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1.
Adv Genet ; 107: 153-191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641746

RESUMO

Circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently described in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Growing evidence suggests a biological connection between mental health and circadian rhythmicity, including the circadian influence on brain function and mood and the requirement for circadian entrainment by external factors, which is often impaired in mental illness. Mental (as well as physical) health is also adversely affected by circadian misalignment. The marked interindividual differences in this combined susceptibility, in addition to the phenotypic spectrum in traits related both to circadian rhythms and mental health, suggested the possibility of a shared genetic background and that circadian clock genes may also be candidate genes for psychiatric disorders. This hypothesis was further strengthened by observations in animal models where clock genes had been knocked out or mutated. The introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enabled hypothesis-free testing. GWAS analysis of chronotype confirmed the prominent role of circadian genes in these phenotypes and their extensive polygenicity. However, in GWAS on psychiatric traits, only one clock gene, ARNTL (BMAL1) was identified as one of the few loci differentiating bipolar disorder from schizophrenia, and macaque monkeys where the ARNTL gene has been knocked out display symptoms similar to schizophrenia. Another lesson from genomic analyses is that chronotype has an important genetic correlation with several psychiatric disorders and that this effect is unidirectional. We conclude that the effect of circadian disturbances on psychiatric disorders probably relates to modulation of rhythm parameters and extend beyond the core clock genes themselves.

2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(2): 77-89, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590662

RESUMO

HeiDE is a longitudinal population-based study that started in the 1990s and, at baseline, assessed an array of health-related personality questionnaires in 5133 individuals. Five latent personality dimensions (The Heidelberg Five) were identified and interpreted as Emotional Lability (ELAB), Lack of Behavioral Control (LBCN), Type A Behavior (TYAB), Locus of Control over Disease (LOCC), and Psychoticism (PSYC). At follow-up, 3268 HeiDE participants (post-QC) were genotyped on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. To further characterize The Heidelberg Five, we analyzed genomic underpinnings, their relations to the genetic basis of the Big Five trait Neuroticism, and longitudinal associations with psychiatric symptoms at follow-up. SNP-based heritability was significant for ELAB (34%) and LBCN (29%). A genome-wide association study for each personality dimension was conducted; only the phenotype PSYC yielded a genome-wide significant finding (p < 5 × 10-8 , top SNP rs138223660). Gene-based analyses identified significant findings for ELAB, TYAB, and PSYC. Polygenic risk scores for Neuroticism were only associated with ELAB. Each of The Heidelberg Five was related to depressive symptoms at follow-up. ELAB, LBCN, and PSYC were also associated with lifetime anxiety symptoms. These results highlight the clinical importance of health-related personality traits and identify LBCN as a heritable "executive function" personality trait.

4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898636

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that comorbidities between neuropsychiatric conditions and metabolic syndrome may precede and even exacerbate long-term side-effects of psychiatric medication, such as a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which result in increased mortality. In the present study we compare the expression of key metabolic proteins, including the insulin receptor (CD220), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and fatty acid translocase (CD36), on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subtypes from patients across the neuropsychiatric spectrum, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and autism spectrum conditions (n = 25/condition), relative to typical controls (n = 100). This revealed alterations in the expression of these proteins that were specific to schizophrenia. Further characterization of metabolic alterations in an extended cohort of first-onset antipsychotic drug-naïve schizophrenia patients (n = 58) and controls (n = 63) revealed that the relationship between insulin receptor expression in monocytes and physiological insulin sensitivity was disrupted in schizophrenia and that altered expression of the insulin receptor was associated with whole genome polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia. Finally, longitudinal follow-up of the schizophrenia patients over the course of antipsychotic drug treatment revealed that peripheral metabolic markers predicted changes in psychopathology and the principal side effect of weight gain at clinically relevant time points. These findings suggest that peripheral blood cells can provide an accessible surrogate model for metabolic alterations in schizophrenia and have the potential to stratify subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes or a greater risk of developing metabolic complications following antipsychotic therapy.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203155

