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1.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820911728, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the Trach Safe Initiative and assess its impact on unanticipated tracheostomy-related mortality in outpatient tracheostomy-dependent children (TDC). METHODS: An interdisciplinary team including parents and providers designed the initiative with quality improvement methods. Three practice changes were prioritized: (1) surveillance airway endoscopy prior to hospital discharge from tracheostomy placement, (2) education for community-based nurses on TDC-focused emergency airway management, and (3) routine assessment of airway events for TDC in clinic. The primary outcome was annual unanticipated mortality after hospital discharge from tracheostomy placement before and after the initiative. RESULTS: In the 5 years before and after the initiative, 131 children and 155 children underwent tracheostomy placement, respectively. At the end of the study period, the institution sustained Trach Safe practices: (1) surveillance bronchoscopies increased from 104 to 429 bronchoscopies, (2) the course trained 209 community-based nurses, and (3) the survey was used in 488 home ventilator clinic visits to identify near-miss airway events. Prior to the initiative, 9 deaths were unanticipated. After Trach Safe implementation, 1 death was unanticipated. Control chart analysis demonstrates significant special-cause variation in reduced unanticipated mortality. DISCUSSION: We describe a system shift in reduced unanticipated mortality for TDC through 3 major practice changes of the Trach Safe Initiative. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Death in a child with a tracheostomy tube at home may represent modifiable tracheostomy-related airway events. Using Trach Safe practices, we address multiple facets to improve safety of TDC out of the hospital.

3.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is useful in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that persists after adenotonsillectomy (AT), but its utility in surgically naïve children is unclear. We report polysomnography outcomes of surgically naïve children who underwent DISE-directed intervention because they were considered high risk for persistent OSA after adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: This study is a case series of 62 surgically naïve children with OSA who were considered high risk for persistence after AT and underwent DISE-directed intervention with pre- and postoperative polysomnography between 2012 and 2016. Analysis was performed with the paired t test. RESULTS: Children were on average 5.9 (± 5.5, 0.2-18.6) years old at the time of surgery, 68% male, 18% obese, and 60% white. Thirty-eight percent had a syndromic diagnosis: 19% trisomy 21, 11% hypotonic neuromuscular disorder, and 8% craniofacial condition. The remaining 62% were non-syndromic but underwent DISE because they had at least one risk factor for OSA persistence after AT (age > 7 years, black race, 1+ tonsils, obesity, and/or severe OSA). Forty-two percent underwent AT, while 58% underwent treatment other than AT, including 18% who had multilevel surgery. Children improved significantly in 4 out of 5 polysomnography parameters tested, including obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI; 22.2 to 7.2, p < 0.01) and oxygen nadir (82 to 87, p < 0.01). Thirty-eight (61%) had a postoperative oAHI < 5; 16 (21%) had a postoperative oAHI < 2. CONCLUSION: DISE resulted in intervention other than AT in 58% of surgically naïve children at high risk for persistent OSA after AT. DISE-directed intervention resulted in significant mean improvement in postoperative OSA.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The Seattle Children's Hospital implemented the Trach Safe Initiative to improve airway safety in tracheostomy-dependent children (TDC). A key tenet of this initiative is surveillance endoscopy. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of abnormal airway changes in TDC, identify risk factors for these changes, and describe the frequency of airway interventions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: This is a review of children 0 to 21 years old who underwent tracheostomy and surveillance endoscopy from February 1, 2014 to January 1, 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to report the prevalence of abnormal airway changes and interventions following tracheostomy. Pearson χ2 tests and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the development of abnormal changes. RESULTS: There were 127 children identified. The median time from tracheostomy to initial surveillance endoscopy was 1.6 months (interquartile range = 1.3-2.4 months). At initial endoscopy, 86.6% of patients had at least one abnormal airway finding. The most common findings were subglottic edema/stenosis (57.3%), glottic edema (37.3%), and suprastomal granulation tissue (31.8%). Prematurity and a history of failed extubations were significantly associated with abnormal findings on endoscopy (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2, P = .01 and OR = 4.1, P = .03, respectively). Of those with abnormal findings, 32.7% underwent an intervention to improve airway patency and safety. The most common interventions performed were suprastomal granuloma excision (44.4%), steroid injection (22.2%), and balloon dilation of the glottis or subglottis (19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of early abnormal airway changes in TDC is high, particularly in young children with a history of prematurity and failed extubation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

6.
