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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1609, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment (HI) genes are poorly studied in African populations. METHODS: We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate pathogenic and likely pathogenic (PLP) variants in 10 individuals with HI, from four multiplex families from Cameroon, two of which were previously unresolved with a targeted gene enrichment (TGE) panel of 116 genes. In silico protein modelling, western blotting and live imaging of transfected HEK293 cells were performed to study protein structure and functions. RESULTS: All PLP variants previously identified with TGE were replicated. In one previously unresolved family, we found a homozygous frameshift PLP variant in GRXCR2 (OMIM: 615762), NM_001080516.1(GRXCR2):c.251delC p.(Ile85SerfsTer33), in two affected siblings; and additionally, in 1/80 unrelated individuals affected with non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI). The GRXCR2-c.251delC variant introduced a premature stop codon, leading to truncation and loss of a zinc-finger domain. Fluorescence confocal microscopy tracked the wild-type GRXCR2 protein to the cellular membrane, unlike the mutated GRXCR2 protein. CONCLUSION: This study confirms GRXCR2 as a HI-associated gene. GRXCR2 should be included to the currently available TGE panels for HI diagnosis.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003106, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical implications of a polygenic risk score (PRS) for LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) are not well understood, both within the general population and individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: We developed the LDL-C PRS using Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression in 377 286 White British participants from UK Biobank and tested its association with LDL-C according to FH variant carrier status in another 41 748 whole-exome sequenced individuals. Next, we tested for an enrichment of FH variant carriers among individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia and low LDL-C PRS. Last, we contrasted the effect of the LDL-C PRS, measured LDL-C and FH variant carrier status on risk of ischemic heart disease among 3010 cases and 38 738 controls. RESULTS: Among the 41 748 whole-exome sequenced White British individuals, 1-SD increase in the LDL-C PRS was associated with elevated LDL-C among both FH variant carriers (0.34 [95% CI, 0.22-0.47] mmol/L) and noncarriers (0.42 [95% CI, 0.42-0.43] mmol/L). Among individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia, FH variant carriers were enriched in those with a low LDL-C PRS (odds ratio, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.66-2.71] per SD). Each SD increase in the LDL-C PRS was associated with risk of ischemic heart disease to the comparable magnitude as measured LDL-C (odds ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.20-1.29] and odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.23], respectively). The LDL-C PRS was not strongly associated with other traditional ischemic heart disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: An LDL-C PRS could be used to identify individuals with a higher probability of harboring FH variants. The association between ischemic heart disease and the LDL-C PRS was comparable to measured LDL-C, likely because the PRS reflects lifetime exposure to LDL-C levels.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211673

RESUMO

ABSTRACTIndividuals harboring the loss-of-function (LOF) proprotein convertase subtilising/kexin type 9 Gln152His variation (PCSK9Q152H) have low circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and are therefore protected against cardiovascular disease (CVD). This uncleavable form of pro-PCSK9, however, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver hepatocytes where it would be expected to contribute to ER storage disease (ERSD); a heritable condition known to cause systemic ER stress and liver injury. Here, we examined liver function in members of several French-Canadian families known to carry the PCSK9Q152H variation. We report that PCSK9Q152H carriers exhibited marked hypocholesterolemia and normal liver function despite their lifelong state of ER PCSK9 retention. Mechanistically, hepatic overexpression of PCSK9Q152H using adeno-associated viruses in male mice greatly increased the stability of key ER stress response chaperones in liver hepatocytes and unexpectedly protected against ER stress and liver injury rather than to induce them. Our findings show that ER retention of PCSK9 not only reduced CVD risk in patients but may also protect against ERSD and other ER stress-driven conditions of the liver. In summary, we have uncovered a co-chaperone function for PCSK9Q152H that explains its hepatoprotective effects and generated a translational mouse model for further mechanistic insights into this clinically relevant LOF PCSK9 variant.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105157