RESUMO

Lithium is a first-line medication for bipolar disorder (BD), but only one in three patients respond optimally to the drug. Since evidence shows a strong clinical and genetic overlap between depression and bipolar disorder, we investigated whether a polygenic susceptibility to major depression is associated with response to lithium treatment in patients with BD. Weighted polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed for major depression (MD) at different GWAS p value thresholds using genetic data obtained from 2586 bipolar patients who received lithium treatment and took part in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) study. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies in MD (135,458 cases and 344,901 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) were used for PGS weighting. Response to lithium treatment was defined by continuous scores and categorical outcome (responders versus non-responders) using measurements on the Alda scale. Associations between PGSs of MD and lithium treatment response were assessed using a linear and binary logistic regression modeling for the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The analysis was performed for the entire cohort, and for European and Asian sub-samples. The PGSs for MD were significantly associated with lithium treatment response in multi-ethnic, European or Asian populations, at various p value thresholds. Bipolar patients with a low polygenic load for MD were more likely to respond well to lithium, compared to those patients with high polygenic load [lowest vs highest PGS quartiles, multi-ethnic sample: OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01) and European sample: OR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30-2.36)]. While our analysis in the Asian sample found equivalent effect size in the same direction: OR = 1.71 (95% CI: 0.61-4.90), this was not statistically significant. Using PGS decile comparison, we found a similar trend of association between a high genetic loading for MD and lower response to lithium. Our findings underscore the genetic contribution to lithium response in BD and support the emerging concept of a lithium-responsive biotype in BD.

6.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 8(1): 9, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful life events influence the course of affective disorders, however, the mechanisms by which they bring about phenotypic change are not entirely known. METHODS: We explored the role of DNA methylation in response to recent stressful life events in a cohort of bipolar patients from the longitudinal PsyCourse study (n = 96). Peripheral blood DNA methylomes were profiled at two time points for over 850,000 methylation sites. The association between impact ratings of stressful life events and DNA methylation was assessed, first by interrogating methylation sites in the vicinity of candidate genes previously implicated in the stress response and, second, by conducting an exploratory epigenome-wide association analysis. Third, the association between epigenetic aging and change in stress and symptom measures over time was investigated. RESULTS: Investigation of methylation signatures over time revealed just over half of the CpG sites tested had an absolute difference in methylation of at least 1% over a 1-year period. Although not a single CpG site withstood correction for multiple testing, methylation at one site (cg15212455) was suggestively associated with stressful life events (p < 1.0 × 10-5). Epigenetic aging over a 1-year period was not associated with changes in stress or symptom measures. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate epigenome-wide methylation across time in bipolar patients and in relation to recent, non-traumatic stressful life events. Limited and inconclusive evidence warrants future longitudinal investigations in larger samples of well-characterized bipolar patients to give a complete picture regarding the role of DNA methylation in the course of bipolar disorder.

7.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(4): 425-431, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523404

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized as a core dimension rather than a consequence of schizophrenia (SCZ). The previous evidence supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors between SCZ and cognitive ability. The objective of this study was to test whether and to what extent the variation of disease-relevant neurocognitive function in a sample of SCZ patients from the previous clinical interventional studies can be explained by SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) or by hypothesis-driven and biomedical PRSs. The previous studies have described associations of the SNAP25 gene with cognition in SCZ. Likewise, the enrichment of several calcium signaling-related gene sets has been reported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in SCZ. Hypothesis-driven PRSs were calculated on the basis of the SNAP-25 interactome and also for genes regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of the signal transduction of protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. In a cohort of 127 SCZ patients who had completed a comprehensive neurocognitive test battery as part of the previous antipsychotic intervention studies, we investigated the association between neurocognitive dimensions and PRSs. The PRS for SCZ and SNAP-25-associated genes could not explain the variance of neurocognition in this cohort. At a p value threshold of 0.05, the PRS for PMA was able to explain 2% of the variance in executive function (p = 0.05, uncorrected). The correlation between the PRS for PMA-regulated genes and cognition can give hints for further patient-derived cellular assays. In conclusion, incorporating biological information into PRSs and other en masse genetic analyses may help to close the gap between genetic vulnerability and the biological processes underlying neuropsychiatric diseases such as SCZ.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Proteína 25 Associada a Sinaptossoma/genética
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 284, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712617

