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1.
Genomics ; 110(6): 390-398, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678683

RESUMO

European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) production has suffered a severe decline due to bonamiosis. The responsible parasite enters in oyster haemocytes, causing an acute inflammatory response frequently leading to death. We used an immune-enriched oligo-microarray to understand the haemocyte response to Bonamia ostreae by comparing expression profiles between naïve (NS) and long-term affected (AS) populations along a time series (1 d, 30 d, 90 d). AS showed a much higher response just after challenge, which might be indicative of selection for resistance. No regulated genes were detected at 30 d in both populations while a notable reactivation was observed at 90 d, suggesting parasite latency during infection. Genes related to extracellular matrix and protease inhibitors, up-regulated in AS, and those related to histones, down-regulated in NS, might play an important role along the infection. Twenty-four candidate genes related to resistance should be further validated for selection programs aimed to control bonamiosis.

2.
Mar Genomics ; 39: 64-72, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496460

RESUMO

The development of Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) technologies enables cost-effective analysis of large numbers of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), especially in "non-model" species. Nevertheless, as such technologies enter a mature phase, biases and errors inherent to GBS are becoming evident. Here, we evaluated the performance of double digest Restriction enzyme Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing in SNP genotyping studies including high number of samples. Datasets of sequence data were generated from three marine teleost species (>5500 samples, >2.5 × 1012 bases in total), using a standardized protocol. A common bioinformatics pipeline based on STACKS was established, with and without the use of a reference genome. We performed analyses throughout the production and analysis of ddRAD data in order to explore (i) the loss of information due to heterogeneous raw read number across samples; (ii) the discrepancy between expected and observed tag length and coverage; (iii) the performances of reference based vs. de novo approaches; (iv) the sources of potential genotyping errors of the library preparation/bioinformatics protocol, by comparing technical replicates. Our results showed use of a reference genome and a posteriori genotype correction improved genotyping precision. Individual read coverage was a key variable for reproducibility; variance in sequencing depth between loci in the same individual was also identified as an important factor and found to correlate to tag length. A comparison of downstream analysis carried out with ddRAD vs single SNP allele specific assay genotypes provided information about the levels of genotyping imprecision that can have a significant impact on allele frequency estimations and population assignment. The results and insights presented here will help to select and improve approaches to the analysis of large datasets based on RAD-like methodologies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Bass/genética , Linguados/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dourada/genética
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 45(1): 43-51, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25652290

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds were orally administered to the native European oyster Ostrea edulis to evaluate the immune response and the progression of infection of the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae. The immunostimulants lipopolysaccharide and zymosan directly administrated to the water column induced an increase in lysozyme activity and the percentage of granulocytes in naïve oysters over a period of 7 days. In another set of experiments, zymosan and curdlan were microencapsulated in alginate and also administered to the water column to naïve and B. ostreae infected O. edulis. Oyster mortality, prevalence and intensity of infection and several immune parameters were evaluated up to 28 days post-administration. Lysozyme activity, nitric oxide production and the expression of galectin, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase increased after 24 h in both infected and uninfected oysters. Zymosan immunostimulated oysters displayed a decrease in the prevalence of B. ostreae infection not attributed to mortalities but which could be associated to the enhanced ability of immunostimulants to evoke an enhanced immune response in the oysters and reduce infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Haplosporídios/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Ostrea/imunologia , Ostrea/parasitologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Zimosan/administração & dosagem , Zimosan/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
4.
Anim Genet ; 44(2): 149-57, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22690723

RESUMO

Disease resistance-related traits have received increasing importance in aquaculture breeding programs worldwide. Currently, genomic information offers new possibilities in breeding to address the improvement of this kind of traits. The turbot is one of the most promising European aquaculture species, and Philasterides dicentrarchi is a scuticociliate parasite causing fatal disease in farmed turbot. An appealing approach to fight against disease is to achieve a more robust broodstock, which could prevent or diminish the devastating effects of scuticociliatosis on farmed individuals. In the present study, a genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting resistance and survival time to P. dicentrarchi in four turbot families was carried out. The objectives were to identify QTL using different statistical approaches [linear regression (LR) and maximum likelihood (ML)] and to locate significantly associated markers for their application in genetic breeding strategies. Several genomic regions controlling resistance and survival time to P. dicentrarchi were detected. When analyzing each family separately, significant QTL for resistance were identified by the LR method in two linkage groups (LG1 and LG9) and for survival time in LG1, while the ML methodology identified QTL for resistance in LG9 and LG23 and for survival time in LG6 and LG23. The analysis of the total data set identified an additional significant QTL for resistance and survival time in LG3 with the LR method. Significant association between disease resistance-related traits and genotypes was detected for several markers, a single one explaining up to 22% of the phenotypic variance. Obtained results will be essential to identify candidate genes for resistance and to apply them in marker-assisted selection programs to improve turbot production.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguados , Oligoimenóforos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Infecções por Cilióforos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genômica/métodos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Lineares , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 12(4): 706-16, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22385869

