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1.
Acta Diabetol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570993

RESUMO

AIMS: The development of the immune phenotype in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the first year following disease onset remains poorly described, and studies analysing the longitudinal development of a complex set of immunological and metabolic parameters are missing. Thus, we aim to provide such complex view in a cohort of 38 children with new onset T1D who were prospectively followed for 1 year. METHODS: All subjects were tested for a set of immunological parameters (complete blood count; serum immunoglobulins; and T, B and dendritic cells), HbA1c and daily insulin dose at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after T1D diagnosis. A mixed meal tolerance test was administered to each of the subjects 12 months after diagnosis, and the C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) was noted and was then tested for association with all immunological parameters. RESULTS: A gradual decrease in leukocytes (adjusted p = 0.0012) was reflected in a significant decrease in neutrophils (adjusted p = 0.0061) over the post-onset period, whereas Tregs (adjusted p = 0.0205) and originally low pDCs (adjusted p < 0.0001) increased. The expression of the receptor for BAFF (BAFFR) on B lymphocytes (adjusted p = 0.0127) markedly increased after onset. No immunological parameters were associated with C-peptide AUC; however, we observed a linear increase in C-peptide AUC with the age of the patients (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study documents substantial changes in the innate and adaptive immune system over the first year after disease diagnosis but shows no association between immunological parameters and residual beta-cell activity. The age of patients remains the best predictor of C-peptide AUC, whereas the role of the immune system remains unresolved.

2.
J Autoimmun ; : 102294, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aberrant recognition of self-nucleic acids by the innate immune system contributes to the pathology of several autoimmune diseases. Although microbial DNA and, in certain instances, self-DNA that is released from damaged cells are primarily recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), recent evidence suggests that other cytosolic sequence-nonspecific DNA sensors contribute to DNA recognition. In this study, we focused on the sensing of microbial and host DNA in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocytes from pediatric patients with T1D and from healthy donors were stimulated with microbial DNA (CpG) or with self-DNA (DNA contained within neutrophil extracellular traps, NETs). The production of cytokines was measured by flow cytometry and multiplex bead assays. The internalization of microbial DNA and its colocalization with STING was detected by image cytometry. Furthermore, the involvement of the TBK1 kinase was investigated by detecting its phosphorylation with phospho-flow cytometry or by using a TBK1 inhibition assay. RESULTS: We observed a prominent proinflammatory response in T1D PBMCs, especially pDCs and monocytes, to microbial DNA in comparison to that in controls. We further confirmed that monocytes could bind and internalize DNA and respond by releasing proinflammatory cytokines in a more pronounced manner in T1D patients than those in controls. Surprisingly, this cytokine production was not affected by TLR9 blockade, suggesting the involvement of intracellular receptors in DNA recognition. We further identified TBK1 and STING as two crucial molecules in the DNA-sensing pathway that were involved in CpG-DNA sensing by T1D cells. A similar DNA-sensing pathway that was dependent on intracellular DNA sensors and the STING-TBK1 interaction was employed in response to NETs, which were used to model self-DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we show that there were significant differences in DNA sensing in T1D patients compared to that in controls. We demonstrate that monocytes from T1D patients are able to sense microbial- and self-DNA, leading to proinflammatory cytokine secretion through the adaptor protein STING and the TBK1 kinase.

3.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most frequent primary immunodeficiencies and is characterized by disturbed immunoglobulin production and dysregulation of the immune system. Results of previous studies suggest a higher prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) in CVID patients than in the general population. We initiated this study to evaluate lung functions and identify risk factors for BA and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with CVID. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CVID were included in this study. In all of them, spirometry and a metacholine bronchoprovocation test were performed. We also investigated the role of atopy, eosinophilic inflammation, and potential risk factors such as gender, age, or immunoglobulin levels at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: BHR was confirmed in 12 patients (52%), all of whom had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. However, BHR-positive patients had significantly decreased MEF25. BHR-positive patients had also more symptoms related to bronchial obstruction, with 8 of them (35%) being suspected of having BA at the end of the study. A higher prevalence of BHR was found in females, with a relative risk of 2.89. CONCLUSIONS: An increased prevalence of BHR and BA was detected in CVID patients compared to the general population. BA may develop despite the disturbed immunoglobulin production, and the majority of patients display nonatopic and noneosinophilic properties. These results suggest a limited role of atopy and eosinophilic inflammation in the pathogenesis of BA in CVID patients.

