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2.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203448

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most dynamic physiologic variables that is routinely measured in clinical practice and is characterized by continuous and significant changes beat-to-beat, over 24 h, day-to-day, and visit-to-visit. Under physiological conditions, these BP variations largely represent a response to environmental stimulations and challenges of daily life aimed at maintaining so-called cardiovascular "homeostasis". However, sustained increases in blood pressure variability (BPV) may also reflect alterations in cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms or underlying pathological conditions and may represent a source of damage to the cardiovascular system. The clinical significance and prognostic implications of these BP variations have been demonstrated by a series of clinical and population studies conducted in recent years, in which increasing BPV has been associated with a higher risk of subclinical organ damage, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, independent of elevated average BP values. This paper will review the available evidence on the current definitions, classification, and mechanisms responsible for different types of BPV by focusing on their relevance to cardiovascular homeostasis and cardiovascular disease.

3.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203451

RESUMO

Due to fast-paced technological advancements, digital health and telemedicine represent a promising and complex reality, with the potential to change the current management of hypertension and improve its outcomes. New types of health-related strategies are available, ranging from telemonitoring of blood pressure (BP) values to counseling for patients and decisional tools for physicians, thanks to the development of new technology. Even though the strength of available evidence is currently low due to the high heterogeneity of studies and of the proposed interventions, available data suggest a beneficial effect of digital health strategies on BP control and, more generally, on cardiovascular risk reduction. In addition, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to further investigate the real impact of these new strategies on clinical outcomes. Furthermore, due to consistent commercial interests in this field, there is a strong need for strict regulations to ensure a safe and secure implementation of this new reality in clinical care.

6.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico
7.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141969

RESUMO

: Blood pressure measurement in obese individuals can be challenging because of the difficulty in properly cuffing large upper arms. Achieving a proper cuff fit can be problematic especially in people with a shorter arm length relative to circumference. This expert statement provides recommendations on blood pressure measurement in large arms for clinical use and research purposes. Tronco-conically shaped cuffs should be used in people with large arms, especially with arm circumferences greater than 42 cm as they better fit on the conical arm shape. Cuffs with frustum of the cone slant angle of 85° should satisfy most conditions. In individuals with short upper-arm that does not allow application of a properly sized cuff, wrist or forearm measurement might be used in clinical practice, but not for validation of automatic devices. Wide-range cuffs coupled to oscillometric devices provided with special software algorithms can also be used as alternatives to standard cuff measurement, provided they are independently validated per AAMI/ISO 81060-2 protocol. For validation studies, the intraarterial measurement is generally considered as the gold standard, yet for possible methodological pitfalls and ethical concerns, it is not recommended as the method of choice. Tronco-conical cuffs with inflatable bladder dimensions of 37-50 × 75-100% arm circumference should be used for reference auscultatory blood pressure measurement wherever the upper arm length allows a proper fit. There is a need for future studies that help identify the optimal shape of cuffs and bladders investigating the influence of sex, age, arm physical properties, and artery characteristics.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157642

RESUMO

Renal denervation is a device-based procedure for hypertension for which safety and efficacy has been demonstrated. At present, its clinical use is still matter of debate, despite the most recent clinical trials have shown promising results with new-generation devices in various hypertensive populations. This position paper was deemed necessary by the Italian Society of Arterial Hypertension, in order to provide indications about the applications of renal denervation in the clinical setting. A state-of-the art review of the literature, focusing on safety and efficacy data, is provided. Furthermore, based on current evidence and expert consensus, clinical profiles of possible candidates for renal denervation are proposed. The selection process should take into account not only blood pressure values, global cardiovascular risk profile, but also drug adherence and tolerability and patient preferences. This position paper also defines minimum requirements for renal denervation selection centers and a flowchart for the difficult-to-treat hypertensive patient. Further studies are needed to support these preliminary indications, which are based on expert-consensus only.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170711

