IGF-I concentrations and incidence of less common cancers in the UK Biobank study. To enable comparison of effect estimates, and as positive controls, both common and less common cancer sites (total 30) were included in an outcome-wide analysis. Data from 394,388 cancer-free participants in the UK Biobank study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between baseline serum IGF-I concentrations and cancer incidence, using repeated IGF-I measurements from up to 14,149 participants to correct for regression dilution bias. Higher IGF-I concentration was associated with increased risks of thyroid cancer [HR per 5 nmol/L higher concentration 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.37] in addition to colorectal (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13), breast (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.15), and prostate cancer (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12), and reduced risks of ovarian and liver cancer. Mean follow-up was 6.9 years and the possibility that the observed associations may be influenced by reverse causality bias cannot be excluded. Additional nominally significant associations with malignant melanoma, multiple myeloma, oral cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma did not survive correction for multiple testing. Studies with longer follow-up and pooled analyses are needed to further assess how broad the role of IGF-I is in cancer development. SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this outcome-wide analysis are consistent with a positive association of IGF-I with cancers at several sites.

8.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 272, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982071

Assuntos
Dieta , Saúde Global
10.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979052

RESUMO

Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and other food groups in six groups of meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study. The data were from 30,239 participants who answered questions regarding their consumption of meat, fish, dairy or eggs and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2010. Participants were categorized as regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. FFQ foods were categorized into 45 food groups and analysis of variance was used to test for differences between age-adjusted mean intakes of each food group by diet group. Regular meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, respectively, consumed about a third, quarter and a fifth of their total energy intake from high protein-source foods. Compared with regular meat-eaters, low and non-meat-eaters consumed higher amounts of high-protein meat alternatives (soy, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds) and other plant-based foods (whole grains, vegetables, fruits) and lower amounts of refined grains, fried foods, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages. These findings provide insight into potential nutritional explanations for differences in health outcomes between diet groups.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carne , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Laticínios , Dieta , Dieta Vegana , Escolaridade , Ovos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Peixes , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Classe Social , Reino Unido
11.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 7, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of diabetes is high and rapidly increasing. Some previous studies have found that vegetarians might have a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between vegetarianism and risk of hospitalisation or death with diabetes in a large, prospective cohort study of British adults. METHODS: The analysed cohort included participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study who were diabetes free at recruitment (1993-2001), with available dietary intake data at baseline, and linked hospital admissions and death data for diabetes over follow-up (n = 45,314). Participants were categorised as regular meat eaters (≥50 g per day: n = 15,181); low meat eaters (<50 g of meat per day: n = 7615); fish eaters (ate no meat but consumed fish: n = 7092); and vegetarians (ate no meat or fish, including vegans: n = 15,426). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations between diet group and risk of diabetes. RESULTS: Over a mean of 17.6 years of follow-up, 1224 incident cases of diabetes were recorded. Compared with regular meat eaters, the low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians were less likely to develop diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.75; HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.38-0.59; and HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.54-0.74, respectively). These associations were substantially attenuated after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) (low meat eaters: HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.92; fish eaters: HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.51-0.80; and vegetarians: HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.76-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low meat and non-meat eaters had a lower risk of diabetes, in part because of a lower BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(2): 307-313, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary intake is a leading risk factor for hypertension. We aimed to assess longitudinal associations between overall dietary patterns and incident hypertension among adults in Thailand. DESIGN: Prospective large Thai Cohort Study (TCS) conducted nationwide from 2005 to 2013. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on usual intake of fourteen food groups. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between dietary patterns and hypertension prevalence and incidence. SETTING: Emerging hypertension and changing diets in Thailand. SUBJECTS: TCS participants who were normotensive at baseline in 2005. RESULTS: Among 36293 participants without hypertension at baseline, 1831 reported incident hypertension (5·1 % incidence) at follow-up. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'Modern' and 'Prudent'. The Modern dietary pattern (high intakes of roasted/smoked foods, instant foods, canned foods, fermented fruits/vegetables, fermented foods, soft drinks, deep-fried foods) was associated with increased incident hypertension (comparing extreme quartiles, OR for incident hypertension=1·51; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·75 in 2013). The Prudent dietary pattern (high intakes of soyabean products, milk, fruits, vegetables) was not associated with incident hypertension in a fully adjusted model. The association between the Modern dietary pattern and hypertension was attenuated by BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Modern dietary pattern was positively associated with hypertension among Thai adults. BMI had a great impact on the relationship between the Modern dietary pattern and incidence of hypertension. Reduction of Modern diets would be expected to prevent and control hypertension. Such a strategy would be worth testing.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077031

