*Science ; 379(6636): 984-985, 2023 Mar 10.*

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A negative-temperature heat engine is achieved with photons.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(16): 160504, 2020 Oct 16.*

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The characterization of quantum features in large Hilbert spaces is a crucial requirement for testing quantum protocols. In the continuous variable encoding, quantum homodyne tomography requires an amount of measurement that increases exponentially with the number of involved modes, which practically makes the protocol intractable even with few modes. Here, we introduce a new technique, based on a machine learning protocol with artificial neural networks, that allows us to directly detect negativity of the Wigner function for multimode quantum states. We test the procedure on a whole class of numerically simulated multimode quantum states for which the Wigner function is known analytically. We demonstrate that the method is fast, accurate, and more robust than conventional methods when limited amounts of data are available. Moreover, the method is applied to an experimental multimode quantum state, for which an additional test of resilience to losses is carried out.

*Opt Express ; 28(8): 12385-12394, 2020 Apr 13.*

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We present a single-pass source of broadband multimode squeezed light with potential application in quantum information and quantum metrology. The source is based on a type I parametric down-conversion (PDC) process inside a bulk nonlinear crystal in a non-collinear configuration. The generated squeezed light exhibits a spatio-temporal multimode behavior that is probed using a homodyne measurement with a local oscillator shaped both spatially and temporally. Finally we follow a covariance matrix based approach to reveal the distribution of the squeezing among several independent temporal and spatial modes. This unambiguously validates the multimode feature of our source.

*Entropy (Basel) ; 22(1)2019 Dec 24.*

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Complex networks structures have been extensively used for describing complex natural and technological systems, like the Internet or social networks. More recently, complex network theory has been applied to quantum systems, where complex network topologies may emerge in multiparty quantum states and quantum algorithms have been studied in complex graph structures. In this work, we study multimode Continuous Variables entangled states, named cluster states, where the entanglement structure is arranged in typical real-world complex networks shapes. Cluster states are a resource for measurement-based quantum information protocols, where the quality of a cluster is assessed in terms of the minimal amount of noise it introduces in the computation. We study optimal graph states that can be obtained with experimentally realistic quantum resources, when optimized via analytical procedure. We show that denser and regular graphs allow for better optimization. In the spirit of quantum routing, we also show the reshaping of entanglement connections in small networks via linear optics operations based on numerical optimization.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(22): 220501, 2018 Nov 30.*

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Graph states are the backbone of measurement-based continuous-variable quantum computation. However, experimental realizations of these states induce Gaussian measurement statistics for the field quadratures, which poses a barrier to obtain a genuine quantum advantage. In this Letter, we propose mode-selective photon addition and subtraction as viable and experimentally feasible pathways to introduce non-Gaussian features in such continuous-variable graph states. In particular, we investigate how the non-Gaussian properties spread among the vertices of the graph, which allows us to show the degree of control that is achievable in this approach.

*Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 376(2123)2018 Jul 13.*

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(18): 183601, 2017 Nov 03.*

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Non-Gaussian operations are essential to exploit the quantum advantages in optical continuous variable quantum information protocols. We focus on mode-selective photon addition and subtraction as experimentally promising processes to create multimode non-Gaussian states. Our approach is based on correlation functions, as is common in quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics, mixed with quantum optics tools. We formulate an analytical expression of the Wigner function after the subtraction or addition of a single photon, for arbitrarily many modes. It is used to demonstrate entanglement properties specific to non-Gaussian states and also leads to a practical and elegant condition for Wigner function negativity. Finally, we analyze the potential of photon addition and subtraction for an experimentally generated multimode Gaussian state.

*Opt Express ; 24(7): 7019-27, 2016 Apr 04.*

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We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance âª λ) to the far-field regime (distance â« λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

*Nat Commun ; 6: 7706, 2015 Jul 13.*

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The full structuration of light in the transverse plane, including intensity, phase and polarization, holds the promise of unprecedented capabilities for applications in classical optics as well as in quantum optics and information sciences. Harnessing special topologies can lead to enhanced focusing, data multiplexing or advanced sensing and metrology. Here we experimentally demonstrate the storage of such spatio-polarization-patterned beams into an optical memory. A set of vectorial vortex modes is generated via liquid crystal cell with topological charge in the optic axis distribution, and preservation of the phase and polarization singularities is demonstrated after retrieval, at the single-photon level. The realized multiple-degree-of-freedom memory can find applications in classical data processing but also in quantum network scenarios where structured states have been shown to provide promising attributes, such as rotational invariance.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(3): 033601, 2014 Jan 24.*

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We experimentally demonstrate that a nonclassical state prepared in an atomic memory can be efficiently transferred to a single mode of free-propagating light. By retrieving on demand a single excitation from a cold atomic gas, we realize an efficient source of single photons prepared in a pure, fully controlled quantum state. We characterize this source using two detection methods, one based on photon-counting analysis and the second using homodyne tomography to reconstruct the density matrix and Wigner function of the state. The latter technique allows us to completely determine the mode of the retrieved photon in its fine phase and amplitude details and demonstrate its nonclassical field statistics by observing a negative Wigner function. We measure a photon retrieval efficiency up to 82% and an atomic memory coherence time of 900 ns. This setup is very well suited to study interactions between atomic excitations and use them in order to create and manipulate more sophisticated quantum states of light with a high degree of experimental control.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(23): 233602, 2012 Dec 07.*

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We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the "blockaded fraction" of atoms within the atomic ensemble.

*Opt Lett ; 34(7): 1012-4, 2009 Apr 01.*

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We demonstrate a tunable narrowband filter based on optical-pumping-induced circular dichroism in rubidium vapor. The filter achieves a peak transmission of 14.6%, a linewidth of 80 MHz, and an out-of-band extinction of >or=35 dB. The transmission peak can be tuned within the range of the Doppler linewidth of the D1 line of atomic rubidium at 795 nm. While other atomic filters work at frequencies far from absorption, the presented technique provides light resonant with atomic media, useful for atom-photon interaction experiments. The technique could readily be extended to other alkali atoms.

*Science ; 317(5846): 1890-3, 2007 Sep 28.*

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The possibility of arbitrarily "adding" and "subtracting" single photons to and from a light field may give access to a complete engineering of quantum states and to fundamental quantum phenomena. We experimentally implemented simple alternated sequences of photon creation and annihilation on a thermal field and used quantum tomography to verify the peculiar character of the resulting light states. In particular, as the final states depend on the order in which the two actions are performed, we directly observed the noncommutativity of the creation and annihilation operators, one of the cardinal concepts of quantum mechanics, at the basis of the quantum behavior of light. These results represent a step toward the full quantum control of a field and may provide new resources for quantum information protocols.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 96(2): 020502, 2006 Jan 20.*

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We propose and experimentally verify a novel method for the remote preparation of entangled bits (ebits) made of a single photon coherently delocalized in two well-separated temporal modes. The proposed scheme represents a remotely tunable source for tailoring arbitrary ebits, whether maximally or nonmaximally entangled, which is highly desirable for applications in quantum information technology. The remotely prepared ebit is studied by performing homodyne tomography with an ultrafast balanced homodyne detection scheme recently developed in our laboratory.