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1.
Cancer Res ; 81(3): 535-536, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526468

RESUMO

The study by Zagorac and colleagues represents an important step forward in the field of breast cancer, explaining a novel molecular mechanism of transition from slowly multiplying tumor-initiating cells (TIC) into their more differentiated version characterized by high proliferation. The mechanism involves the transcription factors SOX2 and EZH2, which directly repress transcription of cell-cycle genes and activate self-renewal genes in breast cancer cells. This mechanism is further controlled by a negative feedback loop mediated by a long noncoding RNA, SCIRT, not described previously, which is upregulated in tumorspheres and inhibits SOX2 and EZH2. SCIRT is an atypical tumor suppressor in breast cancer, being upregulated in cancer cells, but counteracting their aggressive phenotype. At the molecular level, by direct interaction with EZH2, SCIRT inhibits the transcriptional activity of EZH2 and "blocks the shot" of cancer cells' self-renewal. From a translational perspective, activating SCIRT or induction of SCIRT mimetics in breast cancer cells may lead to the dedifferentiation of TICs toward a less protumorigenic phenotype and a therapy-fragile state that could open new therapeutic avenues.See related article by Zagorac et al., p. 580.

2.
JCI Insight ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539327

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are implicated in the crosstalk between adipocytes and other metabolic organs, and an altered biological cargo has been observed in EVs from human obese adipose tissue (AT). Yet, the role of adipocyte-derived EVs in pancreatic ß-cells remains to be determined. Here, we explored the effects of EVs, released from both rodent and human isolated adipocytes and human AT explants, on survival and function of pancreatic ß-cells and human pancreatic islets. EVs from healthy 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased survival and proliferation and promoted insulin secretion in INS-1E ß-cells and human pancreatic islets, both untreated or exposed to cytokines or glucolipotoxicity, while EVs from inflamed adipocytes caused ß-cell death and dysfunction. Human lean adipocyte-derived EVs produced similar beneficial effects, while EVs from obese AT explants were harmful for human EndoC-ßH3 ß-cells. We observed differential expression of microRNAs in EVs from healthy and inflamed adipocytes, as well as alteration in signaling pathways and expression of ß-cell genes, adipokines and CKs in recipient ß-cells. These in vitro results suggest that, depending on the physiopathological state of AT, adipocyte-derived EVs may influence ß-cell fate and function.

3.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319241

RESUMO

One of the principal mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in highly frequent solid tumors like colorectal cancer (CRC) is the decreased activity of drug transport into tumor cells due to low expression of important membrane proteins, such as solute carrier (SLC) transporters. Sequence complementarity is a major determinant for target gene recognition by microRNAs (miRNAs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in target sequences transcribed into messenger RNA may therefore alter miRNA binding to these regions by either creating a new site or destroying an existing one. miRSNPs may explain the modulation of expression levels in association with increased/decreased susceptibility to common diseases as well as in chemoresistance and the consequent interindividual variability in drug response. In the present study, we investigated whether miRSNPs in SLC transporter genes may modulate CRC susceptibility and patient's survival. Using an in silico approach for functional predictions, we analyzed twenty-six miRSNPs in nine SLC genes in a cohort of 1368 CRC cases and 698 controls from the Czech Republic. After correcting for multiple tests, we found several miRSNPs significantly associated with patient's survival. SNPs in SLCO3A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes were defined as prognostic factors in the classification and regression tree analysis. In contrast, we did not observe any significant association between miRSNPs and CRC risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating miRSNPs potentially affecting miRNA binding to SLC transporter genes and their impact on CRC susceptibility or patient's prognosis.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227890

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer worldwide and the second cause of cancer deaths. Increasing evidences supports the idea that the poor prognosis of patients is related to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population able to drive cancer recurrence and metastasis. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a role in the formation of CSC. We investigated the role of hsa-miR-486-5p (miR-486-5p) in CRC, CSCs, and metastasis, in order to reach a better understanding of the biomolecular and epigenetic mechanisms mir-486-5p-related. The expression of miR-486-5p was investigated in three different matrices from CRC patients and controls and in CSCs obtained from the CRC cell lines HCT-116, HT-29, and T-84. In the human study, miR-486-5p was up-regulated in serum and stool of CRC patients in comparison with healthy controls but down-regulated in tumor tissue when compared with normal mucosa. miR-486-5p was also down-regulated in the sera of metastatic patients. In vitro, miR-486-5p was down-regulated in CSC models and it induced an inhibitory effect on stem factors and oncogenes in the main pathways of CSCs. Our results provide a step forward in understanding the role of mir-486-5p in CRC and CSC, and suggest that further studies are needed to investigate its diagnostic and prognostic power, possibly in combination with other biomarkers.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142779