RESUMO

In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and their socio-demographic predictors in Thai adults. Dietary data in 2015 were from a random sub-sample (N = 1075) of 42,785 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) members who completed all three TCS surveys (2005, 2009, 2013). Principle Component Analysis identified dietary patterns and multivariable linear regression assessed associations (Beta estimates (ß) and confidence intervals (CIs)) between socio-demographic factors and dietary intake pattern scores. Four dietary patterns emerged: Healthy Transitional, Fatty Western, Highly Processed, and Traditional. In women, higher income (≥30,001 Baht/month vs. ≤10,000) and managerial work (vs. office assistant) was associated with lower scores for Traditional (ß = -0.67, 95% CI -1.15, -0.19) and Fatty Western diets (ß = -0.60, 95% CI -1.14, -0.05), respectively. University education associated with lower Highly Processed (ß = -0.57, 95% CI -0.98, -0.17) and higher Traditional diet scores (ß = 0.42, 95% CI 0.03, 0.81). In men and women, urban residence associated with higher Fatty Western and lower Traditional diets. Local policy makers should promote healthy diets, particularly in urban residents, in men, and in low-SEP adults.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Dieta Ocidental , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tailândia , População Urbana
14.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 707, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) cut-off values (>25 and >30) that predict diabetes risk have been well validated in Caucasian populations but less so in Asian populations. We aimed to determine the BMI threshold associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and to calculate the proportion of T2DM cases attributable to overweight and obesity in the Thai population. METHODS: Participants were those from the Thai Cohort Study who were diabetes-free in 2005 and were followed-up in 2009 and 2013 (n = 39,021). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the BMI-T2DM association. We modelled non-linear associations using restricted cubic splines. We estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) and the number of T2DM incident cases attributed to overweight and obesity. We also calculated the impact of reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity on T2DM incidence in the Thai population. RESULTS: Non-linear modelling indicated that the points of inflection where the BMI-T2DM association became statistically significant compared to a reference of 20.00 kg/m2 were 21.60 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.61) and 20.03 (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.03) for men and women, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of T2DM cases in Thai adults could be attributed to overweight and obesity. Annually, if prevalent obesity was 5% lower, ~13,000 cases of T2DM might be prevented in the Thai population. CONCLUSIONS: A BMI cut-point of 22 kg/m2, one point lower than the current 23 kg/m2, would be justified for defining T2DM risk in Thai adults. Lowering obesity prevalence would greatly reduce T2DM incidence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
J Epidemiol ; 27(10): 499-502, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have been shown to be risk factors for a range of non-communicable diseases, especially cardio-metabolic conditions, worldwide. But less is known about the effects of weight change on adults' overall health and wellbeing, particularly in transitional low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the relationship between 8-year weight change and measures of self-assessed health among Thai adults. METHODS: Data were collected from Thai adults aged 25-40 years (n = 27,003) enrolled in the Thai cohort Study and surveyed in 2005, 2009, and 2013. We used self-reported weight and height measurements at baseline and 2013, as well as three standard health questions regarding overall health, energy, and emotion asked at the two time points, to investigate the effects of weight change on health. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, 6.0% of participants lost more than 5% of their baseline weight; 38.5% were stable (<5% loss to 5% gain); 23.0% slightly gained weight (>5%-10%); 22.8% gained moderate weight (>10%-20%); and 9.4% had heavy weight gain (>20%). Moderate (>10%-20%) and heavy weight gain (>20%) were both associated with an increased risk of reporting 'poor or very poor' overall health in 2013 among participants who had a normal body mass index (BMI) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.71 and AOR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.90, respectively), were overweight (AOR 1.53; 955 CI, 1.01-2.29 and AOR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.19, respectively) or had obesity (AOR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.74-3.51 and AOR 3.20; 95% CI, 2.00-5.16, respectively) in 2005. Weight gain of over 20% also had a negative impact on energy level among cohort members with a normal BMI in 2005 (AOR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.65) and among participants with obesity in 2005 (AOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.38-2.71). For those who were underweight, had a normal BMI, or had obesity at baseline, weight loss of more than 5% was associated with reporting emotional problems. Excessive weight gain adversely impacted participants who were underweight or had obesity at baseline. CONCLUSION: Our study found that weight change, in particular weight gain, was associated with negative health outcomes, and this effect appeared to increase at higher levels of body size. The present findings may be useful to promote weight maintenance and healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Tailândia
16.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 2(4)2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270906