Pediatr Radiol ; 49(11): 1391-1403, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620841

RESUMO

Differentiated thyroid cancer in children is a rare disease, accounting for only 1.4% of all pediatric malignancies. The diagnosis, biological behavior and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer in children is different from that in adults. While there are many unresolved issues regarding approaches to management of differentiated thyroid cancer in the pediatric population, there is near universal consensus that treatment of this disease, which includes total thyroidectomy, central lymph node dissection at the time of initial surgery in those with nodal metastases, and the possible use of iodine-131 radiotherapy, is best performed by specialists including high-volume endocrine surgeons and experts with experience in calculating and administering radioactive iodine in children, when deemed appropriate.

7.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(2): 187-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This update of a 2011 guideline developed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations on the pre-, intra-, and postoperative care and management of children 1 to 18 years of age under consideration for tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States, with 289,000 ambulatory procedures performed annually in children <15 years of age, based on the most recent published data. This guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who interact with children who may be candidates for tonsillectomy. PURPOSE: The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing children under consideration for tonsillectomy and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to educate clinicians, patients, and/or caregivers regarding the indications for tonsillectomy and the natural history of recurrent throat infections. Additional goals include the following: optimizing the perioperative management of children undergoing tonsillectomy, emphasizing the need for evaluation and intervention in special populations, improving the counseling and education of families who are considering tonsillectomy for their children, highlighting the management options for patients with modifying factors, and reducing inappropriate or unnecessary variations in care. Children aged 1 to 18 years under consideration for tonsillectomy are the target patient for the guideline. For this guideline update, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation selected a panel representing the fields of nursing, anesthesiology, consumers, family medicine, infectious disease, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, pediatrics, and sleep medicine. KEY ACTION STATEMENTS: The guideline update group made strong recommendations for the following key action statements (KASs): (1) Clinicians should recommend watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection if there have been <7 episodes in the past year, <5 episodes per year in the past 2 years, or <3 episodes per year in the past 3 years. (2) Clinicians should administer a single intraoperative dose of intravenous dexamethasone to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (3) Clinicians should recommend ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or both for pain control after tonsillectomy. The guideline update group made recommendations for the following KASs: (1) Clinicians should assess the child with recurrent throat infection who does not meet criteria in KAS 2 for modifying factors that may nonetheless favor tonsillectomy, which may include but are not limited to multiple antibiotic allergies/intolerance, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis), or history of >1 peritonsillar abscess. (2) Clinicians should ask caregivers of children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy about comorbid conditions that may improve after tonsillectomy, including growth retardation, poor school performance, enuresis, asthma, and behavioral problems. (3) Before performing tonsillectomy, the clinician should refer children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing for polysomnography if they are <2 years of age or if they exhibit any of the following: obesity, Down syndrome, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, sickle cell disease, or mucopolysaccharidoses. (4) The clinician should advocate for polysomnography prior to tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children without any of the comorbidities listed in KAS 5 for whom the need for tonsillectomy is uncertain or when there is discordance between the physical examination and the reported severity of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. (5) Clinicians should recommend tonsillectomy for children with obstructive sleep apnea documented by overnight polysomnography. (6) Clinicians should counsel patients and caregivers and explain that obstructive sleep-disordered breathing may persist or recur after tonsillectomy and may require further management. (7) The clinician should counsel patients and caregivers regarding the importance of managing posttonsillectomy pain as part of the perioperative education process and should reinforce this counseling at the time of surgery with reminders about the need to anticipate, reassess, and adequately treat pain after surgery. (8) Clinicians should arrange for overnight, inpatient monitoring of children after tonsillectomy if they are <3 years old or have severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥10 obstructive events/hour, oxygen saturation nadir <80%, or both). (9) Clinicians should follow