RESUMO

Locally advanced breast cancer is typically treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size and optimize surgical results. Cases of pathologic complete response, are associated with favorable long-term outcomes. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) defines pathologic complete response as a lack of residual invasive disease in the breast or lymph nodes or only residual ductal carcinoma in situ. Three studies have examined the unique pattern of postneoadjuvant pure or predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma. These studies are small and the prognosis associated with this disease pattern is still unclear. The current study aims to describe clinicopathologic findings associated with pure and predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma postneoadjuvant chemotherapy. Electronic medical records were searched to identify patients treated with postneoadjuvant mastectomy between 2010 and 2017. Cases were included if they met the previously defined definitions for pure or predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma. Of 479 postneoadjuvant mastectomies, 5 patients had pure intralymphatic carcinoma and 6 patients had predominantly pure. Overall, 50% (3/6) of patients with predominantly pure pattern died of metastatic disease within 14 months of mastectomy, whereas 1 patient with pure intralymphatic carcinoma (ypN0) died of metastatic disease 25 months postmastectomy, revealing a better prognosis associated with pure intralymphatic carcinoma when compared with predominantly pure. The diligent gross examination is required to identify patients with both patterns of residual disease. A standardized approach to incorporating lymphovascular invasion into postneoadjuvant staging may be useful from both a clinical and research perspective. The published case numbers remain small and understanding the true clinical significance still depends on additional studies.

6.
Elife ; 92020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063668

RESUMO

Testosterone products are prescribed to males for a variety of possible health benefits, but causal effects are unclear. Evidence from randomized trials are difficult to obtain, particularly regarding effects on long-term or rare outcomes. Mendelian randomization analyses were performed to infer phenome-wide effects of free testosterone on 461 outcomes in 161,268 males from the UK Biobank study. Lifelong increased free testosterone had beneficial effects on increased bone mineral density, and decreased body fat; adverse effects on decreased HDL, and increased risks of prostate cancer, androgenic alopecia, spinal stenosis, and hypertension; and context-dependent effects on increased hematocrit and decreased C-reactive protein. No benefit was observed for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular or cognitive outcomes. Mendelian randomization suggests benefits of long-term increased testosterone should be considered against adverse effects, notably increased prostate cancer and hypertension. Well-powered randomized trials are needed to conclusively address risks and benefits of testosterone treatment on these outcomes.

7.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 968-976, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous counter-regulator of the renin-angiotensin hormonal cascade. We assessed whether plasma ACE2 concentrations were associated with greater risk of death or cardiovascular disease events. METHODS: We used data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) prospective study to conduct a case-cohort analysis within a subset of PURE participants (from 14 countries across five continents: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America). We measured plasma concentrations of ACE2 and assessed potential determinants of plasma ACE2 levels as well as the association of ACE2 with cardiovascular events. FINDINGS: We included 10 753 PURE participants in our study. Increased concentration of plasma ACE2 was associated with increased risk of total deaths (hazard ratio [HR] 1·35 per 1 SD increase [95% CI 1·29-1·43]) with similar increases in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths. Plasma ACE2 concentration was also associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (HR 1·27 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·46]), myocardial infarction (HR 1·23 per 1 SD increase [1·13-1·33]), stroke (HR 1·21 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·32]) and diabetes (HR 1·44 per 1 SD increase [1·36-1·52]). These findings were independent of age, sex, ancestry, and traditional cardiac risk factors. With the exception of incident heart failure events, the independent relationship of ACE2 with the clinical endpoints, including death, remained robust after adjustment for BNP. The highest-ranked determinants of ACE2 concentrations were sex, geographic ancestry, and body-mass index (BMI). When compared with clinical risk factors (smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, lipids, and BMI), ACE2 was the highest ranked predictor of death, and superseded several risk factors as a predictor of heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma ACE2 concentration was associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events in a global study. FUNDING: Canadian Institute of Health Research, Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada, and Bayer.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 200, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of opioid use disorder (OUD) has been increasing in North America. Administration of medication-assisted treatments (MATs) for OUD on an individual-dose basis has been shown to affect patient responses to treatment, proving to be, on occasion, dangerous. A genetic basis has been identified for some MAT responses in a candidate gene context, but consensus has not been reached for any genome-wide significant associations. This systematic review aims to identify and assess any genetic variants associated with MAT patient outcomes at genome-wide significance. METHODS: The databases searched by the authors will be: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, GWAS Catalog, GWAS Central, and NIH Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes. A title and abstract screening, full-text screening, data extraction, and quality assessment will be completed in duplicate for each study via Covidence. Treatment outcomes of interest include continued opioid use or abstinence during treatment or at follow-up, time to relapse, treatment retention rates, opioid overdose, other substance use, comorbid psychiatric disorders, risk taking behaviors, MAT plasma concentrations, and mortality rates. Analysis methods applied, if appropriate, will include random effects meta-analysis with pooled odds ratios for all outcomes. Subgroup analyses will also be implemented, when possible. DISCUSSION: This systematic review can hopefully inform the direction of future research, aiding in the development of a safer and more patient-centered treatment. It will be able to highlight genome-wide significant variants that are replicable and associated with MAT patient outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration ID CRD42020169121).