RESUMO

Intestinal helminths are endemic throughout the Philippines; however, there is limited evidence with respect to their prevalence, intensity, and impact on children's nutritional status. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 693 children from five rural villages in Northern Samar, the Philippines. Data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and intestinal parasites were collected. Infection with Schistosoma japonicum, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was evident in 20.1, 54.4, 71.4, and 25.3% of the children. The majority (84.7%) was infected with one or more helminth species, with about one-quarter of the sample (24.7%) infected with three or more. About half (49.2%, n = 341) of the children were stunted and 27.8% (n = 193) were wasted. A lower prevalence of normal height-for-age (48.3%) appeared in those with polyparasitism, while the prevalence of stunted children increased with infection (46.7% monoparasitism and 51.7% polyparasitism). There was a decreasing trend between infection intensity and the mean values of HAZ and BAZ identified for T. trichiura or hookworm infections. Stunted children were more likely to be male (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05⁻2.39; p = 0.028), older in age (10⁻14 years) (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.29⁻2.88; p = 0.001), and living in poorer households with palm leaves/nipa roof (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.14⁻3.01; p = 0.013). Intestinal parasitic treatment needs to be combined with nutrient supplements and health education in order to interrupt the parasite life cycle and achieve sustainable control.

17.
BMJ Open ; 6(12): e014102, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent in countries undergoing rapid development, including Thailand. We assessed T2DM incidence over an 8-year period in a nationwide cohort of Thai adults. METHODS: Thai Cohort Study participants were surveyed in 2005, 2009 and 2013. The analysed cohort members were aged (15-88), did not have diabetes in 2005 and were followed up by questionnaire in 2013 (n=39 507). T2DM was ascertained using self-report, which has been validated using physician interviews. We calculated the 8-year cumulative incidence of T2DM. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between potential risk factors and T2DM incidence. RESULTS: 8-year cumulative incidence of T2DM (2005 to 2013) was 177 per 10 000 (95% CI 164 to 190). Crude and age-standardised cumulative incidences of T2DM by sex were 249 per 10 000 (95% CI 226 to 272) and 222 per 10 000 (95% CI 219 to 225) for men; and 119 per 10 000 (95% CI 105 to 133) and 96 per 10 000 (95% CI 94 to 98) for women, respectively. T2DM increased significantly for both sexes with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) (p trend <0.001 for both). Residence in an urban area as a child associated with T2DM among men and women (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7 and OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.79); this was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for BMI. Among men, smoking (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.2) and alcohol intake (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0) were associated with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the sociodemographic and lifestyle changes that have accompanied Thailand's economic development are associated with T2DM risk in a large cohort of Thai adults. Our findings highlight the need to address these transitions to prevent a further increase in the national incidence of T2DM, particularly among Thai men.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrition ; 31(2): 324-30, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stress and food selection patterns by sex among first-year undergraduate students studying in an Australian university. METHODS: Participating in this cross-sectional study were 728 (331 men and 397 female students) first-year students, ages >18 y, attending the Gold Coast Campus of Griffith University. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections: sociodemographic information, stress measures, and a 7-d food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: More than half (52.9%) of the participants were found to suffer from some level of stress, with relatively more female students (57.4%) suffering than men (47.4%). Men who experienced mild to moderate levels of stress were two to three times more likely to eat cereal foods (P < 0.01), fish/seafood (P < 0.001), and protein powder (P < 0.05). They also tended to eat more meat alternatives (P < 0.05), highly processed foods (P < 0.05), and to drink more alcohol (P < 0.05) than unstressed male students. However, they were less likely to consume vegetables and fruit (P < 0.05) compared with their unstressed counterparts. The trend analysis results indicated significant dose-response patterns in the relationship between stress level and consumption of cereal food, meat alternatives, vegetables and fruit (negative trend), highly processed food, protein powder, beverages and alcoholic beverages (all P < 0.05). Female students who experienced mild to moderate stress were 2.22 times more likely to eat processed food (P < 0.01) than unstressed female students. Female students who experienced severe stress were less likely to consume meat alternatives (P < 0.05) than their unstressed counterparts. Significant dose-response trends were found in the relationship between stress levels and the consumption of meat alternatives, vegetables and fruit (both negative trends), and processed food (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate a clear difference in food selection patterns between stressed male and female students, with stress being a more significant predictor of unhealthy food selection among male students. Further research is needed using a qualitative approach to understand how stress and eating behavior are related in university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Austrália , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Grão Comestível , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Frutas , Gana , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Carne , Análise Multivariada , Alimentos Marinhos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr Cancer ; 66(7): 1200-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25207829