RESUMO

In this study, we identified and characterized 160 microsatellite loci from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from immune-related organs of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). A final set of 83 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after the analysis of 40 individuals of Atlantic origin including both wild and farmed individuals. The allele number and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 18 and from 0.021 to 0.951, respectively. Evidences of null alleles at moderate-high frequencies were detected at six loci using population data. None of the analysed loci showed deviations from Mendelian segregation after the analysis of five full-sib families including approximately 92 individuals/family. The markers are used to consolidate the turbot genetic map, and because they are mostly EST-derived, they will be very useful for comparative genomic studies within flatfishes and with model fish species. Using an in silico approach, we detected significant homologies of microsatellite sequences with the EST databases of the flatfish species with highest genomic resources (Senegalese sole, Atlantic halibut, bastard halibut) in 31% of these turbot markers. The conservation of these microsatellites within Pleuronectiformes will pave the way for anchoring genetic maps of different species and identifying genomic regions related to productive traits.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Linguados/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 104(3-4): 168-76, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21627958

RESUMO

Fluorosurfactants are the key components in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). They provide these fire fighting agents with the required low surface tension and they enable film formation on top of lighter fuels to prevent burn back. Development of effective and environmentally acceptable PFOS alternatives is one of the most important priorities in the fire fighting foam industry. DuPont™ offers the fluorosurfactant mixtures Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N for the formulation of AFFFs which are alternatives to the persistent and toxic perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS). Ecotoxicological testing of these inadequately documented mixtures is necessary to include them in AFFF hazard and risk assessment. Juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 14 days to 0.1; 0.5 and 1.5mg/L of the fluorosurfactant mixtures used in Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N. In an initial transcriptomics experiment, microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of genes which were mainly involved in digestion and in the immune system. This discovery-driven screening approach offered the basis for new hypotheses that were tested in two subsequent experiments in which food intake, energy reserves, growth and a set of haematological parameters were examined. Additionally, effects of the two mixtures were compared to those of PFOS. Based on the results of this study, the mode of action of Forafac(®)1157N was the activation of the acute phase reaction resulting in increased leukocyte concentrations and the inhibition of growth due to the high energetic cost of toxicant exposure. For Forafac(®)1157, evidences of immunosuppression were found on the transcriptional level and the altered differential leukocyte profiles indicated that stress was induced in these fish. However, food intake, energy reserves and growth were not compromised, even at high exposure concentrations, which was in contrast to the effects seen after PFOS exposure. Taking into account that Forafac(®)1157 appeared to be less toxic than PFOS, this mixture could be considered as a more environmentally acceptable PFOS alternative for the use in AFFFs.


Assuntos
Linguados/fisiologia , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Química Verde , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Genetica ; 136(3): 419-27, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19112557

RESUMO

The analysis of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) using silver (Ag-) staining and in situ hybridization (ISH) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from various river basins in the Iberian Peninsula revealed high variation in the number and location of NORs. A total of 17 different Ag-NOR sites were revealed in 10 different chromosome pairs. Three different Ag-NOR patterns clustered by river basins and strongly associated to the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation were detected. The main variability in NOR-sites was found in a secondary contact between two divergent lineages of brown trouts at Duero basin. Our results confirmed the abrupt break in the spatial distribution of genetic variation of brown trout populations previously reported at Duero basin. We hypothesize that NOR-site variation might be a consequence of hybridization between divergent lineages of brown trouts and that NORs could play a major role in the maintenance of a hybrid zone in Duero basin via post-zygotic isolation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/metabolismo , Salmonidae/genética , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Europa (Continente) , Hibridização In Situ , Coloração pela Prata
8.
Anim Genet ; 39(6): 666-70, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18786152