4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1730, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083170

RESUMO

DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficiency characterized by thymic dysplasia resulting in T cell lymphopenia. Most patients suffer from increased susceptibility to infections and heightened prevalence of autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune thrombocytopenia. B cells in DiGeorge syndrome show impaired maturation, with low switched-memory B cells and a wide spectrum of antibody deficiencies or dysgammaglobulinemia, presumably due to impaired germinal center responses. We set out to evaluate circulating follicular helper T cells (cTFHs) in DiGeorge syndrome, as markers of T-B interaction in the germinal centers in a cohort of 17 patients with partial DiGeorge and 21 healthy controls of similar age. cTFHs were characterized as CXCR5+CD45RA- CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry. We verify previous findings that the population of memory CD4+ T cells is relatively increased in diGeorge patients, corresponding to low naïve T cells and impaired T cell production in the thymus. The population of CXCR5+ memory CD4+ T cells (cTFHs) was significantly expanded in patients with DiGeorge syndrome, but only healthy controls and not DiGeorge syndrome patients showed gradual increase of CXCR5 expression on cTFHs with age. We did not observe correlation between cTFHs and serum IgG levels or population of switched memory B cells. There was no difference in cTFH numbers between DiGeorge patients with/without thrombocytopenia and with/without allergy. Interestingly, we show strong decline of PD1 expression on cTFHs in the first 5 years of life in DiGeorge patients and healthy controls, and gradual increase of PD1 and ICOS expression on CD4- T cells in healthy controls later in life. Thus, here, we show that patients with DiGeorge syndrome have elevated numbers of cTFHs, which, however, do not correlate with autoimmunity, allergy, or production of immunoglobulins. This relative expansion of cTFH cells may be a result of impaired T cell development in patients with thymic dysplasia.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function (STAT1 GOF) mutations are the most common cause of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We aim to report the effect of oral ruxolitinib, the Janus kinase (JAK) family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on clinical and immune status of a 12-year-old boy with severe CMC due to a novel STAT1 GOF mutation. METHODS: Clinical features and laboratory data were analyzed, particularly lymphocyte subsets, ex vivo IFNγ- and IFNα-induced STAT1, 3, 5 phosphorylation dynamics during the course of JAK1/2 inhibition therapy, and Th17-related, STAT1- and STAT3-inducible gene expression before and during the treatment. Sanger sequencing was used to detect the STAT1 mutation. Literature review of ruxolitinib in treatment of CMC is appended. RESULTS: A novel STAT1 GOF mutation (c.617T > C; p.L206P), detected in a child with recalcitrant CMC, was shown to be reversible in vitro with ruxolitinib. Major clinical improvement was achieved after 8 weeks of ruxolitinib treatment, while sustained suppression of IFNγ- and IFNα-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, as well as increased STAT3-inducible and Th17-related gene expression, was demonstrated ex vivo. Clinical relapse and spike of all monitored phosphorylated STAT activity was registered shortly after unplanned withdrawal, decreasing again after ruxolitinib reintroduction. No increase of peripheral CD4+ IL17+ T cells was detected after 4 months of therapy. No adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION: JAK1/2 inhibition with ruxolitinib represents a viable option for treatment of refractory CMC, if HSCT is not considered. However, long-term administration is necessary, as the effect is not sustained after treatment discontinuation.