RESUMO

Flavonoids, a broad category of nonnutrient food components, are potential protective dietary factors in the etiology of some cancers. However, previous epidemiological studies showing associations between flavonoid intake and cancer risk have used unvalidated intake assessment methods. A 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) based on usual intake of a representative Australian adult population sample was validated against a 3-day diet diary method in 60 young adults. Spearman's rank correlations showed 17 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 flavonoid subgroups, and total flavonoids having strong/moderate correlation coefficients (0.40-0.70), and 8 of 25 individual flavonoids and 2 of 5 flavonoid subgroups having weak/insignificant correlations (0.01-0.39) between the 2 methods. Bland-Altman plots showed most subjects within ±1.96 SD for intakes of flavonoid subgroups and total flavonoids. The FFQ classified 73-90% of participants for all flavonoids except isorhamnetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin; 73.3-85.0% for all flavonoid subgroups except Anthocyanidins; and 86.7% for total flavonoid intake in the same/adjacent quartile determined by the 3-day diary. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.00 (Isorhamnetin, Pelargonidin) to 0.60 (Myricetin) and were statistically significant for 18 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 subgroups, and total flavonoids. This FFQ provides a simple and inexpensive means to estimate total flavonoid and flavonoid subgroup intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Registros de Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 59(2): 234-43, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24704723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence to support that nutritional deficiency can reduce the body's immune function, thereby decreasing resistance to disease and increasing susceptibility to intestinal parasites. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 693 school-aged children from 5 schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Northern Samar, the Philippines. Data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and intestinal parasitic infection were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting, thinness, and wasting was 49.2%, 27.8%, and 59.7% of all children. The proportion of children infected with Schistosoma japonicum (15.6%, P = .03) and hookworm (22.0%, P = .05) were significantly lower among children who met the recommended energy and nutrient intake (RENI) for total calories. The percentage of children infected with Trichuris trichiura was highest among children who did not meet the RENI for energy (74.1%, P = .04), iron (73.4%, P = .01), thiamine (74.0%, P = .00), and riboflavin (73.3%, P = .01). Susceptibility to having 1 or more parasitic infections was significantly associated with poor intake of energy (P = .04), thiamine (P = .02), and riboflavin (P = .01).The proportion of stunted children was significantly higher among children who did not meet the RENI for energy (68.9%, P = .002), protein (54.0%, P = .004), or niacin (30.8%, P = .02) and for those infected with hookworm (31.8%, P = .0002). After adjusting for potential confounders, protein intake less than the RENI (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.14), and hookworm infection (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55) were the major predictors of stunting. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that poor nutrient intake may increase susceptibility to parasitic diseases and together they negatively affect childhood nutritional status.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Schistosoma japonicum/classificação , Trichuris/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...