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1.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643728

RESUMO

Increasing night-time temperatures are a major threat to sustaining global rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. A simultaneous increase in [CO2] will lead to an inevitable interaction between elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) and high night temperature (HNT) under current and future climates. Here, we conducted field experiments to identify [CO2] responsiveness from a diverse indica panel comprising 194 genotypes under different planting geometries in 2016. Twenty-three different genotypes were tested under different planting geometries and e[CO2] using a Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility in 2017. The most promising genotypes and positive and negative controls were tested under HNT and e[CO2]+HNT in 2018. [CO2] responsiveness, measured as a composite response index on different yield components, grain yield, and photosynthesis, revealed a strong relationship (R2=0.71) between low planting density and e[CO2]. The most promising genotypes revealed significantly lower (P < 0.001) impact of HNT in high [CO2] responsive genotypes compared to the least [CO2] responsive genotype. [CO2] responsiveness was the major driver determining grain yield and related components in high [CO2] responsive genotypes with a negligible yield loss under HNT. A systematic investigation highlighted that active selection and breeding for [CO2] responsiveness can lead to maintained carbon balance and compensate for HNT-induced yield losses in rice and potentially other C3 crops under current and future warmer climates.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575989

RESUMO

Sorghum is one of the staple crops for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA). The future climate in these sorghum production regions is likely to have unexpected short or long episodes of drought and/or high temperature (HT), which can cause significant yield losses. Therefore, to achieve food and nutritional security, drought and HT stress tolerance ability in sorghum must be genetically improved. Drought tolerance mechanism, stay green, and grain yield under stress has been widely studied. However, novel traits associated with drought (restricted transpiration and root architecture) need to be explored and utilized in breeding. In sorghum, knowledge on the traits associated with HT tolerance is limited. Heat shock transcription factors, dehydrins, and genes associated with hormones such as auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid and compatible solutes are involved in drought stress modulation. In contrast, our understanding of HT tolerance at the omic level is limited and needs attention. Breeding programs have exploited limited traits with narrow genetic and genomic resources to develop drought or heat tolerant lines. Reproductive stages of sorghum are relatively more sensitive to stress compared to vegetative stages. Therefore, breeding should incorporate appropriate pre-flowering and post-flowering tolerance in a broad genetic base population and in heterotic hybrid breeding pipelines. Currently, more than 240 QTLs are reported for drought tolerance-associated traits in sorghum prospecting discovery of trait markers. Identifying traits and better understanding of physiological and genetic mechanisms and quantification of genetic variability for these traits may enhance HT tolerance. Drought and HT tolerance can be improved by better understanding mechanisms associated with tolerance and screening large germplasm collections to identify tolerant lines and incorporation of those traits into elite breeding lines. Systems approaches help in identifying the best donors of tolerance to be incorporated in the SSA and SA sorghum breeding programs. Integrated breeding with use of high-throughput precision phenomics and genomics can deliver a range of drought and HT tolerant genotypes that can improve yield and resilience of sorghum under drought and HT stresses.

3.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435423

RESUMO

Plant growth promotion by microbes is a cumulative phenomenon involving multiple traits, many of which are not explored yet. Hence, to unravel microbial mechanisms underlying growth promotion, we have analysed the genomes of two potential growth-promoting microbes, viz., Pseudomonas sp. CK-NBRI-02 (P2) and Bacillus marisflavi CK-NBRI-03 (P3) for the presence of plant-beneficial traits. Besides known traits, we found that microbes differ in their ability to metabolize methylglyoxal (MG), a ubiquitous cytotoxin regarded as general consequence of stress in plants. P2 exhibited greater tolerance to MG and possessed better ability to sustain plant growth under dicarbonyl stress. However, under salinity, only P3 showed a dose-dependent induction in MG detoxification activity in accordance with concomitant increase in MG levels, contributing to enhanced salt tolerance. Furthermore, salt-stressed transcriptomes of both the strains showed differences with respect to MG, ion and osmolyte homeostasis, with P3 being more responsive to stress. Importantly, application of either strain altered MG levels and subsequently MG detoxification machinery in Arabidopsis, probably to strengthen plant defence response and growth. We therefore, suggest a crucial role of microbial MG resistance in plant growth promotion and that it should be considered as a beneficial trait while screening microbes for stress mitigation in plants.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204152