RESUMO

Hippocampal volume decrease is a structural hallmark of schizophrenia (SCZ), and convergent evidence from postmortem and imaging studies suggests that it may be explained by changes in the cytoarchitecture of the cornu ammonis 4 (CA4) and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields. Increasing evidence indicates that aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in CA subfields and improves cognition in SCZ patients. Previous studies showed that the effects of exercise on the hippocampus might be connected to the polygenic burden of SCZ risk variants. However, little is known about cell type-specific genetic contributions to these structural changes. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated the modulatory role of cell type-specific SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRS) on volume changes in the CA1, CA2/3, and CA4/DG subfields over time. We studied 20 multi-episode SCZ patients and 23 healthy controls who performed aerobic exercise, and 21 multi-episode SCZ patients allocated to a control intervention (table soccer) for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging-based assessments were performed with FreeSurfer at baseline and after 3 months. The analyses showed that the polygenic burden associated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) and radial glia (RG) significantly influenced the volume changes between baseline and 3 months in the CA4/DG subfield in SCZ patients performing aerobic exercise. A higher OPC- or RG-associated genetic risk burden was associated with a less pronounced volume increase or even a decrease in CA4/DG during the exercise intervention. We hypothesize that SCZ cell type-specific polygenic risk modulates the aerobic exercise-induced neuroplastic processes in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Hipocampo/patologia , Herança Multifatorial , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Astrócitos/citologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/citologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 7(1): 20, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lithium is recommended as a first line treatment for bipolar disorders. However, only 30% of patients show an optimal outcome and variability in lithium response and tolerability is poorly understood. It remains difficult for clinicians to reliably predict which patients will benefit without recourse to a lengthy treatment trial. Greater precision in the early identification of individuals who are likely to respond to lithium is a significant unmet clinical need. STRUCTURE: The H2020-funded Response to Lithium Network (R-LiNK; http://www.r-link.eu.com/ ) will undertake a prospective cohort study of over 300 individuals with bipolar-I-disorder who have agreed to commence a trial of lithium treatment following a recommendation by their treating clinician. The study aims to examine the early prediction of lithium response, non-response and tolerability by combining systematic clinical syndrome subtyping with examination of multi-modal biomarkers (or biosignatures), including omics, neuroimaging, and actigraphy, etc. Individuals will be followed up for 24 months and an independent panel will assess and classify each participants' response to lithium according to predefined criteria that consider evidence of relapse, recurrence, remission, changes in illness activity or treatment failure (e.g. stopping lithium; new prescriptions of other mood stabilizers) and exposure to lithium. Novel elements of this study include the recruitment of a large, multinational, clinically representative sample specifically for the purpose of studying candidate biomarkers and biosignatures; the application of lithium-7 magnetic resonance imaging to explore the distribution of lithium in the brain; development of a digital phenotype (using actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment) to monitor daily variability in symptoms; and economic modelling of the cost-effectiveness of introducing biomarker tests for the customisation of lithium treatment into clinical practice. Also, study participants with sub-optimal medication adherence will be offered brief interventions (which can be delivered via a clinician or smartphone app) to enhance treatment engagement and to minimize confounding of lithium non-response with non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The paper outlines the rationale, design and methodology of the first study being undertaken by the newly established R-LiNK collaboration and describes how the project may help to refine the clinical response phenotype and could translate into the personalization of lithium treatment.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 210, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462630

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Evidence supports a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for educational attainment (GPSEDU) can be used to explain variability in cognitive performance. We aimed to identify different cognitive domains associated with GPSEDU in a transdiagnostic clinical cohort of chronic psychiatric patients with known cognitive deficits. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients from the PsyCourse cohort (N = 730; 43% female) were used. Likewise, we tested whether GPSs for schizophrenia (GPSSZ) and bipolar disorder (GPSBD) were associated with cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explained 1.5% of variance in the backward verbal digit span, 1.9% in the number of correctly recalled words of the Verbal Learning and Memory Test, and 1.1% in crystallized intelligence. These effects were robust to the influences of treatment and diagnosis. No significant associations between GPSSZ or GPSBD with cognitive outcomes were found. Furthermore, these risk scores did not confound the effect of GPSEDU on cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explains a small fraction of cognitive performance in adults with psychiatric disorders, specifically for domains related to linguistic learning and working memory. Investigating such a proxy-phenotype longitudinally, could give intriguing insight into the disease course, highlighting at what time genes play a more influential role on cognitive performance. Better understanding the origin of these deficits might help identify those patients at risk for lower levels of functioning and poor social outcomes. Polygenic estimates may in the future be part of predictive models for more personalized interventions.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaau9093, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086815