9.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0189, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904064

RESUMO

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU have high mortality. The host response to coronavirus disease 2019 has only been partially elucidated, and prognostic biomarkers have not been identified. We performed targeted proteomics on critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients to better understand their pathophysiologic mediators and to identify potential outcome markers. Design: Blood was collected at predetermined ICU days for proximity extension assays to determine the plasma concentrations of 1,161 proteins. Setting: Tertiary care ICU and academic laboratory. Subjects: All patients admitted to the ICU suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, using standardized hospital screening methodologies, had blood samples collected until either testing was confirmed negative on ICU day 3 (coronavirus disease 2019 negative) or until ICU day 10 if the patient positive (coronavirus disease 2019 positive). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects and ICU patients who were either coronavirus disease 2019 positive or coronavirus disease 2019 negative were enrolled. Cohorts were well-balanced with the exception that coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients suffered bilateral pneumonia more frequently than coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients. Mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients was 40%. Feature selection identified the top performing proteins for identifying coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients from both healthy control subjects and coronavirus disease 2019 negative ICU patients (classification accuracies 100%). The coronavirus disease 2019 proteome was dominated by interleukins and chemokines, as well as several membrane receptors linked to lymphocyte-associated microparticles and/or cell debris. Mortality was predicted for coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients based on plasma proteome profiling on both ICU day 1 (accuracy 92%) and ICU day 3 (accuracy 83%). Promising prognostic proteins were then narrowed down to six, each of which provided excellent classification performance for mortality when measured on ICU day 1 CMRF-35-like molecule, interleukin receptor-12 subunit B1, cluster of differentiation 83 [CD83], family with sequence similarity 3, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and opticin; area-under-the-curve =1.0; p = 0.007). Conclusions: Targeted proteomics with feature classification easily distinguished both healthy control subjects and coronavirus disease 2019 tested negative ICU patients from coronavirus disease 2019 tested positive ICU patients. Multiple proteins were identified that accurately predicted coronavirus disease 2019 tested positive patient mortality.

10.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 190, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the legalization of cannabis in Canada, there is an increase trend in use. Cannabis has been known to have several health implications, one of which is the development of cannabis use disorder (CUD). CUD is more common in males than females, as well as in certain ethnic groups such as Native Americans. Additionally, both environmental and genetic risk factors have been found for cannabis use. The objective of this systematic review will be to summarize the genetic variants associated with cannabis use which have reached borderline genome-wide significance. METHODS: This systematic review will incorporate articles that have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) investigating cannabis use. MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, GWAS Catalog, GWAS Central, and NIH Database of Genotype and Phenotype will be searched using a comprehensive search strategy. The quality of genetic association studies (Q-Genie) tool will be utilized to assess the quality of the included studies. All screening and data extraction will occur independently by two authors. If feasible, a random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted on pooled odds ratios of single nucleotide polymorphisms reaching borderline genome-wide significance. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will synthesize available GWAS on cannabis use. Results from this review will inform and direct further investigation of genetic variants associated with cannabis use. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020176016.