RESUMO

Children are defined as hypertensive when their blood pressure values equal or exceed the 95th percentile of the blood pressure value distribution in a pediatric population, according to gender, age and height. The population on which reference tables are based is of fundamental importance to establish the threshold values for the diagnosis of hypertension in pediatric age. Before 2017, both American and European guidelines used nomograms created in the same reference population which included children of all weight classes. Given the close and well-known association between hypertension and excess weight in childhood, the 2017 American guidelines proposed new reference nomograms excluding subjects with overweight and obesity from the "historical" reference population. Furthermore, the new American guidelines suggested a fixed cut-off of 130/80 mmHg, starting from 13 years and regardless of gender and height, to make the diagnosis of hypertension. In this document, the Italian Hypertension Society (SIIA) and the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP) jointly discuss a number of issues raised by the new American guidelines that involve the entire medical community, and also address the definition of arterial hypertension in the transition phase between childhood and adulthood.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043960

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The association of mild obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with important clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between mild OSA and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) cohort. METHODS: In a multicentre sample of 4732 patients we analyzed the risk of mild OSA (sub-classified into two groups: mildAHI 5-<11/h (apnoea-hypopnoea frequency/hour [AHI] 5 to <11/h) and mildAHI 11-<15/hOSA (AHI ≥11 to <15/h ) compared to non-apnoeic snorers for prevalent SAH after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including gender, age, smoking, obesity, daytime sleepiness, dyslipidaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and sleep test methodology [polygraphy (PG) or polysomnography (PSG)]. RESULTS: SAH prevalence was higher in the mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA group compared with the mildAHI 5-<11/h group and non-apnoeic snorers (52 vs 45 vs 30%, p<0.001). Corresponding adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for SAH were 1.789 (mildAHI 11-<15/h, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.15) and 1.558 (mildAHI 5-<11/h, 95%, CI 1.34-1.82), respectively; p<0.001. In sensitivity analysis, mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA remained a significant predictor for SAH both in PG (OR = 1.779, 95% CI 1.403-2.256; p<0.001) and PSG group (OR = 1.424, 95% CI 1.047-1.939; p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a dose response relationship between mild OSA and SAH risk, starting from 5 events/hour in PG-recordings and continuing with a further risk increase in the 11 to <15 range. These findings potentially introduce a challenge to traditional thresholds of OSA severity and may help to stratify OSA patients according to cardiovascular risk.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049425

RESUMO

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring appears to be a very useful approach to hypertension management insofar it allows to obtain multiple measurements in the usual environment of each individual, allows the detection of hypertension phenotypes, such as white-coat and masked hypertension, and appears to have superior prognostic value than the conventional office BP measurements. Out-of-office BP can be obtained through either home or ambulatory monitoring, which provide complementary and not identical information. Home BP monitoring yields BP values self-measured in subjects' usual living environment; it is an essential method for the evaluation of almost all untreated and treated subjects with suspected or diagnosed hypertension, best if combined with telemonitoring facilities, also allowing long-term monitoring. There is also increasing evidence that home BP monitoring improves long-term hypertension control rates by improving patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. In Latin American Countries, it is widely available, being relatively inexpensive, and well accepted by patients. Current US, Canadian, Japanese, and European guidelines recommend out-of-office BP monitoring to confirm and refine the diagnosis of hypertension.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049441