up with patients and/or caregivers after tonsillectomy and document in the medical record the presence or absence of bleeding within 24 hours of surgery (primary bleeding) and bleeding occurring later than 24 hours after surgery (secondary bleeding). (10) Clinicians should determine their rate of primary and secondary posttonsillectomy bleeding at least annually. The guideline update group made a strong recommendation against 2 actions: (1) Clinicians should not administer or prescribe perioperative antibiotics to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (2) Clinicians must not administer or prescribe codeine, or any medication containing codeine, after tonsillectomy in children younger than 12 years. The policy level for the recommendation about documenting recurrent throat infection was an option: (1) Clinicians may recommend tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection with a frequency of at least 7 episodes in the past year, at least 5 episodes per year for 2 years, or at least 3 episodes per year for 3 years with documentation in the medical record for each episode of sore throat and ≥1 of the following: temperature >38.3°C (101°F), cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudate, or positive test for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. DIFFERENCES FROM PRIOR GUIDELINE: Incorporating new evidence profiles to include the role of patient preferences, confidence in the evidence, differences of opinion, quality improvement opportunities, and any exclusion to which the action statement does not apply. There were 1 new clinical practice guideline, 26 new systematic reviews, and 13 new randomized controlled trials included in the current guideline update. Inclusion of 2 consumer advocates on the guideline update group. Changes to 5 KASs from the original guideline: KAS 1 (Watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection), KAS 3 (Tonsillectomy for recurrent infection with modifying factors), KAS 4 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing), KAS 9 (Perioperative pain counseling), and KAS 10 (Perioperative antibiotics). Seven new KASs: KAS 5 (Indications for polysomnography), KAS 6 (Additional recommendations for polysomnography), KAS 7 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea), KAS 12 (Inpatient monitoring for children after tonsillectomy), KAS 13 (Postoperative ibuprofen and acetaminophen), KAS 14 (Postoperative codeine), and KAS 15a (Outcome assessment for bleeding). Addition of an algorithm outlining KASs. Enhanced emphasis on patient and/or caregiver education and shared decision making.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Tonsilectomia/normas , Tonsilite/complicações , Adenoidectomia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tonsilectomia/métodos , Tonsilite/diagnóstico , Tonsilite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(2): 213-214, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921527

RESUMO

Partial intracapsular tonsillectomy (PIT) was revisited in 2003 as an alternate surgical option to total tonsillectomy for the treatment of tonsillar hypertrophy. However, evaluation of the existing literature on PIT reveals that it is largely focused on comparing perioperative outcomes after PIT and total tonsillectomy, with few data regarding long-term outcomes. The goal of this commentary is to explain why PIT was not incorporated into the 2019 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation clinical practice guideline for tonsillectomy, while acknowledging its use and potential advantages and disadvantages and outlining future research opportunities.


Assuntos
Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tonsilectomia/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Tonsilectomia/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(1_suppl): S1-S42, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This update of a 2011 guideline developed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations on the pre-, intra-, and postoperative care and management of children 1 to 18 years of age under consideration for tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States, with 289,000 ambulatory procedures performed annually in children <15 years of age based on the most recent published data. This guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who interact with children who may be candidates for tonsillectomy. PURPOSE: The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing children under consideration for tonsillectomy and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to educate clinicians, patients, and/or caregivers regarding the indications for tonsillectomy and the natural history of recurrent throat infections. Additional goals include the following: optimizing the perioperative management of children undergoing tonsillectomy, emphasizing the need for evaluation and intervention in special populations, improving the counseling and education of families who are considering tonsillectomy for their children, highlighting the management options for patients with modifying factors, and reducing inappropriate or unnecessary variations in care. Children aged 1 to 18 years under consideration for tonsillectomy are the target patient for the guideline. For this guideline update, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation selected a panel representing the fields of nursing, anesthesiology, consumers, family medicine, infectious disease, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, pediatrics, and sleep medicine. KEY ACTION STATEMENTS: The guideline update group made strong recommendations