RESUMO

In nature, plants are exposed to an ever-changing environment with increasing frequencies of multiple abiotic stresses. These abiotic stresses act either in combination or sequentially, thereby driving vegetation dynamics and limiting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants' responses against these combined and sequential stresses clearly differ from that triggered by an individual stress. Until now, experimental studies were mainly focused on plant responses to individual stress, but have overlooked the complex stress response generated in plants against combined or sequential abiotic stresses, as well as their interaction with each other. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the combined and sequential abiotic stresses overlap with respect to the central nodes of their interacting signaling pathways, and their impact cannot be modelled by swimming in an individual extreme event. Taken together, deciphering the regulatory networks operative between various abiotic stresses in agronomically important crops will contribute towards designing strategies for the development of plants with tolerance to multiple stress combinations. This review provides a brief overview of the recent developments in the interactive effects of combined and sequentially occurring stresses on crop plants. We believe that this study may improve our understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms in untangling the combined stress tolerance in plants, and may also provide a promising venue for agronomists, physiologists, as well as molecular biologists.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 593-604, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186283

RESUMO

In rice (Oryza sativa), Si nutrition is known to improve salinity tolerance; however, limited efforts have been made to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Salt-Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway contributes to salinity tolerance in plants in a major way which works primarily through Na+ exclusion from the cytosol. SOS1, a vital component of SOS pathway is a Na+/H+ antiporter that maintains ion homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of overexpression of Oryza sativa SOS1 (OsSOS1) in tobacco (cv. Petit Havana) and rice (cv. IR64) for modulating its response towards salinity further exploring its correlation with Si nutrition. OsSOS1 transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced tolerance to salinity as evident by its high chlorophyll content and maintaining favorable ion homeostasis under salinity stress. Similarly, transgenic rice overexpressing OsSOS1 also showed improved salinity stress tolerance as shown by higher seed germination percentage, seedling survival and low Na+ accumulation under salinity stress. At their mature stage, compared with the non-transgenic plants, the transgenic rice plants showed better growth and maintained better photosynthetic efficiency with reduced chlorophyll loss under stress. Also, roots of transgenic rice plants showed reduced accumulation of Na+ leading to reduced oxidative damage and cell death under salinity stress which ultimately resulted in improved agronomic traits such as higher number of panicles and fertile spikelets per panicle. Si nutrition was found to improve the growth of salinity stressed OsSOS1 rice by upregulating the expression of Si transporters (Lsi1 and Lsi2) that leads to more uptake and accumulation of Si in the rice shoots. Metabolite profiling showed better stress regulatory machinery in the transgenic rice, since they maintained higher abundance of most of the osmolytes and free amino acids.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Silício/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109469

RESUMO

Plants are exposed to various environmental challenges that can hamper their growth, development, and productivity. Being sedentary, plants cannot escape from these unfavorable environmental conditions and have evolved various signaling cascades to endure them. The two-component signaling (TCS) system is one such essential signaling circuitry present in plants regulating responses against multiple abiotic and biotic stresses. It is among the most ancient and evolutionary conserved signaling pathways in plants, which include membrane-bound histidine kinases (HKs), cytoplasmic histidine phosphotransfer proteins (Hpts), and nuclear or cytoplasmic response regulators (RRs). At the same time, TCS also involved in many signaling circuitries operative in plants in response to diverse hormones. These plant growth hormones play a significant role in diverse physiological and developmental processes, and their contribution to plant stress responses is coming up in a big way. Therefore, it is intriguing to know how TCS and various plant growth regulators, along with the key transcription factors, directly or indirectly control the responses of plants towards diverse stresses. The present review attempts to explore this relationship, hoping that this knowledge will contribute towards developing crop plants with enhanced climate resilience.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068347

RESUMO

To ensure global food security under the changing climate, there is a strong need for developing 'climate resilient crops' that can thrive and produce better yields under extreme environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, and high temperature. To enhance plant productivity under the adverse conditions, we constitutively overexpressed a bifunctional wax synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WSD1) gene, which plays a critical role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis stem and leaf tissues. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a strong upregulation of WSD1 transcripts by mannitol, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, particularly in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. Gas chromatography and electron microscopy analyses of Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing WSD1 showed higher deposition of epicuticular wax crystals and increased leaf and stem wax loading in WSD1 transgenics compared to wildtype (WT) plants. WSD1 transgenics exhibited enhanced tolerance to ABA, mannitol, drought and salinity, which suggested new physiological roles for WSD1 in stress response aside from its wax synthase activity. Transgenic plants were able to recover from drought and salinity better than the WT plants. Furthermore, transgenics showed reduced cuticular transpirational rates and cuticle permeability, as well as less chlorophyll leaching than the WT. The knowledge from Arabidopsis was translated to the oilseed crop Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. Similar to Arabidopsis, transgenic Camelina lines overexpressing WSD1 also showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Our results clearly show that the manipulation of cuticular waxes will be advantageous for enhancing plant productivity under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ceras/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Ésteres/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ceras/química
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 15-25, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799014