RESUMO

There is a paucity of efficacious new compounds to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a novel approach to neuropsychiatric drug discovery based on high-content characterization of druggable signaling network responses at the single-cell level in patient-derived lymphocytes ex vivo. Primary T lymphocytes showed functional responses encompassing neuropsychiatric medications and central nervous system ligands at established (e.g., GSK-3ß) and emerging (e.g., CrkL) drug targets. Clinical application of the platform to schizophrenia patients over the course of antipsychotic treatment revealed therapeutic targets within the phospholipase Cγ1-calcium signaling pathway. Compound library screening against the target phenotype identified subsets of L-type calcium channel blockers and corticosteroids as novel therapeutically relevant drug classes with corresponding activity in neuronal cells. The screening results were validated by predicting in vivo efficacy in an independent schizophrenia cohort. The approach has the potential to discern new drug targets and accelerate drug discovery and personalized medicine for neuropsychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 274, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983960

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with persistence of symptoms throughout adult life in most of the affected patients. This unfavorable course is associated with multiple episodes and residual symptoms, mainly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The neural diathesis-stress model proposes that psychosocial stress acts on a pre-existing vulnerability and thus triggers the symptoms of schizophrenia. Childhood trauma is a severe form of stress that renders individuals more vulnerable to developing schizophrenia; neurobiological effects of such trauma on the endocrine system and epigenetic mechanisms are discussed. Childhood trauma is associated with impaired working memory, executive function, verbal learning, and attention in schizophrenia patients, including those at ultra-high risk to develop psychosis. In these patients, higher levels of childhood trauma were correlated with higher levels of attenuated positive symptoms, general symptoms, and depressive symptoms; lower levels of global functioning; and poorer cognitive performance in visual episodic memory end executive functions. In this review, we discuss effects of specific gene variants that interact with childhood trauma in patients with schizophrenia and describe new findings on the brain structural and functional level. Additive effects between childhood trauma and brain-derived neurotrophic factor methionine carriers on volume loss of the hippocampal subregions cornu ammonis (CA)4/dentate gyrus and CA2/3 have been reported in schizophrenia patients. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study showed that childhood trauma exposure resulted in aberrant function of parietal areas involved in working memory and of visual cortical areas involved in attention. In a theory of mind task reflecting social cognition, childhood trauma was associated with activation of the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, decreased connectivity was shown between the posterior cingulate/precuneus region and the amygdala in patients with high levels of physical neglect and sexual abuse during childhood, suggesting that disturbances in specific brain networks underlie cognitive abilities. Finally, we discuss some of the questionnaires that are commonly used to assess childhood trauma and outline possibilities to use recent biostatistical methods, such as machine learning, to analyze the resulting datasets.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 210: 255-261, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Religious delusions are a common symptom in patients experiencing psychosis, with varying prevalence rates of religious delusions across cultures and societies. To enhance our knowledge of this distinct psychotic feature, we investigated the mutually-adjusted association of genetic and environmental factors with occurrence of religious delusions. METHODS: We studied 262 adult German patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Association with lifetime occurrence of religious delusions was tested by multiple logistic regression for the following putative predictors: self-reported degree of religious activity, DSM-IV diagnosis, sex, age, education level, marital status, presence of acute delusion at the time of interview and an individual polygenic schizophrenia-risk score (SZ-PRS, available in 239 subjects). RESULTS: Of the 262 patients, 101 (39%) had experienced religious delusions. The risk of experiencing religious delusions was significantly increased in patients with strong religious activity compared to patients without religious affiliation (OR = 3.6, p = 0.010). Low or moderate religious activity had no significant effect. The same analysis including the SZ-PRS confirmed the effect of high religious activity on occurrence of religious delusions (OR = 4.1, p = 0.008). Additionally, the risk of experiencing religious delusions increased with higher SZ-PRS (OR 1.4, p = 0.020, using pT = 0.05 for SZ-PRS calculation). None of the other variables were significantly associated with lifetime occurrence of religious delusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that strong religious activity and high SZ-PRS are independent risk factors for the occurrence of religious delusions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.