RESUMO

The detection of microsatellite sequences within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) connects potential markers with specific genes, generating type I markers. We have developed and mapped by linkage analysis a set of EST-derived microsatellites in the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. One hundred and ninety-one microsatellites were identified from 9256 turbot ESTs. Primer design was possible with 98 microsatellites. After genotyping 25 wild turbot and the parents of two reference families for linkage analysis, 43 EST-derived microsatellites were selected because they met technical and polymorphism criteria. A final set of 31 EST-derived microsatellites could be mapped to 17 linkage groups of the turbot consensus map based on 242 anonymous microsatellites. Twenty-four microsatellite-containing ESTs were functionally annotated, confirming them as type I markers. Nineteen were mapped in the turbot consensus map. These EST-derived microsatellites constitute useful tools for genome scanning of turbot populations, marker-assisted selection programmes and comparative mapping.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Linguados/genética , Genômica , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Ligação Genética
9.
Genome ; 50(3): 329-32, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17502907

RESUMO

The turbot is a flatfish species of great relevance to marine aquaculture in Europe. Only a limited number of microsatellites have been isolated to date in this species. To increase the number of potentially useful mapping markers, we screened simple sequence repeat (SSR)--enriched genomic libraries obtained from several di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide tandem repeat motifs. A total of 248 new polymorphic microsatellites were successfully optimized. The efficiency of the protocol applied (6.4%) was higher than that in other studies of fish that used the same method. Dinucleotide and perfect microsatellites were predominant in this species; the (AC)n motif was the most frequent class of repeat. Polymorphism and structural properties at these loci, together with 30 variable loci previously reported in turbot, were evaluated in 6 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10, with an average of 4.046. The microsatellite markers characterized in this study will contribute to the development of the turbot genetic map, which can be used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification, marker-assisted selection programs, and other applications to improve its culture.


Assuntos
Linguados/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Repetições de Dinucleotídeos , Europa (Continente) , Biblioteca Genômica , Polimorfismo Genético , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Software
10.
Genetica ; 119(2): 183-6, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14620957

RESUMO

In the present study the chromosome distribution of the 5S rDNA loci and its relation to the major rDNA genes were investigated in three Coregonid species (Salmonidae): Coregonus lavaretus, Coregonus peled and Coregonus albula, a family which has experienced large karyotype rearrangements along its evolution starting from a tetraploid ancestor. 5S PRINS/CMA3 sequential staining together with previous data enabled us to locate 5S rRNA genes and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in the three species analyzed. PRINS revealed the 5S rDNA cluster at the distal part of the long arm of a similar submetacentric chromosome pair in the three species. Our data indicate that 5S rDNA clusters have probably conserved chromosomal location in the genus Coregonus, whereas 45S rDNA (NOR) sites are clearly differentiated, from a single locus in C. peled, to multiple loci in C. lavaretus and highly polymorphic multichromosomal location in C. albula.


Assuntos
RNA Ribossômico 5S , Salmonidae/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Cariotipagem , Família Multigênica
11.
Genetica ; 119(2): 219-24, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14620961

RESUMO

The chromosomal characteristics, locations and variations of two classes of ribosomal DNA (5S and 18S) were studied in European grayling karyotype (Thymallus thymallus, Salmonidae). Major rDNA sites as revealed by sequential CMA3/Ag staining and confirmed by in situ hybridization with a 18S rDNA probe were situated in two loci and were found to be polymorphic in size and displaying several distinct forms. The 5S rDNA was located by PRINS on three pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes, additional minor signal was present at the centromere of one metacentric element. 5S sites were not associated with NORs. The dosage compensation mechanism was proposed as an explanation of high frequency of lethal rDNA-deleted forms of the NOR-bearing chromosomes. Double variable pattern in the number and location of NORs supported the bi-directional evolution of salmonid rDNA loci.


Assuntos
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Salmonidae/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Cariotipagem , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Salmonidae/classificação , Coloração pela Prata
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 19(12): 2161-75, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12446808

RESUMO

Variation in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA was examined throughout the range of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) to analyze the usefulness of this molecular marker for phylogeographic analysis. The results were compared with those previously obtained with mtDNA, a region exhaustively analyzed along the brown trout distribution. ITS2 was essentially conserved at all populations sampled, no informative characters being detected across the main lineages described in this species. Conversely, ITS1 showed a greater homogenization than other genetic markers at a microgeographic scale, with variation partitioning into several major phylogenetic groups. Phylogeographic patterns were partially congruent between both ITS1 and mtDNA. The main discrepancies were the detection of intra-individual variation and putative recombinant ITS1 sequences in hybridization areas between genetically different, yet historically overlapping, assemblages. Also, the existence of an ancient ITS1 sequence in the Mediterranean-southeastern area (rMEDA), not revealed by mtDNA analysis, was evidenced after rDNA ITS1 analysis.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Filogenia , Truta/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Truta/classificação
13.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 86(Pt 5): 531-6, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11554969