RESUMO

One of the limitations of cancer research has been the restricted focus on tumor cells and the omission of other non-malignant cells that are constitutive elements of this systemic disease. Current research is focused on the bidirectional communication between tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as immune and endothelial cells, and nerves. A major success of this bidirectional approach has been the development of immunotherapy. Recently, a more complex landscape involving a multi-lateral communication between the non-malignant components of the TME started to emerge. A prime example is the interplay between immune and endothelial cells, which led to the approval of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-therapy combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors and classical chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Hence, a paradigm shift approach is to characterize the crosstalk between different non-malignant components of the TME and understand their role in tumorigenesis. In this perspective, we discuss the interplay between nerves and immune cells within the TME. In particular, we focus on exosomes and microRNAs as a systemic, rapid and dynamic communication channel between tumor cells, nerves and immune cells contributing to cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how combinatorial therapies blocking this tumorigenic cross-talk could lead to improved outcomes for cancer patients.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2146-2162.e33, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a carcinogenesis event that promotes metastasis and resistance to therapy by unclear mechanisms. Expression of the colon cancer-associated transcript 2 gene (CCAT2), which encodes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), associates with CIN, but little is known about how CCAT2 lncRNA regulates this cancer enabling characteristic. METHODS: We performed cytogenetic analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (HCT116, KM12C/SM, and HT29) overexpressing CCAT2 and colon organoids from C57BL/6N mice with the CCAT2 transgene and without (controls). CRC cells were also analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, γ-H2AX, and senescence assays. CCAT2 transgene and control mice were given azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colon tumors. We performed gene expression array and mass spectrometry to detect downstream targets of CCAT2 lncRNA. We characterized interactions between CCAT2 with downstream proteins using MS2 pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation, and selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension analyses. Downstream proteins were overexpressed in CRC cells and analyzed for CIN. Gene expression levels were measured in CRC and non-tumor tissues from 5 cohorts, comprising more than 900 patients. RESULTS: High expression of CCAT2 induced CIN in CRC cell lines and increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. Mice that expressed the CCAT2 transgene developed chromosome abnormalities, and colon organoids derived from crypt cells of these mice had a higher percentage of chromosome abnormalities compared with organoids from control mice. The transgenic mice given azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium developed more and larger colon polyps than control mice given these agents. Microarray analysis and mass spectrometry indicated that expression of CCAT2 increased expression of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. CCAT2 lncRNA interacted directly with and stabilized BOP1 ribosomal biogenesis factor (BOP1). CCAT2 also increased expression of MYC, which activated expression of BOP1. Overexpression of BOP1 in CRC cell lines resulted in chromosomal missegregation errors, and increased colony formation, and invasiveness, whereas BOP1 knockdown reduced viability. BOP1 promoted CIN by increasing the active form of aurora kinase B, which regulates chromosomal segregation. BOP1 was overexpressed in polyp tissues from CCAT2 transgenic mice compared with healthy tissue. CCAT2 lncRNA and BOP1 mRNA or protein were all increased in microsatellite stable tumors (characterized by CIN), but not in tumors with microsatellite instability compared with nontumor tissues. Increased levels of CCAT2 lncRNA and BOP1 mRNA correlated with each other and with shorter survival times of patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that overexpression of CCAT2 in colon cells promotes CIN and carcinogenesis by stabilizing and inducing expression of BOP1 an activator of aurora kinase B. Strategies to target this pathway might be developed for treatment of patients with microsatellite stable colorectal tumors.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2026-2037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related epigenetic dysregulations are associated with several diseases, including cancer. The number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEM) has been suggested as a biomarker of life-course accumulation of exposure-related DNA damage; however, the predictive role of SEMs in cancer has seldom been investigated. METHODS: A SEM, at a given CpG site, was defined as an extreme outlier of DNA methylation value distribution across individuals. We investigated the association of the total number of SEMs with the risk of eight cancers in 4,497 case-control pairs nested in three prospective cohorts. Furthermore, we investigated whether SEMs were randomly distributed across the genome or enriched in functional genomic regions. RESULTS: In the three-study meta-analysis, the estimated ORs per one-unit increase in log(SEM) from logistic regression models adjusted for age and cancer risk factors were 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.41 for breast cancer, and 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42 for lung cancer. In the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, the OR for mature B-cell neoplasm was 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.71. Enrichment analyses indicated that SEMs frequently occur in silenced genomic regions and in transcription factor binding sites regulated by EZH2 and SUZ12 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005, respectively): two components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PCR2). Finally, we showed that PCR2-specific SEMs are generally more stable over time compared with SEMs occurring in the whole genome. CONCLUSIONS: The number of SEMs is associated with a higher risk of different cancers in prediagnostic blood samples. IMPACT: We identified a candidate biomarker for cancer early detection, and we described a carcinogenesis mechanism involving PCR2 complex proteins worthy of further investigations.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527011