11.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3007-3017, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An important minority of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) is monogenic. Many monogenic cSVD genes are recognized to be associated with extracerebral phenotypes. We assessed the frequency of these phenotypes in existing literature. METHODS: We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), searching Medline/Embase for publications describing individuals with pathogenic variants in COL4A1/2, TREX1, HTRA1, ADA2, and CTSA genes (PROSPERO 74804). We included any publication reporting on ≥1 individual with a pathogenic variant and their clinically relevant phenotype. We extracted individuals' characteristics and information about associated extracerebral phenotypes and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We noted any novel extracerebral phenotypes and looked for shared phenotypes between monogenic cSVDs. RESULTS: After screening 6048 publications, we included 96 COL4A1 (350 individuals), 32 TREX1 (115 individuals), 43 HTRA1 (38 homozygous/61 heterozygous individuals), 16 COL4A2 (37 individuals), 119 ADA2 (209 individuals), and 3 CTSA (14 individuals) publications. The majority of individuals originated from Europe/North America, except for HTRA1, where most were from Asia. Age varied widely, ADA2 individuals being youngest and heterozygous HTRA1/CTSA individuals oldest. Sex distribution appeared equal. Extracerebral phenotypes were common: 14% to 100% of individuals with a pathogenic variant manifested at least one extracerebral phenotype (14% COL4A2, 43% HTRA1 heterozygotes, 47% COL4A1, 57% TREX1, 91% ADA2, 94% HTRA1 homozygotes, and 100% CTSA individuals). Indeed, for 4 of 7 genes, an extracerebral phenotype was observed more frequently than stroke/transient ischemic attack. Ocular, renal, hepatic, muscle, and hematologic systems were each involved in more than one monogenic cSVD. CONCLUSIONS: Extracerebral phenotypes are common in monogenic cSVD with extracerebral system involvement shared between genes. However, inherent biases in the existing literature mean that further data from large-scale population-based longitudinal studies collecting health outcomes in a systematic unbiased way is warranted. The emerging knowledge will help to select patients for testing, inform clinical management, and provide further insights into the underlying mechanisms of cSVD.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
12.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
13.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(4): 431-437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysbetalipoproteinemia (DBL) is a disease of remnant lipoprotein accumulation caused by a defective apolipoprotein (apo) E and is associated with a considerable atherogenic burden. However, there exists confusion concerning the diagnosis of this disorder, and as a consequence, misdiagnosis is frequent. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of DBL using simple clinical variables. METHODS: In a large cohort of 12,434 dyslipidemic patients, 4891 patients presented with mixed dyslipidemia (total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L [200 mg/dL] and triglycerides ≥ 2.0 mmol/L [175 mg/dL]), and 188 DBL patients were identified based on the presence of an elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/triglyceride ratio and were carriers of apoE2/E2. The APOE genotype or phenotype as well as the lipoprotein ultracentrifugation results were available for all patients. RESULTS: Among the laboratory variables associated with the lipid profile, the non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/apoB ratio was the best predictor of DBL diagnosis based on the C-statistic. Previous proposed criteria had either low sensitivity or low specificity for the diagnosis of DBL. Using a non-HDL-C/apoB cut point of 3.69 mmol/g (1.43 in conventional units) followed by the presence of apoE2/E2 resulted in a good sensitivity (94.8%), negative predictive value (99.8%), specificity (99.6%), positive predictive value (88.5%), accuracy (99.4%), and area under the curve (0.97 [0.95-0.99]) for the prediction of DBL. CONCLUSION: We therefore propose a 3-step algorithm for the diagnosis of DBL using total cholesterol and triglycerides as a first step, the non-HDL-C/apoB ratio as a second screening criterion and finally the APOE genotype, lipoprotein ultracentrifugation, or electrophoresis as a confirmatory test.