6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723478

RESUMO

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is one of the most frequent inborn errors of immunity, increased occurrence of malignancies, particularly lymphomas, and gastric cancers, has long been noted among CVID patients. Multifactorial etiology, including immune dysregulation, infections, chronic inflammation, or genetic background, is suggested to contribute to tumor development. Here, we present the results of the first Czech nationwide study focused on epidemiology, immunology and genetic background in a cohort of CVID patients who also developed tumors Methods: The cohort consisted of 295 CVID patients followed for 3,070 patient/years. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated to determine the risk of cancer, and Risk ratio (RR) was established to evaluate the significance of comorbidities. Moreover, immunophenotyping, including immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte populations, was assessed. Finally, Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in all patients with lymphoma to investigate the genetic background. Results: Twenty-five malignancies were diagnosed in 22 patients in a cohort of 295 CVID patients. SIR was more than 6 times greater in comparison to the general population. The most common neoplasias were gastric cancers and lymphomas. History of Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was established as a potential risk factor, with over 3 times higher risk of cancer development. The B cell count at diagnosis of lymphoma was reduced in the lymphoma group; moreover, post-treatment B and T cell lymphopenia, associated with poorer outcome, was found in a majority of the patients. Intriguingly, no NK cell depression was observed after the chemotherapy. WES revealed heterogeneous genetic background among CVID patients with tumors, identifying gene variants associated with primary immunodeficiencies (such as CTLA4, PIK3CD, PMS2) and/or increased cancer susceptibility (including BRCA1, RABEP1, EP300, KDM5A). Conclusions: The incidence of malignancy in our CVID cohort was found to be more than 6 times greater compared to the general population. Gastric cancers and lymphomas were the most frequently diagnosed tumors. ITP was identified as a risk factor for malignancy in CVID patients. WES analysis confirmed a wide genetic heterogeneity among CVID patients. The identified causative or modifying gene variants pointed to errors in mechanisms contributing to both immunodeficiency and malignancy.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
7.
Immunol Lett ; 189: 94-100, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lately, mounting evidence has shown that B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we present alterations in B cell subsets including BAFF receptor (BAFFR) expression in cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their relatives. PATIENTS AND METHODS: B cells were studied in 438 patients with T1D (158 at disease onset and 280 with long-term disease), 136 first-degree relatives and 53 healthy controls. The B cell panel included transitional, naïve, MZ-like, switched memory B cells and plasmablasts. We also measured serum BAFF levels as well as BAFFR expression on both B and T cells. Moreover, the effect of BAFF on T and B lymphocytes was analysed in vitro. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in the proportion of transitional B cells in the patients with T1D, accompanied by an increased proportion of plasmablasts, especially in recent-onset patients and their relatives. While the BAFF serum levels did not differ in the patients with T1D, BAFFR-expressing B and especially T cell numbers were reduced in the T1D cohort, with the exception of patients with recent-onset disease who exhibited a significant increase in the number of BAFFR-expressing T cells. T cell activation and B cell proliferation were more pronounced after activation with BAFF in the T1D cohort compared to controls. CONCLUSION: The B cell panel in patients with T1D is characterized by significantly reduced populations of B cells in their early stages of development with a shift towards plasma cells. The dynamics of BAFFR-expressing B and T cells and the more pronounced responsiveness of the T1D T cells to BAFF point to the role of BAFF and T and B cell cooperation in the development of T1D.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Comunicação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Autoimmunity ; 49(8): 523-531, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560779

RESUMO

T regulatory cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). In our study, we investigated CD25 + FoxP3 + Tregs and thymic FoxP3 + Helios + Tregs in large cohorts of children with T1D at onset and with long-term T1D, and further in their relatives and healthy controls. We observed significantly decreased numbers of CD25 + FoxP3 + Tregs, but not FoxP3 + Helios + Tregs, in long-term patients compared with the control group and T1D onset. Furthermore, long-term T1D patients exhibited highly significant decrease of CD25 expression on both CD25 + FoxP3 + Tregs and FoxP3 + Helios + Tregs, independently on age or the duration of diabetes. A similar reduction of CD25 expression was also found in T1D relatives, more significant in those with positive autoantibodies. Low CD25 expression was associated with impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation after IL-2 exposure. Our results show that the frequency of Tregs is altered in a large cohort of long-term T1D patients, a profound decrease in CD25 expression and altered IL-2 signaling are typical features of Tregs populations in long-term diabetic patients and their relatives.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição STAT5 , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Timócitos/metabolismo
9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 95(5): 743-753, 2014 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24389335

RESUMO

MDSCs represent one of the key players mediating immunosuppression. These cells accumulate in the TME, lymphoid organs, and blood during tumor growth. Their mobilization was also reported after CY therapy. DNMTi 5AC has been intensively studied as an antitumor agent. In this study, we examined, using two different murine tumor models, the modulatory effects of 5AC on TU-MDSCs and CY-MDSCs tumor growth and CY therapy. Indeed, the percentage of MDSCs in the TME and spleens of 5AC-treated mice bearing TRAMP-C2 or TC-1/A9 tumors was found decreased. The changes in the MDSC percentage were accompanied by a decrease in the Arg-1 gene expression, both in the TME and spleens. CY treatment of the tumors resulted in additional MDSC accumulation in the TME and spleens. This accumulation was subsequently inhibited by 5AC treatment. A combination of CY with 5AC led to the highest tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro cultivation of spleen MDSCs in the presence of 5AC reduced the percentage of MDSCs. This reduction was associated with an increased percentage of CD11c+ and CD86+/MHCII+ cells. The observed modulatory effect on MDSCs correlated with a reduction of the Arg-1 gene expression, VEGF production, and loss of suppressive capacity. Similar, albeit weaker effects were observed when MDSCs from the spleens of tumor-bearing animals were cultivated with 5AC. Our findings indicate that beside the direct antitumor effect, 5AC can reduce the percentage of MDSCs accumulating in the TME and spleens during tumor growth and CY chemotherapy, which can be beneficial for the outcome of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia
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