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is a beneficial macronutrient for plants. The Si supplementation to growth media mitigates abiotic and biotic stresses by regulating several physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms. The uptake of Si from the soil by root cells and subsequent transport are facilitated by Lsi1 (Low silicon1) belonging to nodulin 26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of aquaporin protein family, and Lsi2 (Low silicon 2) belonging to putative anion transporters, respectively. The soluble Si in the cytosol enhances the production of jasmonic acid, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, secondary metabolites and induces expression of genes in plants under stress conditions. Silicon has been found beneficial in conferring tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses by scavenging the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of different metabolic pathways. In the present review, Si transporters identified in various plant species and mechanisms of Si-mediated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance have been presented. In addition, role of Si in regulating gene expression under various abiotic and biotic stresses as revealed by transcriptome level studies has been discussed. This provides a deeper understanding of various mechanisms of Si-mediated stress tolerance in plants and may help in devising strategies for stress resilient agriculture.


Assuntos
Plantas , Silício , Agricultura , Transporte Biológico , Silício/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(6): 575-587, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893048

RESUMO

Ensuring the sustainability of agriculture under climate change has led to a surge in alternative strategies for crop improvement. Advances in integrated crop breeding, social acceptance, and farm-level adoption are crucial to address future challenges to food security. Societal acceptance can be slow when consumers do not see the need for innovation or immediate benefits. We consider how best to address the issue of social licence and harmonised governance for novel gene technologies in plant breeding. In addition, we highlight optimised breeding strategies that will enable long-term genetic gains to be achieved. Promoted by harmonised global policy change, innovative plant breeding can realise high and sustainable productivity together with enhanced nutritional traits.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Melhoramento Vegetal , Mudança Climática , Plantas , Tecnologia
10.
Physiol Plant ; 171(4): 653-676, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949408

RESUMO

The plasma membrane (PM) is possibly the most diverse biological membrane of plant cells; it separates and guards the cell against its external environment. It has an extremely complex structure comprising a mosaic of lipids and proteins. The PM lipids are responsible for maintaining fluidity, permeability and integrity of the membrane and also influence the functioning of membrane proteins. However, the PM is the primary target of environmental stress, which affects its composition, conformation and properties, thereby disturbing the cellular homeostasis. Maintenance of integrity and fluidity of the PM is a prerequisite for ensuring the survival of plants during adverse environmental conditions. The ability of plants to remodel membrane lipid and protein composition plays a crucial role in adaptation towards varying abiotic environmental cues, including high or low temperature, drought, salinity and heavy metals stress. The dynamic changes in lipid composition affect the functioning of membrane transporters and ultimately regulate the physical properties of the membrane. Plant membrane-transport systems play a significant role in stress adaptation by cooperating with the membrane lipidome to maintain the membrane integrity under stressful conditions. The present review provides a holistic view of stress responses and adaptations in plants, especially the changes in the lipidome and proteome of PM under individual or combined abiotic stresses, which cause alterations in the activity of membrane transporters and modifies the fluidity of the PM. The tools to study the varying lipidome and proteome of the PM are also discussed.


Assuntos
Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Fisiológica , Secas , Salinidade
11.
Physiol Plant ; 171(4): 688-702, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034380

