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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0070821, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378948

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a risk factor for the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although HIV-associated gut dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in sustained chronic inflammation, there remains a limited understanding of the association between gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Here, we investigated compositional changes in the gut microbiome and its role in chronic inflammation in patients infected with HIV. We observed that the gut microbiomes of patients with low CD4 counts had reduced alpha diversity compared to those in uninfected controls. Following CD4 recovery, alpha diversity was restored, but intergroup dissimilarity of bacterial composition remained unchanged between patients and uninfected controls. Patients with HIV had higher abundance of the classes Negativicutes, Bacilli, and Coriobacteriia, as well as depletion of the class Clostridia. These relative abundances positively correlated with inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with anti-inflammatory cytokines. We found that gut dysbiosis accompanying HIV infection was characterized by a depletion of obligate anaerobic Clostridia and enrichment of facultative anaerobic bacteria, reflecting increased intestinal oxygen levels and intestinal permeability. Furthermore, it is likely that HIV-associated dysbiosis shifts the immunological balance toward inflammatory Th1 responses and encourages proinflammatory cytokine production. Our results suggest that gut dysbiosis contributes to sustaining chronic inflammation in patients with HIV infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy and that correcting gut dysbiosis will be effective in improving long-term outcomes in patients. IMPORTANCE Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection and is associated with the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion, the role of HIV-associated imbalance of gut microbiome in chronic inflammation is unclear. Here, we aimed to understand the causal relationship between abnormalities in the gut microbiome and chronic inflammation in patients with HIV. Our results suggest HIV-associated gut dysbiosis presents a more aerobic environment than that of healthy individuals, despite prolonged viral suppression. This dysbiosis likely results from a sustained increase in intestinal permeability, which supports sustained bacterial translocation in HIV patients, despite effective therapy. Additionally, we observed that several bacterial taxa enriched in HIV patients were associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that gut dysbiosis plays an important role in chronic inflammation in HIV patients.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 646467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084754

RESUMO

HIV-1 infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy can control viremia but often develop non-AIDS diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Gut microbiome dysbiosis has been indicated to be associated with progression of these diseases. Analyses of gut/fecal microbiome in individual regions are important for our understanding of pathogenesis in HIV-1 infections. However, data on gut/fecal microbiome has not yet been accumulated in West Africa. In the present study, we examined fecal microbiome compositions in HIV-1 infected adults in Ghana, where approximately two-thirds of infected adults are females. In a cross-sectional case-control study, age- and gender-matched HIV-1 infected adults (HIV+; n = 55) and seronegative controls (HIV-; n = 55) were enrolled. Alpha diversity of fecal microbiome in HIV+ was significantly reduced compared to HIV- and associated with CD4 counts. HIV+ showed reduction in varieties of bacteria including Faecalibacterium, the most abundant in seronegative controls, but enrichment of Proteobacteria. Ghanaian HIV+ exhibited enrichment of Dorea and Blautia; bacteria groups whose depletion has been reported in HIV-1 infected individuals in several other cohorts. Furthermore, HIV+ in our cohort exhibited a depletion of Prevotella, a genus whose enrichment has recently been shown in men having sex with men (MSM) regardless of HIV-1 status. The present study revealed the characteristics of dysbiotic fecal microbiome in HIV-1 infected adults in Ghana, a representative of West African populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Microbiota , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Disbiose , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(1): 42-47, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611986

RESUMO

Recent studies have indicated an association between gut microbiome composition and various disorders, including infectious diseases. The composition of the microbiome differs among ethnicities and countries, possibly resulting in diversified interactions between host immunity and the gut microbiome. Characterization of baseline microbiome composition in healthy people is an essential step for better understanding of the biological interactions associated with individual populations. However, data on the gut/fecal microbiome have not been accumulated for individuals in West Africa. In the present study, we examined the fecal microbiome composition in healthy adults in Ghana. Toward this, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared using bacterial fractions derived from 55 Ghanaian adults, which were then subjected to next-generation sequencing. The fecal microbiome of the Ghanaian adults was dominated by Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014), Proteobacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella), and Bacteroidetes (Prevotella 9 and Bacteroides), consistent with previous observations in African cohorts. Further, our analysis revealed differences in microbiome composition and a lower diversity of the fecal microbiome in the Ghanaian cohort compared with those reported in non-African countries. This is the first study to describe substantial fecal microbiome data obtained using high-throughput metagenomic tools on samples derived from a cohort in Ghana. The data may provide a valuable basis for determining the association between the fecal microbiome and progression of various diseases in West African populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Adulto , Bacteroidetes/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Gana , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980705

RESUMO

Accurate monitoring of epidemics is a key strategy for the control of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. To delineate the characteristic of newly-diagnosed cases of HIV-1 infection, we assessed the proportion of recent HIV-1 infections using a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA). In 2015, 248 cases were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in Reginal Hospital Koforidua, Ghana. Of these, 234 cases (94.4%) were infected with HIV-1 only, four (1.6%) were infected with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) were co-infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. All the HIV-1 single seropositive samples were applied to HIV-1 LAg avidity assay for RITA. Our analysis revealed that 18 cases (7.7%) were determined as recent infections, indicating that early diagnosis has not been achieved in Ghana. This is the first report assessing the proportion of recent infections in Ghana using a biomarker approach. Accumulation of these data would contribute to accurate estimation of HIV-1 incidence and prevalence in Ghana.

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