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is the tenth most frequent cancer worldwide. Due to the need for recurrent cystoscopies and the lack of non-invasive biomarkers, BC is associated with a high management burden. In this respect, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been investigated in urine as possible biomarkers for BC, but in plasma their potential has not yet been defined. The expression levels of sncRNAs contained in plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) from 47 men with BC and 46 healthy controls were assessed by next-generation sequencing. The sncRNA profiles were compared with urinary profiles from the same subjects. miR-4508 resulted downregulated in plasma EVs of muscle-invasive BC patients, compared to controls (adj-p = 0.04). In World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 (G3) BC, miR-126-3p was upregulated both in plasma EVs and urine, when compared to controls (for both, adj-p < 0.05). Interestingly, two sncRNAs were associated with the risk class: miR-4508 with a downward trend going from controls to high risk BC, and piR-hsa-5936 with an upward trend (adj-p = 0.04 and adj-p = 0.05, respectively). Additionally, BC cases with low expression of miR-185-5p and miR-106a-5p or high expression of miR-10b-5p showed shorter survival (adj-p = 0.0013, adj-p = 0.039 and adj-p = 0.047, respectively). SncRNAs from plasma EVs could be diagnostic biomarkers for BC, especially in advanced grade.

10.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 273-281, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922572

RESUMO

The chemotherapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer (CRC) is limited due to the inter-individual variability in drug response and the development of tumour resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are crucial in the development of resistance by the efflux of anticancer agents from cancer cells. In this study, we identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 ABC transporter genes acting as an expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), i.e. whose variation influence the expression of many downstream genes. These SNPs were genotyped in a case-control study comprising 1098 cases and 1442 healthy controls and analysed in relation to CRC development risk and patient survival. Considering a strict correction for multiple tests, we did not observe any significant association between SNPs and CRC risk. The rs3819720 polymorphism in the ABCB3/TAP2 gene was statistically significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in the codominant, and dominant models [GA vs. GG, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; P = 0.002; AA vs. GG, HR = 1.70; P = 0.004 and GA + AA vs. GG, HR = 1.52; P = 0.0006]. Additionally, GA carriers of the same SNP displayed worse OS after receiving 5-FU based chemotherapy. The variant allele of rs3819720 polymorphism statistically significantly affected the expression of 36 downstream genes. Screening for eQTL polymorphisms in relevant genes such as ABC transporters that can regulate the expression of several other genes may help to identify the genetic background involved in the individual response to the treatment of CRC patients.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 243-260, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784760