14.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2386-2394, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optimal secondary prevention for patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) remains unknown. We aimed to assess whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels are associated with major vascular events and whether hs-cTnT may identify patients who benefit from anticoagulation following ESUS. METHODS: Data were obtained from the biomarker substudy of the NAVIGATE ESUS trial, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in ESUS. Patients were dichotomized at the hs-cTnT upper reference limit (14 ng/L, Gen V, Roche Diagnostics). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to explore the association between hs-cTnT, the combined cardiovascular end point (recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, cardiovascular death), and recurrent ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Among 1337 patients enrolled at 111 participating centers in 18 countries (mean age 67±9 years, 61% male), hs-cTnT was detectable in 95% and at/above the upper reference limit in 21%. During a median follow-up of 11 months, the combined cardiovascular end point occurred in 68 patients (5.0%/y, rivaroxaban 28 events, aspirin 40 events; hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.41-1.1]), and recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 50 patients (4.0%/y, rivaroxaban 16 events, aspirin 34 events, hazard ratio 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]). Annualized combined cardiovascular end point rates were 8.2% (9.5% rivaroxaban, 7.0% aspirin) for those above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 4.8% (3.1% rivaroxaban, 6.6% aspirin) below with a significant treatment modification (P=0.04). Annualized ischemic stroke rates were 4.7% above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 3.9% below, with no suggestion of an interaction between hs-cTnT and treatment (P=0.3). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ESUS, hs-cTnT was associated with increased cardiovascular event rates. While fewer recurrent strokes occurred in patients receiving rivaroxaban, outcomes were not stratified by hs-cTn results. Our findings support using hs-cTnT for cardiovascular risk stratification but not for decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy in patients with ESUS. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(5): 799-806, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685888

RESUMO

Background: The bleeding risks for nonsyndromic platelet function disorders (PFDs) that impair aggregation responses and/or cause dense granule deficiency (DGD) are uncertain. Objectives: Our goal was to quantify bleeding risks for a cohort of consecutive cases with uncharacterized PFD. Methods: Sequential cases with uncharacterized PFDs that had reduced maximal aggregation (MA) with multiple agonists and/or nonsyndromic DGD were invited to participate along with additional family members to reduce bias. Index cases were further evaluated by exome sequencing, with analysis of RUNX1-dependent genes for cases with RUNX1 sequence variants. Bleeding assessment tools were used to estimate bleeding scores, with bleeding risks estimated as odds ratios (ORs) relative to general population controls. Relationships between symptoms and laboratory findings were also explored. Results: Participants with uncharacterized PFD (n = 37; 23 index cases) had impaired aggregation function (70%), nonsyndromic DGD (19%) or both (11%), unlike unaffected relatives. Probable pathogenic RUNX1 variants were found in 2 (9%) index cases/families, whereas others had PFD of unknown cause. Participants with PFD had increased bleeding scores compared to unaffected family members and general population controls, and increased risks for mucocutaneous (OR, 4-207) and challenge-related bleeding (OR, 12-43), and for receiving transfusions for bleeding (OR, 100). Reduced MA with collagen was associated with wound healing problems and bruising, and more severe DGD was associated with surgical bleeding (P < .04). Conclusions: PFDs that impair MA and/or cause nonsyndromic DGD have significantly increased bleeding risks, and some symptoms are more common in those with more severe DGD or impaired collagen aggregation.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8941, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488059

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects 1 in 7 births and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes for both mother and child. GDM is suspected to share a large common genetic background with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of our study was to characterize different GDM polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and test their association with GDM using data from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START). PRSs were derived for 832 South Asian women from START using the pruning and thresholding (P + T), LDpred, and GraBLD methods. Weights were derived from a multi-ethnic and a white Caucasian study of the DIAGRAM consortium. GDM status was defined using South Asian-specific glucose values in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Association with GDM was tested using logistic regression. Results were replicated in South Asian women from the UK Biobank (UKB) study. The top ranking P + T, LDpred and GraBLD PRSs were all based on DIAGRAM's multi-ethnic study. The best PRS was highly associated with GDM in START (AUC = 0.62, OR = 1.60 [95% CI = 1.44-1.69]), and in South Asian women from UKB (AUC = 0.65, OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.28-2.24]). Our results highlight the importance of combining genome-wide genotypes and summary statistics from large multi-ethnic studies to optimize PRSs in South Asians.