for the following key action statements (KASs): (1) Clinicians should recommend watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection if there have been <7 episodes in the past year, <5 episodes per year in the past 2 years, or <3 episodes per year in the past 3 years. (2) Clinicians should administer a single intraoperative dose of intravenous dexamethasone to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (3) Clinicians should recommend ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or both for pain control after tonsillectomy. The guideline update group made recommendations for the following KASs: (1) Clinicians should assess the child with recurrent throat infection who does not meet criteria in KAS 2 for modifying factors that may nonetheless favor tonsillectomy, which may include but are not limited to multiple antibiotic allergies/intolerance, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis), or history of >1 peritonsillar abscess. (2) Clinicians should ask caregivers of children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy about comorbid conditions that may improve after tonsillectomy, including growth retardation, poor school performance, enuresis, asthma, and behavioral problems. (3) Before performing tonsillectomy, the clinician should refer children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing for polysomnography if they are <2 years of age or if they exhibit any of the following: obesity, Down syndrome, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, sickle cell disease, or mucopolysaccharidoses. (4) The clinician should advocate for polysomnography prior to tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children without any of the comorbidities listed in KAS 5 for whom the need for tonsillectomy is uncertain or when there is discordance between the physical examination and the reported severity of oSDB. (5) Clinicians should recommend tonsillectomy for children with obstructive sleep apnea documented by overnight polysomnography. (6) Clinicians should counsel patients and caregivers and explain that obstructive sleep-disordered breathing may persist or recur after tonsillectomy and may require further management. (7) The clinician should counsel patients and caregivers regarding the importance of managing posttonsillectomy pain as part of the perioperative education process and should reinforce this counseling at the time of surgery with reminders about the need to anticipate, reassess, and adequately treat pain after surgery. (8) Clinicians should arrange for overnight, inpatient monitoring of children after tonsillectomy if they are <3 years old or have severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥10 obstructive events/hour, oxygen saturation nadir <80%, or both). (9) Clinicians should follow up with patients and/or caregivers after tonsillectomy and document in the medical record the presence or absence of bleeding within 24 hours of surgery (primary bleeding) and bleeding occurring later than 24 hours after surgery (secondary bleeding). (10) Clinicians should determine their rate of primary and secondary posttonsillectomy bleeding at least annually. The guideline update group made a strong recommendation against 2 actions: (1) Clinicians should not administer or prescribe perioperative antibiotics to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (2) Clinicians must not administer or prescribe codeine, or any medication containing codeine, after tonsillectomy in children younger than 12 years. The policy level for the recommendation about documenting recurrent throat infection was an option: (1) Clinicians may recommend tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection with a frequency of at least 7 episodes in the past year, at least 5 episodes per year for 2 years, or at least 3 episodes per year for 3 years with documentation in the medical record for each episode of sore throat and ≥1 of the following: temperature >38.3°C (101°F), cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudate, or positive test for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. DIFFERENCES FROM PRIOR GUIDELINE: (1) Incorporating new evidence profiles to include the role of patient preferences, confidence in the evidence, differences of opinion, quality improvement opportunities, and any exclusion to which the action statement does not apply. (2) There were 1 new clinical practice guideline, 26 new systematic reviews, and 13 new randomized controlled trials included in the current guideline update. (3) Inclusion of 2 consumer advocates on the guideline update group. (4) Changes to 5 KASs from the original guideline: KAS 1 (Watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection), KAS 3 (Tonsillectomy for recurrent infection with modifying factors), KAS 4 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing), KAS 9 (Perioperative pain counseling), and KAS 10 (Perioperative antibiotics). (5) Seven new KASs: KAS 5 (Indications for polysomnography), KAS 6 (Additional recommendations for polysomnography), KAS 7 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea), KAS 12 (Inpatient monitoring for children after tonsillectomy), KAS 13 (Postoperative ibuprofen and acetaminophen), KAS 14 (Postoperative codeine), and KAS 15a (Outcome assessment for bleeding). (6) Addition of an algorithm outlining KASs. (7) Enhanced emphasis on patient and/or caregiver education and shared decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Faríngeas/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Criança , Humanos , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Tonsilectomia/métodos
10.