RESUMO

Chloride channels (CLCs), member of anion transporting proteins, are present ubiquitously in all life forms. Diverging from its name, the CLC family includes both channel and exchanger (proton-coupled) proteins; nevertheless, they share conserved structural organization. They are engaged in diverse indispensable functions such as acid and fluoride tolerance in prokaryotes to muscle stabilization, transepithelial transport, and neuronal development in mammals. Mutations in genes encoding CLCs lead to several physiological disorders in different organisms, including severe diseases in humans. Even in plants, loss of CLC protein function severely impairs various cellular processes critical for normal growth and development. These proteins sequester Cl- into the vacuole, thus, making them an attractive target for improving salinity tolerance in plants caused by high abundance of salts, primarily NaCl. Besides, some CLCs are involved in NO3 - transport and storage function in plants, thus, influencing their nitrogen use efficiency. However, despite their high significance, not many studies have been carried out in plants. Here, we have attempted to concisely highlight the basic structure of CLC proteins and critical residues essential for their function and classification. We also present the diverse functions of CLCs in plants from their first cloning back in 1996 to the knowledge acquired as of now. We stress the need for carrying out more in-depth studies on CLCs in plants, for they may have future applications towards crop improvement.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto , Tolerância ao Sal , Transporte Biológico , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Prótons , Vacúolos/metabolismo
12.
Physiol Plant ; 172(2): 1352-1362, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180968

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, adversely affect rice production and cause a severe threat to food security. Conventional crop breeding techniques alone are inadequate for achieving drought stress tolerance in crop plants. Using transgenic technology, incremental improvements in tolerance to drought and salinity have been successfully attained via manipulation of gene(s) in several crop species. However, achieving the goal via pyramiding multiple genes from the same or different tolerance mechanisms has received little attention. Pyramiding of multiple genes can be achieved either through breeding, by using marker-assisted selection, or by genetic engineering through molecular stacking co-transformation or re-transformation. Transgene stacking into a single locus has added advantages over breeding or re-transformation since the former assures co-inheritance of genes, contributing to more effective tolerance in transgenic plants for generations. Drought, being a polygenic trait, the potential candidate genes for gene stacking are those contributing to cellular detoxification, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant machinery, and signaling pathways. Since cellular dehydration is inbuilt in salinity stress, manipulation of these genes results in improving tolerance to salinity along with drought in most of the cases. In this review, attempts have been made to provide a critical assessment of transgenic plants developed through transgene stacking and approaches to achieve the same. Identification and functional validation of more such candidate genes is needed for research programs targeting the gene stacking for developing crop plants with high precision in the shortest possible time to ensure sustainable crop productivity under marginal lands.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 524, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A structural phenomenon seen in certain lineages of angiosperms that has captivated many scholars including Charles Darwin is the evolution of plant carnivory. Evidently, these structural features collectively termed carnivorous syndrome, evolved to aid nutritional acquisition from attracted, captured and digested prey. We now understand why plant carnivory evolved but how carnivorous plants acquired these attributes remains a mystery. In an attempt to understand the evolution of Nepenthes pitcher and to shed more light on its role in prey digestion, we analyzed the transcriptome data of the highly specialized Nepenthes khasiana leaf comprising the leaf base lamina, tendril and the different parts/zones of the pitcher tube viz. digestive zone, waxy zone and lid. RESULTS: In total, we generated around 262 million high-quality Illumina reads. Reads were pooled, normalized and de novo assembled to generate a reference transcriptome of about 412,224 transcripts. We then estimated transcript abundance along the N. khasiana leaf by mapping individual reads from each part/zone to the reference transcriptome. Correlation-based hierarchical clustering analysis of 27,208 commonly expressed genes indicated functional relationship and similar cellular processes underlying the development of the leaf base and the pitcher, thereby implying that the Nepenthes pitcher is indeed a modified leaf. From a list of 2386 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we identified transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in prey digestion and protection against pathogen attack, some of which are expressed at high levels in the digestive zone. Interestingly, many of these enzyme-encoding genes are also expressed in the unopened N. khasiana pitcher. Transcripts showing homology to both bacteria and fungi were also detected; and in the digestive zone, fungi are more predominant as compared to bacteria. Taking cues from histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs, we found altered expressions of key regulatory genes involved in leaf development. Of particular interest, the expression of class III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) genes were upregulated in the tendril. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that N. khasiana pitchers employ a wide range of enzymes for prey digestion and plant defense, harbor microbes and probably evolved through altered expression of leaf polarity genes.