17.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 180: 114125, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colchicine is routinely used for its anti-inflammatory properties to treat gout and Familial Mediterranean fever. More recently, it was also shown to be of therapeutic benefit for another group of diseases in which inflammation is a key component, namely, cardiovascular disease. Whilst there is considerable interest in repurposing this alkaloid, it has a narrow therapeutic index and is associated with undesirable side effects and drug interactions. We, therefore, developed a derivatives of colchicine that preferentially target leukocytes to increase their potency and diminish their side effects. The anti-inflammatory activity of the colchicine derivatives was tested in experimental models of neutrophil activation by the etiological agent of gout, monosodium urate crystals (MSU). METHODS: Using a rational drug design approach, the structure of colchicine was modified to increase its affinity for ßVI-tubulin, a colchicine ligand preferentially expressed by immune cells. The ability of the colchicine analogues with the predicted highest affinity for ßVI-tubulin to dampen neutrophil responses to MSU was determined with in vitro assays that measure MSU-induced production of ROS, release of IL-1 and CXCL8/IL-8, and the increase in the concentration of cytoplasmic calcium. The anti-inflammatory property of the derivatives was assessed in the air pouch model of MSU-induced inflammation in mice. RESULTS: The most effective compound generated, CCI, is more potent than colchicine in all the in vitro assays. It inhibits neutrophil responses to MSU in vitro at concentrations 10-100-fold lower than colchicine. Similarly, in vivo, CCI inhibits the MSU-induced recruitment of leukocytes at a 10-fold lower concentration than colchicine when administered prior to or after MSU. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that colchicine can be rendered more potent atinhibiting MSU-induced neutrophil activation and inflammation using a rational drug design approach. The development of compounds such as CCI will provide more efficacious drugs that will not only alleviate gout patients of their painful inflammatory episodes at significantly lower doses than colchicine, but also be of potential therapeutic benefit for patients with other diseases treated with colchicine.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 835-842, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A two-sample MR analysis included 17 independent genetic variants associated with ACE serum concentration in 4,147 participants from the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine INtervention (ORIGIN) (clinical trial reg. no. NCT00069784) trial, and their effects on type 2 diabetes risk were estimated from 18 studies of the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium. A genetic risk score (GRS) underpinning lower ACE concentration was then tested for association with type 2 diabetes prevalence in 341,872 participants, including 16,320 with type 2 diabetes, from the UK Biobank. MR estimates were compared after standardization for blood pressure change, with the estimate obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) meta-analysis of ACE inhibitors versus placebo (n = 31,200). RESULTS: Genetically lower ACE concentrations were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per SD 0.92 [95% CI 0.89-0.95]; P = 1.79 × 10-7). This result was replicated in the UK Biobank (OR per SD 0.97 [0.96-0.99]; P = 8.73 × 10-4). After standardization, the ACE GRS was associated with a larger decrease in type 2 diabetes risk per 2.4-mmHg lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with that obtained from an RCT meta-analysis (OR per 2.4-mmHg lower MAP 0.19 [0.07-0.51] vs. 0.76 [0.60-0.97], respectively; P = 0.007 for difference). CONCLUSIONS: These results support the causal protective effect of ACE inhibitors on type 2 diabetes risk and may guide therapeutic decision making in clinical practice.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 303-314, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059761

RESUMO

Disease risk varies significantly between ethnic groups, however, the clinical significance and implications of these observations are poorly understood. Investigating ethnic differences within the human proteome may shed light on the impact of ancestry on disease risk. We used admixture mapping to explore the impact of genetic ancestry on 237 cardiometabolic biomarkers in 2,216 Latin Americans within the Outcomes Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) study. We developed a variance component model in order to determine the proportion of variance explained by inter-ancestry differences, and we applied it to the biomarker panel. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify and localize genetic loci affecting biomarker variability between ethnicities. Variance component analysis revealed that 5% of biomarkers were significantly impacted by genetic admixture (p < 0.05/237), including C-peptide, apolipoprotein-E, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. We also identified 46 regional associations across 40 different biomarkers (p < 1.13 × 10-6). An independent analysis revealed that 34 of these 46 regions were associated at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10-8) with their respective biomarker in either Europeans or Latin populations. Additional analyses revealed that an admixture mapping signal associated with increased C-peptide levels was also associated with an increase in diabetes risk (odds ratio [OR] = 6.07 per SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44 to 25.56, p = 0.01) and surrogate measures of insulin resistance. Our results demonstrate the impact of ancestry on biomarker levels, suggesting that some of the observed differences in disease prevalence have a biological basis, and that reference intervals for those biomarkers should be tailored to ancestry. Specifically, our results point to a strong role of ancestry in insulin resistance and diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Proteoma , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
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