RESUMO

The circulating human transcriptome, which includes both coding and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, represents a rich source of potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) that has only recently been explored. In particular, the release of RNA-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs), in a multitude of different in vitro cell systems and in a variety of body fluids, has attracted wide interest. The role of RNA species in EVs is still not fully understood, but their capacity to act as a form of distant communication between cells and their higher abundance in association with cancer demonstrated their relevance. In this review, we report the evidence from both in vitro and human studies on microRNAs (miRNAs) and other ncRNA profiles analysed in EVs in relation to CRC as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers. The studies so far highlighted that, in exosomes, the most studied category of EVs, several miRNAs are able to accurately discriminate CRC cases from controls as well as to describe the progression of the disease and its prognosis. Most of the time, the in vitro findings support the miRNA profiles detected in human exosomes. The expression profiles measured in exosomes and other EVs differ and, interestingly, there is a variability of expression also among different subsets of exosomes according to their proteic profile. On the other hand, evidence is still limited for what concerns exosome miRNAs as early diagnostic and predictive markers of treatment. Several other ncRNAs that are carried by exosomes, mostly long ncRNAs and circular RNAs, seem also to be dysregulated in CRC. Besides various technical challenges, such as the standardisation of EVs isolation methods and the optimisation of methodologies to characterise the whole spectrum of RNA molecules in exosomes, further studies are needed in order to elucidate their relevance as CRC markers.

14.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 318, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only few studies, with small patient cohorts, have evaluated the effect of radiotherapy (RT) for metaplastic breast cancer (MBC). Hence, it is important to investigate the role of RT in MBC survival using a large population-database. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) from 1973 to 2015 was performed. We compared MBC patients with or without RT for overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regressions before and after propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: From a total of 2267 patients diagnosed with MBC between 1998 and 2015, 1086 (47.9%) received RT. In the multivariate analysis before PSM, RT provided a better OS (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.88; p = 0.001) and BCSS (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58-0.88; p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses after PSM (n = 1066) confirmed that patients receiving RT (n = 506) survived longer than those without RT (OS, HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.51-0.80; p < 0.001 and BCSS, HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.50-0.83; p = 0.001). A longer OS was observed when RT was given to older patients (p = 0.001) and in case of large tumor size (p = 0.002). Intriguingly, patients with N0 stage showed better OS after RT (HR 0.69, P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the beneficial effect of RT for MBC patients. In particular, older patients or with large tumor size have a greater survival benefit from RT. In conclusion, we have assessed the importance of the use of RT in MBC as survival factor and this could lead to the development of guidelines for this rare sub-type of tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Pontuação de Propensão , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica
15.
mSystems ; 4(5)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530647

RESUMO

Dysbiotic configurations of the human gut microbiota have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Human small noncoding RNAs are also implicated in CRC, and recent findings suggest that their release in the gut lumen contributes to shape the gut microbiota. Bacterial small RNAs (bsRNAs) may also play a role in carcinogenesis, but their role has been less extensively explored. Here, we performed small RNA and shotgun sequencing on 80 stool specimens from patients with CRC or with adenomas and from healthy subjects collected in a cross-sectional study to evaluate their combined use as a predictive tool for disease detection. We observed considerable overlap and a correlation between metagenomic and bsRNA quantitative taxonomic profiles obtained from the two approaches. We identified a combined predictive signature composed of 32 features from human and microbial small RNAs and DNA-based microbiome able to accurately classify CRC samples separately from healthy and adenoma samples (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87). In the present study, we report evidence that host-microbiome dysbiosis in CRC can also be observed by examination of altered small RNA stool profiles. Integrated analyses of the microbiome and small RNAs in the human stool may provide insights for designing more-accurate tools for diagnostic purposes.IMPORTANCE The characteristics of microbial small RNA transcription are largely unknown, while it is of primary importance for a better identification of molecules with functional activities in the gut niche under both healthy and disease conditions. By performing combined analyses of metagenomic and small RNA sequencing (sRNA-Seq) data, we characterized both the human and microbial small RNA contents of stool samples from healthy individuals and from patients with colorectal carcinoma or adenoma. With the integrative analyses of metagenomic and sRNA-Seq data, we identified a human and microbial small RNA signature which can be used to improve diagnosis of the disease. Our analysis of human and gut microbiome small RNA expression is relevant to generation of the first hypotheses about the potential molecular interactions occurring in the gut of CRC patients, and it can be the basis for further mechanistic studies and clinical tests.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416190