Assuntos
Delusões , Transtornos Psicóticos , Religião e Psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Delusões/etiologia , Delusões/genética , Delusões/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(2): 89-102, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070057

RESUMO

In current diagnostic systems, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are still conceptualized as distinct categorical entities. Recently, both clinical and genomic evidence have challenged this Kraepelinian dichotomy. There are only few longitudinal studies addressing potential overlaps between these conditions. Here, we present design and first results of the PsyCourse study (N = 891 individuals at baseline), an ongoing transdiagnostic study of the affective-to-psychotic continuum that combines longitudinal deep phenotyping and dimensional assessment of psychopathology with an extensive collection of biomaterial. To provide an initial characterization of the PsyCourse study sample, we compare two broad diagnostic groups defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) classification system, that is, predominantly affective (n = 367 individuals) versus predominantly psychotic disorders (n = 524 individuals). Depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms as well as global functioning over time were contrasted using linear mixed models. Furthermore, we explored the effects of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia on diagnostic group membership and addressed their effects on nonparticipation in follow-up visits. While phenotypic results confirmed expected differences in current psychotic symptoms and global functioning, both manic and depressive symptoms did not vary between both groups after correction for multiple testing. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia significantly explained part of the variability of diagnostic group. The PsyCourse study presents a unique resource to research the complex relationships of psychopathology and biology in severe mental disorders not confined to traditional diagnostic boundaries and is open for collaborations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Psicopatologia/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
16.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(1): 68-75, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) with early disease onset is associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome and constitutes a clinically and biologically homogenous subgroup within the heterogeneous BD spectrum. Previous studies have found an accumulation of early age at onset (AAO) in BD families and have therefore hypothesized that there is a larger genetic contribution to the early-onset cases than to late onset BD. To investigate the genetic background of this subphenotype, we evaluated whether an increased polygenic burden of BD- and schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated risk variants is associated with an earlier AAO in BD patients. METHODS: A total of 1995 BD type 1 patients from the Consortium of Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen), PsyCourse and Bonn-Mannheim samples were genotyped and their BD and SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated using the summary statistics of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a training data set. AAO was either separated into onset groups of clinical interest (childhood and adolescence [≤18 years] vs adulthood [>18 years]) or considered as a continuous measure. The associations between BD- and SCZ-PRSs and AAO were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: BD- and SCZ-PRSs were not significantly associated with age at disease onset. Results remained the same when analyses were stratified by site of recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the largest conducted so far to investigate the association between the cumulative BD and SCZ polygenic risk and AAO in BD patients. The reported negative results suggest that such a polygenic influence, if there is any, is not large, and highlight the importance of conducting further, larger scale studies to obtain more information on the genetic architecture of this clinically relevant phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17597, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514868

RESUMO

Neuronal signal transduction shapes brain function and malfunction may cause mental disorders. Despite the existence of functional genomics screens for proliferation and toxicity, neuronal signalling has been difficult to address so far. To overcome this limitation, we developed a pooled screening assay which combines barcoded activity reporters with pooled genetic perturbation in a dual-expression adeno-associated virus (AAV) library. With this approach, termed pathScreener, we comprehensively dissect signalling pathways in postmitotic neurons. This overcomes several limitations of lentiviral-based screens. By applying first a barcoded and multiplexed reporter assay, termed cisProfiler, we identified the synaptic-activity responsive element (SARE) as top performance sensor of neuronal activity. Next, we targeted more than 4,400 genes and screened for modulatory effects on SARE activity in primary cortical neurons. We identified with high replicability many known genes involved in glutamatergic synapse-to-nucleus signalling of which a subset was validated in orthogonal assays. Several others have not yet been associated with the regulation of neuronal activity such as the hedgehog signalling members Ptch2 and Ift57. This assay thus enhances the toolbox for analysing regulatory processes during neuronal signalling and may help identifying novel targets for brain disorders.