RESUMO

Accurate office blood pressure measurement remains crucial in the diagnosis and management of hypertension worldwide, including Latin America (LA). Office blood pressure (OBP) measurement is still the leading technique in LA for screening and diagnosis of hypertension, monitoring of treatment, and long-term follow-up. Despite this, due to the increasing awareness of the limitations affecting OBP and to the accumulating evidence on the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as a complement of OBP in the clinical approach to the hypertensive patient, a progressively greater attention has been paid worldwide to the information on daytime and nighttime BP patterns offered by 24-h ABPM in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management of hypertension. In LA countries, most of the Scientific Societies of Hypertension and/or Cardiology have issued guidelines for hypertension care, and most of them include a special section on ABPM. Also, full guidelines on ABPM are available. However, despite the available evidence on the advantages of ABPM for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in LA, availability of ABPM is often restricted to cities with large population, and access to this technology by lower-income patients is sometimes limited by its excessive cost. The authors hope that this document might stimulate health authorities in each LA Country, as well as in other countries in the world, to regulate ABPM access and to widen the range of patients able to access the benefits of this technique.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319899618, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides and diastolic dysfunction have prognostic value in asymptomatic subjects at risk for heart failure. Their integration might further refine the risk stratification process in this setting. Aim of this paper was to explore the possibility to predict heart failure and death combining diastolic dysfunction and natriuretic peptides in an asymptomatic population at risk for heart failure. METHODS: Among 4047 subjects aged ≥55/≤80 years followed by 10 general practitioners in Italy, the DAVID-Berg study prospectively enrolled 623 asymptomatic outpatients at increased risk for heart failure. Baseline evaluation included electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and natriuretic peptides collection. Based on diastolic dysfunction and natriuretic peptides, subjects were classified in four groups: control group (no diastolic dysfunction/normal natriuretic peptides, 57%), no diastolic dysfunction/high natriuretic peptides (9%), diastolic dysfunction/normal natriuretic peptides (24%), and diastolic dysfunction/high natriuretic peptides (11%). We applied Cox multivariable and Classification and Regression Tree analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 69 ± 7 years, 44% were women, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 61%, and 35% had diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, 95 heart failure/death events occurred. Overall, diastolic dysfunction and natriuretic peptides were predictive of adverse events (respectively, hazard ratio 1.91, confidence interval 1.19-3.05, padjusted = 0.007, and hazard ratio 2.25, confidence interval 1.35-3.74, padjusted = 0.002) with Cox analysis. However, considering the four study subgroups, only the group with diastolic dysfunction/high natriuretic peptides had a significantly worse prognosis compared to the control group (hazard ratio 4.48, confidence interval 2.31-8.70, padjusted < 0.001). At Classification and Regression Tree analysis, diastolic dysfunction/high natriuretic peptides was the strongest prognostic factor (risk range 24-58%). CONCLUSIONS: The DAVID-Berg data suggest that we look for the quite common combination of diastolic dysfunction/high natriuretic peptides to correctly identify asymptomatic subjects at greater risk for incident heart failure/death, thus more suitable for preventive interventions.

17.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079643

RESUMO

The treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mandibular advancement devices (MAD) is associated with blood pressure (BP) reduction however, the overall effect is modest. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs comparing the effect of such treatments on BP was to identify subgroups of patients who respond best to treatment.The article search was performed in three different databases with specific search terms and selection criteria. From 2289 articles, we included 68 RCTs that compared CPAP or MAD with either passive or active treatment. When all the studies are pooled together, CPAP and MAD are associated with an average BP reduction of -2.09 (-2.78, -1.40) mmHg [mean (95%CI)] for the systolic and of -1.92 (-2.40, -1.43) mmHg for the diastolic BP, and of -1.27 (-2.34, -0.20) mmHg for systolic and of -1.11 (-1.82, -0.41) mmHg for diastolic BP, respectively. The subgroups of patients who showed a greater response were those: younger than 60 years (systolic BP -2.93 mmHg), with uncontrolled BP at baseline (systolic BP -4.14 mmHg) and with severe oxygen desaturations (SpO2-nadir<77%) at baseline (24 h systolic BP -7.57 mmHg).Although this meta-analysis shows that the expected reduction of BP by CPAP/MADs is modest, it identifies specific characteristics that may predict a pronounced benefit from CPAP in terms of blood pressure control. These findings should be interpreted with caution, however, they are particularly important in identifying potential phenotypes associated with BP reduction in patients treated for OSA.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 371-380, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893579