RESUMO

The last two decades of cancer research have been devoted in two directions: (1) understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis for an effective treatment, and (2) improving cancer prevention and screening for early detection of the disease. This last aspect has been developed, especially for certain types of cancers, thanks also to the introduction of new concepts such as liquid biopsies and precision medicine. In this context, there is a growing interest in the application of alternative and noninvasive methodologies to search for cancer biomarkers. The new frontiers of the research lead to a search for RNA molecules circulating in body fluids. Searching for biomarkers in extracellular body fluids represents a better option for patients because they are easier to access, less painful, and potentially more economical. Moreover, the possibility for these types of samples to be taken repeatedly, allows a better monitoring of the disease progression or treatment efficacy for a better intervention and dynamic treatment of the patient, which is the fundamental basis of personalized medicine. RNA molecules, freely circulating in body fluids or packed in microvesicles, have all the characteristics of the ideal biomarkers owing to their high stability under storage and handling conditions and being able to be sampled several times for monitoring. Moreover, as demonstrated for many cancers, their plasma/serum levels mirror those in the primary tumor. There are a large variety of RNA species noncoding for proteins that could be used as cancer biomarkers in liquid biopsies. Among them, the most studied are microRNAs, but recently the attention of the researcher has been also directed towards Piwi-interacting RNAs, circular RNAs, and other small noncoding RNAs. Another class of RNA species, the long noncoding RNAs, is larger than microRNAs and represents a very versatile and promising group of molecules which, apart from their use as biomarkers, have also a possible therapeutic role. In this review, we will give an overview of the most common noncoding RNA species detectable in extracellular fluids and will provide an update concerning the situation of the research on these molecules as cancer biomarkers.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091244

RESUMO

Mucins and their glycosylation have been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined potentially functional genetic variants in the mucin genes or genes involved in their glycosylation with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. We genotyped 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 123 SNPs through pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.80) in the MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and B3GNT6 genes in a hospital-based case-control study of 1532 CRC cases and 1108 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 672 patients. Among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, two MUC4 SNPs, rs3107764 and rs842225, showed association with overall survival (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.08-1.82, additive model, log-rank p = 0.004 and HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.42-0.99, recessive model, log-rank p = 0.01, respectively) and event-free survival (HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.03-1.68, log-rank p = 0.004 and HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.42-0.96, log-rank p = 0.006, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex and TNM stage. Our data suggest that genetic variation especially in the transmembrane mucin gene MUC4 may play a role in the survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mucina-4/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , República Tcheca , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-4/metabolismo , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 667-678, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936548

RESUMO

Several studies have investigated links between the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer (CRC), but questions remain about the replicability of biomarkers across cohorts and populations. We performed a meta-analysis of five publicly available datasets and two new cohorts and validated the findings on two additional cohorts, considering in total 969 fecal metagenomes. Unlike microbiome shifts associated with gastrointestinal syndromes, the gut microbiome in CRC showed reproducibly higher richness than controls (P < 0.01), partially due to expansions of species typically derived from the oral cavity. Meta-analysis of the microbiome functional potential identified gluconeogenesis and the putrefaction and fermentation pathways as being associated with CRC, whereas the stachyose and starch degradation pathways were associated with controls. Predictive microbiome signatures for CRC trained on multiple datasets showed consistently high accuracy in datasets not considered for model training and independent validation cohorts (average area under the curve, 0.84). Pooled analysis of raw metagenomes showed that the choline trimethylamine-lyase gene was overabundant in CRC (P = 0.001), identifying a relationship between microbiome choline metabolism and CRC. The combined analysis of heterogeneous CRC cohorts thus identified reproducible microbiome biomarkers and accurate disease-predictive models that can form the basis for clinical prognostic tests and hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Colina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884898

RESUMO

Hormones are messengers circulating in the body that interact with specific receptors on the cell membrane or inside the cells and regulate, at a distal site, the activities of specific target organs. The definition of hormone has evolved in the last years. Hormones are considered in the context of cell⁻cell communication and mechanisms of cellular signaling. The best-known mechanisms of this kind are chemical receptor-mediated events, the cell⁻cell direct interactions through synapses, and, more recently, the extracellular vesicle (EV) transfer between cells. Recently, it has been extensively demonstrated that EVs are used as a way of communication between cells and that they are transporters of specific messenger signals including non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Circulating ncRNAs in body fluids and extracellular fluid compartments may have endocrine hormone-like effects because they can act at a distance from secreting cells with widespread consequences within the recipient cells. Here, we discuss and report examples of the potential role of miRNAs and lncRNAs as mediator for intercellular communication with a hormone-like mechanism in cancer.

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