Assuntos
Dependovirus/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sinapses , Animais , Genes Reporter , Genômica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo
18.
NPJ Schizophr ; 4(1): 23, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451850

RESUMO

Postmortem studies in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have revealed deficits in myelination, abnormalities in myelin gene expression and altered numbers of oligodendrocytes in the brain. However, gaining mechanistic insight into oligodendrocyte (OL) dysfunction and its contribution to SCZ has been challenging because of technical hurdles. The advent of individual patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), combined with the generation of in principle any neuronal and glial cell type, including OLs and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), holds great potential for understanding the molecular basis of the aetiopathogenesis of genetically complex psychiatric diseases such as SCZ and could pave the way towards personalized medicine. The development of neuronal and glial co-culture systems now appears to enable the in vitro study of SCZ-relevant neurobiological endophenotypes, including OL dysfunction and myelination, with unprecedented construct validity. Nonetheless, the meaningful stratification of patients before the subsequent functional analyses of patient-derived cell systems still represents an important bottleneck. Here, to improve the predictive power of ex vivo disease modelling we propose using hiPSC technology to focus on representatives of patient subgroups stratified for genomic and/or phenomic features and neurobiological cell systems. Therefore, this review will outline the evidence for the involvement of OPCs/OLs in SCZ in the context of their proposed functions, including myelination and axon support, the implications for hiPSC-based cellular disease modelling and potential strategies for patient selection.

19.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 47, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275895

RESUMO

In GAW20, we investigated the association of specific genetic regions of interest (ROIs) with log-transformed triglyceride (TG) levels following lipid-lowering medication using epigenetic and genetic markers. The goal was to incorporate kernels for cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) markers and compare the kernels to a purely parametric model. Post-treatment TG levels were investigated for post-methylation data at CpG sites and region-specific SNPs and adjusted for pre-treatment TG levels and age, in independent individuals only (real data: n = 150; simulated data, replicate 84: n = 111). In both data sets, our single-CpG-marker results using kernels and linear regression were in good agreement. In the real data, we investigated the introns of the CPT1A gene previously reported as associated with TG levels as separate ROIs, and were able to find hints of an association of cg17058475 and cg00574958 with post-treatment TG levels. In the simulated data, we investigated a total of 10 regions, in which the 5 causal and 5 non-causal markers lie, respectively, with increased methylation variances, yielding plausible results for the 3 window sizes. Overall, this indicates that kernels for CpG markers are feasible. An interaction regression model for the causal SNP with the nearest CpG marker identified an effect for the SNPs with the three greatest heritabilities simulated. The simulation model assumed full SNP effect only for unmethylated regions decreasing to zero in the case of full methylation. Thus, in the context of a clear candidate setting, interaction between epigenetic and genetic data may enhance information, albeit nominally, even with small sample sizes. Relieving the burden of multiple testing, developing kernels further to analyze data from multiple omics jointly is well warranted.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 160, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115926

RESUMO

Recent improvements in high-throughput proteomic approaches are likely to constitute an essential advance in biomarker discovery, holding promise for improved personalized care and drug development. These methodologies have been applied to study multivariate protein patterns and provide valuable data of peripheral tissues. To highlight findings of the last decade for three of the most common psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), we queried PubMed. Here we delve into the findings from thirty studies, which used proteomics and multiplex immunoassay approaches for peripheral blood biomarker exploration. In an explorative approach, we ran enrichment analyses in peripheral blood according to these results and ascertained the overlap between proteomic findings and genetic loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The studies we appraised demonstrate that proteomics for psychiatric research has been heterogeneous in aims and methods and limited by insufficient sample sizes, poorly defined case definitions, methodological inhomogeneity, and confounding results constraining the conclusions that can be extracted from them. Here, we discuss possibilities for overcoming methodological challenges for the implementation of proteomic signatures in psychiatric diagnosis and offer an outlook for future investigations. To fulfill the promise of proteomics in mental disease diagnostics, future research will need large, well-defined cohorts in combination with state-of-the-art technologies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/classificação
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