RESUMO

AIMS: Ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 ) is among the strongest cardiopulmonary exercise testing prognostic parameters in heart failure (HF). It is usually reported as an absolute value. The current definition of normal VE/VCO2 slope values is inadequate, since it was built from small groups of subjects with a particularly limited number of women and elderly. We aimed to define VE/VCO2 slope prediction formulas in a sizable population and to test whether the prognostic power of VE/VCO2 slope in HF was different if expressed as a percentage of the predicted value or as an absolute value. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated the linear regressions between age and VE/VCO2 slope in 1136 healthy subjects (68% male, age 44.9 ± 14.5, range 13-83 years). We then applied age-adjusted and sex-adjusted formulas to predict VE/VCO2 slope to HF patients included in the metabolic exercise test data combined with cardiac and kidney indexes score database, which counts 6112 patients (82% male, age 61.4 ± 12.8, left ventricular ejection fraction 33.2 ± 10.5%, peakVO2 14.8 ± 4.9, mL/min/kg, VE/VCO2 slope 32.7 ± 7.7) from 24 HF centres. Finally, we evaluated whether the use of absolute values vs. percentages of predicted VE/VCO2 affected HF prognosis prediction (composite of cardiovascular mortality + urgent transplant or left ventricular assist device). We did so in the entire cardiac and kidney indexes score population and separately in HF patients with severe (peakVO2 < 14 mL/min/kg, n = 2919, 61.1 events/1000 pts/year) or moderate (peakVO2 ≥ 14 mL/min/kg, n = 3183, 19.9 events/1000 pts/year) HF. In the healthy population, we obtained the following equations: female, VE/VCO2 = 0.052 × Age + 23.808 (r = 0.192); male, VE/VCO2 = 0.095 × Age + 20.227 (r = 0.371) (P = 0.007). We applied these formulas to calculate the percentages of predicted VE/VCO2 values. The 2-year survival prognostic power of VE/VCO2 slope was strong, and it was similar if expressed as absolute value or as a percentage of predicted value (AUCs 0.686 and 0.690, respectively). In contrast, in severe HF patients, AUCs significantly differed between absolute values (0.637) and percentages of predicted values (0.650, P = 0.0026). Moreover, VE/VCO2 slope expressed as a percentage of predicted value allowed to reclassify 6.6% of peakVO2 < 14 mL/min/kg patients (net reclassification improvement = 0.066, P = 0.0015). CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of predicted VE/VCO2 slope value strengthens the prognostic power of VE/VCO2 in severe HF patients, and it should be preferred over the absolute value for HF prognostication. Furthermore, the widespread use of VE/VCO2 slope expressed as percentage of predicted value can improve our ability to identify HF patients at high risk, which is a goal of utmost clinical relevance.

19.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914508, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983311

RESUMO

The prognostic relevance of short-term blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertension is not clearly established. We aimed to evaluate the association of short-term BP variability, assessed through ambulatory BP monitoring, with total and cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of patients with hypertension. We selected 63 910 subjects from the Spanish ABPM Registry from 2004 to 2014, with a median follow-up of 4.7 years. Systolic and diastolic BP SD from 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime, weighted SD (mean of daytime and nighttime SD weighted for period duration), average real variability (mean of differences between consecutive readings), variation independent of the mean, and BP variability ratio (ratio between systolic and diastolic 24-hour SD) were calculated through 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring performed at baseline. Association with total and cardiovascular mortality (obtained through death certificates) were assessed by Cox regression models adjusted for clinical confounders and BP. Patients who died during follow-up had higher values of BP variability compared with those remaining alive. In fully adjusted models, daytime, nighttime, and weighted SD, systolic and diastolic, as well as diastolic average real variability, were all significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. Hazard ratios for 1 SD increase ranged from 1.05 to 1.09 for total mortality and from 1.07 to 1.12 for cardiovascular mortality. A nighttime systolic SD ≥12 mm Hg was independently associated with total (hazard ratio: 1.13 [95% CI, 1.06-1.21]) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% CI, 1.09-1.36]). We conclude that short-term BP variability is independently associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension.

20.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990898

RESUMO

: Blood pressure (BP) exhibits seasonal variation with lower levels at higher environmental temperatures and higher at lower temperatures. This is a global phenomenon affecting both sexes, all age groups, normotensive individuals, and hypertensive patients. In treated hypertensive patients it may result in excessive BP decline in summer, or rise in winter, possibly deserving treatment modification. This Consensus Statement by the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on BP Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability provides a review of the evidence on the seasonal BP variation regarding its epidemiology, pathophysiology, relevance, magnitude, and the findings using different measurement methods. Consensus recommendations are provided for health professionals on how to evaluate the seasonal BP changes in treated hypertensive patients and when treatment modification might be justified. (i) In treated hypertensive patients symptoms appearing with temperature rise and suggesting overtreatment must be investigated for possible excessive BP drop due to seasonal variation. On the other hand, a BP rise during cold weather, might be due to seasonal variation. (ii) The seasonal BP changes should be confirmed by repeated office measurements; preferably with home or ambulatory BP monitoring. Other reasons for BP change must be excluded. (iii) Similar issues might appear in people traveling from cold to hot places, or the reverse. (iv) BP levels below the recommended treatment goal should be considered for possible down-titration, particularly if there are symptoms suggesting overtreatment. SBP less than 110 mmHg requires consideration for treatment down-titration, even in asymptomatic patients. Further research is needed on the optimal management of the seasonal BP changes.

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