Laryngoscope ; 129(11): 2588-2593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of the interarytenoid mucosal height (IAMH) in pediatric dysphagia, ranging from normal anatomy to a laryngeal cleft, is unknown. This study seeks to evaluate a cohort of patients who underwent evaluation of their IAMH during microdirect laryngoscopy (MDL) for associations between IAMH and dysphagia as diagnosed on preoperative videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). METHODS: A retrospective case series of 1,351 patients who underwent MDL between 2011 and 2016 were reviewed for intraoperative evaluation of IAMH using our interarytenoid assessment protocol. After exclusions, 182 patients were divided into three groups: 1) thickened diet: VFSS with recommendation for thickened liquids (n = 82 of 182; 45.1%), 2) normal diet: VFSS with allowance of thin liquids (n = 19 of 182; 10.4%), and 3) control: no VFSS performed (n = 81 of 182; 44.5%). RESULTS: There was no difference in IAMH between groups (P = 0.35). Power analysis was able to achieve > 80% power to detect an effect size of ≥ 0.5 (1-5 mucosal height scale). The majority of patients in each group had an IAMH above the false vocal folds (thickened diet: 57.3%, normal diet: 57.9%, control: 64.2%). There were similar percentages of patients in each group with an IAMH at or below the true vocal folds (thickened diet: 4.9%, normal diet: 5.3%, control: 6.1%). CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between IAMH and preoperative thickened liquid recommendation in this cohort. This data fails to support the hypothesis that the IAMH is an independent etiological factor for pediatric pharyngeal dysphagia. Further studies comparing IAMH with outcomes after feeding therapy and surgery may better clarify this relationship between anatomy and physiology. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 129:2588-2593, 2019.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Cricoide/patologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/patologia , Mucosa Laríngea/patologia , Fotofluorografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Cartilagem Cricoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Laríngea/diagnóstico por imagem , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/anormalidades , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(3): 533-539, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While the Benjamin-Inglis classification system is widely used to categorize laryngeal clefts, it does not clearly differentiate a type 1 cleft from normal anatomy, and there is no widely accepted or validated protocol for systematically evaluating interarytenoid mucosal height. We sought to propose the interarytenoid assessment protocol as a method to standardize the description of the interarytenoid anatomy and to test its reliability. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of endoscopic videos. SETTING: Pediatric academic center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The interarytenoid assessment protocol comprises 4 steps for evaluation of the interarytenoid region relative to known anatomic landmarks in the supraglottis, glottis, and subglottis. Thirty consecutively selected videos of the protocol were reviewed by 4 otolaryngologists. The raters were blinded to identifying information, and the video order was randomized for each review. We assessed protocol completion times and calculated Cohen's linear-weighted κ coefficient between blinded expert raters and with the operating surgeon to evaluate interrater/intrarater reliability. RESULTS: Median age was 4.9 years (59 months; range, 1 month to 20 years). Median completion time was 144 seconds. Interrater and intrarater reliability showed substantial agreement (interrater κ = 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.87]; intrarater mean κ = 0.70 [95% CI, 0.59-0.92/rater 1, 0.47-0.85/rater 2]; P < .001). Comparing raters to the operating surgeon demonstrated substantial agreement (mean κ = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31-0.79/rater 1, 0.48-0.89/rater 2; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The interarytenoid assessment protocol appears reliable in describing interarytenoid anatomy. Rapid completion times and substantial interrater/intrarater reliability were demonstrated. Incorporation of this protocol may provide important steps toward improved standardization in the anatomic description of the interarytenoid region in pediatric dysphagia.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Aritenoide/patologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Laringoscopia , Laringe/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Laryngoscope ; 129(12): 2771-2774, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The optimal surgical treatment to improve sleep apnea in children with small tonsils is not known. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) may be useful in selecting effective surgical procedures for this patient population. This study compared polysomnography (PSG) measures before and after DISE-directed surgery in children with small tonsils. We hypothesize that DISE-directed surgery improves PSG measures in children with small tonsils. We also aimed to identify the most common surgery performed in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of subjects who underwent DISE at a single pediatric tertiary care center over a 6-year period. Inclusion criteria were 1+ tonsils and PSG performed before and after DISE-directed surgery. Exclusion criteria were previous tonsillectomy and tonsils score 2+ or greater. Pre- and postoperative PSG parameters were compared using paired t tests. RESULTS: Average age was 7 ± 4 years old at the time of surgery. The most common DISE-directed intervention was supraglottoplasty (n = 23). DISE-directed surgery significantly improved mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 14.4 to 8.0 (P = .02). Although improvements were seen in mean obstructive AHI (12.5 to 5.5), O2 nadir (87.0 to 88.3), and ODI (10.6 to 5.8), these measures did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: DISE-directed surgery significantly improves AHI in children with small tonsils. The most common intervention performed on these children was supraglottoplasty. Interestingly, adenotonsillectomy was rarely performed in this cohort. Additionally, supraglottic collapse, prompting supraglottoplasty, is difficult to accurately assess in an awake child, supporting use of a DISE-directed approach in this patient population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:2771-2774, 2019.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Polissonografia/métodos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/cirurgia , Sono/fisiologia , Tonsilectomia/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 108: 120-124, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bilateral vocal-fold immobility (BFVI) is a rare but significant cause of severe respiratory distress in neonates. The primary aim of treatment is to provide an adequate airway while minimizing adverse effects such as aspiration and dysphonia. Our objective here is to describe the outcomes of a series of neonates undergoing percutaneous endoscopic suture lateralization for BVFI using a novel technique. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we present 6 neonates (mean age: 18 days) with BVFI from three tertiary academic medical centers. The etiologies included 4 idiopathic, 1 unspecified neurodegenerative disorder, and 1 acquired from cardiac surgery. All had stridor and respiratory distress with hypoxemia requiring respiratory support at diagnosis. Endoscopic vocal-fold lateralization was performed under spontaneous-breathing suspension laryngoscopy using a novel technique of percutaneous needle-directed placement of 4-0 prolene suture without use of specialized equipment. RESULTS: All patients had clinical improvement in stridor and respiratory support requirements and avoided tracheostomy. One patient had persistent aspiration after lateralization that resolved after suture removal. One patient required bilateral lateralization procedures. One patient expired of epilepsy due to neurodegenerative disease unrelated to airway pathology. At last follow-up (mean 12.6 months), 5/5 remaining patients were on room air without tracheostomy and feeding orally without aspiration; 4/5 had partial or complete return of vocal-fold function. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic percutaneous suture lateralization may be a safe and effective non-destructive primary treatment modality for neonatal BVFI. All neonates undergoing this procedure avoided tracheotomy.


Assuntos
Laringoscopia/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura/efeitos adversos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Prega Vocal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laringoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suturas , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 105: 132-137, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative calcium management is challenging following pediatric thyroidectomy given potential limitations in self-reporting symptoms and compliance with phlebotomy. A protocol was created at our tertiary children's institution utilizing intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels to guide electrolyte management during hospitalization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a new thyroidectomy postoperative management protocol on two primary outcomes: (1) the number of postoperative calcium blood draws and (2) the length of hospital stay. STUDY DESIGN: Institutional review board approved retrospective study (2010-2016). METHODS: Consecutive pediatric total thyroidectomy and completion thyroidectomy ±â€¯neck dissection cases from 1/1/2010 through 8/5/2016 at a single tertiary children's institution were retrospectively reviewed before and after initiation of a new management protocol. All cases after 2/1/2014 comprised the experimental group (post-protocol implementation). The pre-protocol control group consisted of cases prior to 2/1/2014. Multivariable linear and Poisson regression models were used to compare the control and experimental groups for outcome measure of number of calcium lab draws and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: 53 patients were included (n = 23, control group; n = 30 experimental group). The median age was 15 years. 41 patients (77.4%) were female. Postoperative calcium draws decreased from a mean of 5.2 to 3.6 per day post-protocol implementation (Rate Ratio = 0.70, p < .001), adjusting for covariates. The mean number of total inpatient calcium draws before protocol initiation was 13.3 (±13.20) compared to 7.2 (±4.25) in the post-protocol implementation group. Length of stay was 2.1 days in the control group and 1.8 days post-protocol implementation (p = .29). Patients who underwent concurrent neck dissection had a longer mean length of stay of 2.32 days compared to 1.66 days in those patients who did not undergo a neck dissection (p = .02). Hypocalcemia was also associated with a longer mean length of stay of 2.41 days compared to 1.60 days in patients who did not develop hypocalcemia (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The number of calcium blood draws was significantly reduced after introduction of a standardized protocol based on intraoperative PTH levels. The hospital length of stay did not change. Adoption of a standardized postoperative protocol based on intraoperative PTH levels may reduce the number of blood draws in children undergoing thyroidectomy.