Assuntos
Caryophyllales/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Padronização Corporal/genética , Caryophyllales/enzimologia , Caryophyllales/microbiologia , Caryophyllales/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Estômatos de Plantas/enzimologia , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/microbiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura
14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 509919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042042

RESUMO

Drought is a critical factor limiting the productivity of legumes worldwide. Legumes can enter into a unique tripartite symbiotic relationship with root-nodulating bacteria of genera Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, or Sinorhizobium and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Rhizobial symbiosis provides nitrogen necessary for growth. AMF symbiosis enhances uptake of diffusion-limited nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu, etc., and also water from the soil via plant-associated fungal hyphae. Rhizobial and AMF symbioses can act synergistically in promoting plant growth and fitness, resulting in overall yield benefits under drought stress. One of the approaches that rhizobia use to survive under stress is the accumulation of compatible solutes, or osmolytes, such as trehalose. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide and an osmolyte reported to accumulate in a range of organisms. High accumulation of trehalose in bacteroids during nodulation protects cells and proteins from osmotic shock, desiccation, and heat under drought stress. Manipulation of trehalose cell concentrations has been directly correlated with stress response in plants and other organisms, including AMF. However, the role of this compound in the tripartite symbiotic relationship is not fully explored. This review describes the biological importance and the role of trehalose in the tripartite symbiosis between plants, rhizobia, and AMF. In particular, we review the physiological functions and the molecular investigations of trehalose carried out using omics-based approaches. This review will pave the way for future studies investigating possible metabolic engineering of this biomolecule for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

15.
Photosynth Res ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632535

RESUMO

Rice, one of the most important staple food crops in the world, is highly sensitive to soil salinity at the seedling stage. The ultimate yield of this crop is a function of the number of seedlings surviving after transplantation in saline water. Oryza sativa cv. IR64 is a high-yielding salinity-sensitive variety, while Pokkali is a landrace traditionally cultivated by the local farmers in the coastal regions in India. However, the machinery responsible for the seedling-stage tolerance in Pokkali is not understood. To bridge this gap, we subjected young seedlings of these contrasting genotypes to salinity and performed detailed investigations about their growth parameters, ion homeostasis, biochemical composition, and photosynthetic parameters after every 24 h of salinity for three days. Taken together, all the physiological and biochemical indicators, such as proline accumulation, K+/Na+ ratio, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage, clearly revealed significant differences between IR64 and Pokkali under salinity, establishing their contrasting nature at this stage. In response to salinity, the Fv/Fm ratio (maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II as inferred from Chl a fluorescence) and the energy conserved for the electron transport after the reduction of QA (the primary electron acceptor of PSII), to QA-, and reduction of the end electron acceptor molecules towards the PSI (Photosystem I) electron acceptor side was higher in Pokkali than IR64 plants. These observations reflect a direct contribution of photosynthesis towards seedling-stage salinity tolerance in rice. These findings will help to breed high-yielding crops for salinity prone agricultural lands.

16.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 26(6): 1087-1098, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549674

RESUMO

We present here a tribute to Satish Chandra Maheshwari (known to many as SCM, or simply Satish), one of the greatest plant biologists of our time. He was born on October 4, 1933, in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, and passed away in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, on June 12, 2019. He is survived by two of his younger sisters (Sushila Narsimhan and Saubhagya Agrawal), a large number of friends and students from around the world. He has not only been the discoverer of pollen haploids in plants but has also contributed immensely to the field of duckweed research and gene regulation. In addition, he has made discoveries in the area of phytochrome research. The scientific community will always remember him as an extremely dedicated teacher and a passionate researcher; and for his wonderful contributions in the field of Plant Biology. See Sopory and Maheshwari (2001) for a perspective on the beginnings of Plant Molecular Biology in India; and see Raghuram (2002a, b) for the growth and contributions of this field in India.

17.
New Phytol ; 227(3): 714-721, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249440

RESUMO

Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive carbonyl compound, is generated during metabolism in living systems. However, under stress, its levels increase rapidly leading to cellular toxicity. Although the generation of MG is spontaneous in a cell, its detoxification is essentially catalyzed by the glyoxalase enzymes. In plants, modulation of MG content via glyoxalases influences diverse physiological functions ranging from regulating growth and development to conferring stress tolerance. Interestingly, there has been a preferred expansion in the number of isoforms of these enzymes in plants, giving them high plasticity in their actions for accomplishing diverse roles. Future studies need to focus on unraveling the interplay of these multiple isoforms of glyoxalases possibly contributing towards the unique adaptability of plants to diverse environments.


Assuntos
Lactoilglutationa Liase , Plantas , Aldeído Pirúvico
18.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(7)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054702

RESUMO

Here, we report the 4.34-Mb draft genome assembly of Bacillus marisflavi CK-NBRI-03 (or P3), a Gram-positive bacterium, with an average G+C content of 48.66%. P3 was isolated from agricultural soil from the Badaun (midwestern plain zone) region of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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