RESUMO

In this paper we present the analysis of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in five species of the order Pleuronectiformes (Scophthalmus maximus, Scophthalmus rhombus, Platichthys flesus, Solea solea and Solea lascaris), a group of fish poorly studied cytogenetically. In spite of the small chromosome sizes, which characterize the karyotypes of this group, we implement both classical (Ag- and CMA3-staining) and molecular (in situ hybridization with a major rDNA probe) techniques for NOR location. NORs were localized in a single chromosome pair in all species studied and showed size variation within each species. Evidence of a NOR-site polymorphism was detected in Platichthys flesus and Scophthalmus maximus. NOR location was apparently the same within families (S. rhombus vs. S maximus, and S. solea vs. S. lascaris) but clearly differed among families, and supports the phylogenetic relationships proposed for the order Pleuronectiformes.


Assuntos
Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Linguados/genética , Hibridização In Situ , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Animais , Corantes/metabolismo , Genes de RNAr/genética , Cariotipagem , Metáfase , Coloração pela Prata
14.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 86(Pt 3): 291-302, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11488966

RESUMO

A population analysis of an unusual NOR-site polymorphism previously detected in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from North-western Spain was carried out in 225 individuals from 20 native populations from this area. The analysis performed has permitted us to reveal: (i) the ubiquity of this phenomenon in most river basins from NW Spain, 13 extra-NORs not observed in standard trout being detected; (ii) the rDNA constitution of all extra-NORs, as confirmed by CMA3-staining and rDNA-FISH, and their capability to constitute their own nucleolus; (iii) the constant location of extra-NORs within individuals and their stable transmission across generations; and (iv) the telomeric location of Ag-NORs, which were randomly distributed in the karyotype of S. trutta, mostly in the heterozygous condition. Repetitive sequences in the IGS or scattered along rDNA units, rather than chromosome rearrangements, could play an important role in the dispersion of NORs. The polymorphism described seems to have a single geographical origin, since a positive correlation was demonstrated between the degree of polymorphism and geographical distance to a central point of the river basin where the phenomenon showed a higher intensity. The distribution of NOR-site variation as compared with allozyme variation in the populations studied, showed significant statistical differences. Selection against high copy number, or mutation due to changes in NOR location, could be acting on this polymorphism to explain the observed distribution. The high dispersion of NOR-site variants within and among populations suggests the transposition phenomenon responsible for NOR jumping could be still active.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Truta/genética , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Geografia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Isoenzimas/genética , Espanha , Truta/classificação
15.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 87(Pt 6): 672-9, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11903562

RESUMO

Major rDNA loci, i.e. nucleolus-organizing regions (NORs), were assigned using chromomycin-A3 (CMA3) staining followed by sequential silver (Ag) staining and in situ hybridization (ISH) with a rDNA probe to the chromosomes of the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), the peled (Coregonus peled) and the vendace (Coregonus albula), three closely related coregonine salmonid fishes. One pair of NOR-bearing chromosomes was found in the peled karyotype. Multichromosomal, but stable, locations of rDNA sites on three pairs of chromosomes were observed in the European whitefish karyotype. Multichromosomal polymorphic locations, both in site and number, were observed in the karyotype of the vendace. Several Ag-, CMA3- and ISH-positive regions were found which defined up to seven cytotypes of five NOR-bearing chromosomes. All positive Ag-NORs detected corresponded both to rDNA-ISH- and CMA3-positive signals, which suggests extensive structural polymorphism in the locations of rDNA sites. Stable NOR sites were found at the same location on both homologous elements of the chromosome no. 9 in all individuals, while the remaining NORs were quite variable between individuals, and often present in heterozygous condition. The apparently similar and parallel evolutionary rDNA differentiation patterns in the subfamilies Coregoninae and Salmoninae (family Salmonidae) are observed and discussed.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Salmonidae/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/fisiologia , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/fisiologia , Coloração pela Prata
18.
Genetica ; 108(2): 113-8, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11138938

RESUMO

An analysis of the variation in the number and location of rDNA genes has been carried out in two populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Poland by using Ag and CMA3-staining, and rDNA in situ hybridisation. We observed an interindividual variation in arm number with NF = 100, 101, and 102. This variation was connected with the size polymorphism of the short (NOR-bearing) arm of the chromosome pair 11. The population studied showed a multichromosomal distribution of active NORs. Atypical Ag-NORs consisted of rDNA genes, as evidenced by rDNA-ISH. In addition to individuals with standard NORs, specimens with extra NORs as well as others with only one active NOR and single interphase nucleolus were observed.


Assuntos
Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Truta/genética , Animais , Cromomicina A3 , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Polônia , Prata , Coloração e Rotulagem
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