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Hipocalcemia/diagnóstico , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Masculino , Esvaziamento Cervical , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Laryngoscope ; 128(1): 257-263, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Children with bilateral true vocal fold immobility (BTVFI) may present with significant airway distress necessitating tracheostomy. The objective of this study was to review our preliminary experience with the anterior-posterior cricoid split (APCS), an endoscopic intervention used as an alternative to tracheostomy in children with BTVFI. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter review. METHODS: A review of patients undergoing endoscopic APCS for BTVFI at four institutions was performed. Patients were evaluated for the ability to ventilate without the requirement for tracheostomy or reintubation. Additional data extracted included the duration of intubation following APCS, the requirement for additional procedures, and demographics. Surgical success was defined as the ability to avoid tracheostomy and to cap or decannulate without respiratory symptoms if a tracheostomy was present prior to APCS. RESULTS: Nineteen APCS procedures were performed between October 2010 and June 2016. There were 12 male patients, the mean age at APCS was 4.7 months. BTVFI was primarily idiopathic (58%) and associated with other comorbidities (74%). All patients were candidates for tracheostomy prior to APCS. Fourteen patients (74%) were considered surgical successes. Of the unsuccessful patients, three (66%) required tracheostomy following APCS, and one was treated with a posterior cartilage graft. There was one nonsurgical mortality greater than 2 months after APCS and thought to be unrelated to the airway. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic APCS appears to be a safe and effective intervention for pediatric BTVFI. Under the correct circumstances, this can be performed as a single procedure, obviating tracheostomy. Further study is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:257-263, 2018.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Cricoide/cirurgia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 138(11): 1009-1013, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Down Syndrome (DS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are difficult to treat, as first line therapies may not lead to significant improvement. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) directed surgery may be particularly beneficial for these patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess change in polysomnography (PSG) measures of patients with DS who underwent DISE-directed surgery. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed on patients with DS who underwent DISE-directed surgery and had pre- and post-surgery PSG. Patients were analyzed in groups defined by previous adenotonsillectomy. Two-sided t-tests with equal variances were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: Of 24 patients reviewed, 14 were surgically naïve and 10 had undergone prior adenotonsillectomy. The primary outcome was change in PSG parameters including apnea hypopnea index, obstructive apnea hypopnea index, oxygen nadir, oxygen desaturation index, and mean carbon dioxide level. While improvement was seen in all PSG parameters, only improvement in oxygen nadir in children who had undergone prior adenotonsillectomy was statistically significant (88.5% to 90.9%, p = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: DISE-directed surgery may be beneficial for children with DS and OSA, with improvement in the means of main PSG measures observed. A larger, prospective study is warranted to further explore DISE utility.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Síndrome de Down/cirurgia , Endoscopia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia/métodos , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Laryngoscope ; 127(1): 266-272, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this investigation was to assess current drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) practice patterns at centers that have published on the technique, to identify areas of agreement, and to identify areas of disagreement that may represent opportunities for improvement and standardization. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional survey. METHODS: A survey was designed in two phases to evaluate preoperative assessment, intraoperative performance, and postoperative management of patients undergoing DISE. The survey was constructed iteratively in consultation with the all of the coauthors, each selected as an expert owing to their previous publication of one or more articles pertaining to pediatric DISE. In the first phase of survey creation, each expert was asked to provide narrative answers to questions pertaining to DISE. These responses served as the basis for a second survey. This second survey was then administered to all pediatric otolaryngologists at each respective institution. RESULTS: Overall, there was a low rate of agreement (33%) among the respondents; however, there was substantial agreement within institution, particularly for the use of anesthetic medications, the use of cine magnetic resonance imaging, and performance of bronchoscopy along with DISE. There was strong agreement among all respondents for performing DISE in a child with severe obstructive sleep apnea following adenotonsillectomy, regardless of comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This multi-institutional survey demonstrated a lack of consensus between experts and multiple opportunities for improvement. In general, there was agreement regarding the workup prior to DISE performance and the endoscopic protocol but disagreement regarding anesthetic protocol and management decisions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 127:266-272, 2017.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Laryngoscope ; 127(1): 252-257, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27470697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of the endoscopic posterior cricoid split with rib graft (EPCS/RG) procedure in the treatment of subglottic stenosis (SGS), posterior glottic stenosis (PGS), and bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Chart review of all patients who underwent EPCS/RG at a single tertiary-care facility between 1999 and 2014. Patients were grouped based on the primary indication for the procedure. Decannulation was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were the number of subsequent airway procedures and length of hospitalization. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were identified; 32 had tracheotomy. Overall decannulation rate was 65.6%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated the following decannulation rates: 53.8% for SGS, 100% for PGS, and 28.6% for BVFI. Fisher exact test found a significant difference in overall decannulation rates between groups (P = 0.002). Operation-specific decannulation rates for patients who never required an open procedure were 23% for SGS, 91.6% for PGS, and 28.6% for BVFI. This difference was also statistically significant (P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found prematurity had a positive correlation with decannulation that approached statistical significance (P < 0.051; odds ratio 6.1; 95% confidence interval 0.99, 37.6). The percentage of patients who underwent repeat airway procedures for the groups was 61.5% for SGS, 16.6 % for PGS, and 14.3% for BVFI. The median length of hospitalization after EPCS/RG was 3 days. CONCLUSION: This represents the largest series of patients who have undergone EPCS/RG and demonstrates that the majority of patients can be decannulated after this procedure. Patients with PGS had the highest operation-specific decannulation rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 127:252-257, 2017.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Costal/transplante , Cartilagem Cricoide/cirurgia , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Costelas/transplante , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 143(1): 34-40, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607058

RESUMO

Importance: Melanoma in children is rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all pediatric malignant neoplasms. However, for the past 30 years, the incidence of melanoma in those younger than 20 years has been increasing. Location of the primary tumor has been shown to be an important prognostic factor, with melanomas of the scalp and neck conferring a worse prognosis than those originating at other sites. Objective: To examine the survival, demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics of pediatric head and neck melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a retrospective cohort study using information from the National Cancer Data Base from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2012, on pediatric (≤18 years) and adult (>18 years) patients with head and neck melanoma. Data analysis was conducted from August 1, 2015, to June 30, 2016. Exposure: Pediatric age (≤18 years) at diagnosis of head and neck melanoma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival differences were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Surgical outcomes, including nodal sampling and margin status, were estimated with generalized linear models comparing pediatric and adult patients. Patient demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics were estimated using t tests and χ2 tests between pediatric and adult patients with head and neck melanoma for continuous and categorical data, respectively. Results: Of the 84 744 patients with head and neck melanoma, 657 (0.8%) were 18 years or younger (mean [SD] age, 13.5 [4.7] years; 285 female and 372 male; 610 white). Pediatric and adult patients had similar demographics but different histologic subtypes (risk difference of pediatric vs adult patients: melanoma, not otherwise specified, 8.5% [95% CI, 4.7%-12.3%]; superficial spreading, 4.2% [95% CI, 0.89%-7.4%]; and lentigo maligna, -13.4% [95% CI, -14.1% to 12.6%]). Pediatric patients had tumors of similar mean depth to those in adult patients (pediatric, 1.54 mm; adult; 1.39 mm; absolute difference, 0.15 mm; [95% CI, -0.32 to 0.008]) and more frequent nodal metastases than did adult patients (risk difference of pediatric vs adult patients for stage T2, 23.9% [95% CI, 14.1%-33.6%]). Five-year survival among pediatric patients was higher for those with stage 1, 2, or 3 disease (absolute difference of pediatric vs adult patients: stage 1, 18% [95% CI, 9.7%-26.3%]; stage 2, 36% [95% CI, 25.3%-46.7%]; stage 3, 39% [95% CI, 26.8%-51.2%]; and stage 4, 2% [95% CI, -8.2% to 12.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Although pediatric patients with head and neck melanoma present with similar tumor depth and more frequent nodal metastases than do adult patients, younger patients have higher overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pediatria , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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