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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362308

RESUMO

We present here the first published use of letermovir for the treatment of resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a pediatric patient. A 14-year-old girl underwent a double unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation to treat her sickle cell disease (hemoglobin SS) and developed ganciclovir-resistant CMV DNAemia with end-organ involvement that was treated successfully with a combination of foscarnet and letermovir. After she was transitioned to letermovir monotherapy for secondary prophylaxis, she developed recurrent DNAemia with laboratory-confirmed ganciclovir, foscarnet, and letermovir resistance.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

3.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(5): e190081, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882883

RESUMO

Importance: Studies demonstrating improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant generally exclude infants. Objective: To analyze overall survival trends and other outcomes among infants who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, we used time-trend analysis to evaluate 3 periods: 2000 through 2004, 2005 through 2009, and 2010 through 2014. The study was conducted in a multicenter setting through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, which is made up of a voluntary working group of more than 450 transplant centers worldwide. Two groups of infants aged 1 year or younger in 2 cohorts were included: those with malignant conditions, such as leukemia, and those with nonmalignant disorders, including immunodeficiencies. Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to December 2018. Exposures: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival trends, disease relapse, and toxicity. Results: A total of 2498 infants with a median age of 7 months (range, <1-12 months) were included. In the nonmalignant cohort (n = 472), survival rates improved from the first to the second period (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.63-0.93]; P = .007) but did not change after 2004. Compared with infants with nonmalignant diseases (n = 2026; 3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 375/577 [65.0%]; 2005-2009, 503/699 [72.0%]; and 2010-2014, 555/750 [74.0%]), those with malignant conditions had poorer survival rates, without improvement over time (3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 109/199 [54.8%]; 2005-2009, 104/161 [64.6%]; and 2010-2014, 66/112 [58.9%]). From 2000 through 2014, relapse rates increased in infants with malignant conditions (3-year relapse rate: 2000-2004, 19% [95% CI, 14%-25%]; 2005-2009, 23% [95% CI, 17%-30%]; 2010-2014, 36% [95% CI, 27%-46%]; P = .01). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was frequent, occurring with a cumulative incidence of 13% (95% CI, 11%-16%) of infants with nonmalignant diseases and 32% (95% CI, 22%-42%) of those with malignant diseases. Generally, recipients of human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling bone marrow grafts had the best outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Survival rates have not improved for infants with malignant diseases over the 15-year study period. Infants with nonmalignant diseases had improved survival rates in the earlier but not the later study period. Higher relapses for the malignant cohort and toxicities for all infants remain significant challenges. Strategies to reduce relapse and toxicity and optimize donor and graft selection may improve outcomes in the future.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(4): e27602, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609294

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for primary immunodeficiencies. Bone marrow from an unaffected human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor is the ideal graft source. For minor donors, meaningful consent or assent may not be feasible, and permission from parents or legal guardians is considered acceptable. Adverse events, albeit extremely small, can be associated with bone marrow harvest in pediatric donors. Donor safety concerns potentially increase with multiple bone marrow harvests. Very little is known about multiple bone marrow harvests from pediatric donors. We describe the ethical considerations and clinical decision-making in an unusual clinical situation where three patients with the same primary immunodeficiency were HLA identical to one another and their younger sibling, who underwent bone marrow harvests three times between 1.3 and 4 years of age, resulting in successful transplantation for all three patients. We hope that this experience will provide guidance to providers and families in a similar situation.

5.
Am J Hematol ; 94(4): 446-454, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637784

RESUMO

We conducted a multicenter pilot investigation of the safety and feasibility of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in adults with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) (NCT 01565616) using a reduced toxicity preparative regimen of busulfan (13.2 mg/kg), fludarabine (175 mg/m2 ) and thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg) and cyclosporine or tacrolimus and methotrexate for graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Twenty-two patients (median age 22 years; range 17-36) were enrolled at eight centers. Seventeen patients received marrow from an HLA-identical sibling donor and five patients received marrow from an 8/8 HLA-allele matched unrelated donor. Before BMT, patients had stroke, acute chest syndrome, recurrent pain events, were receiving regular red blood cell transfusions, or had an elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet (TRJ) velocity, which fulfilled eligibility criteria. Four patients developed grades II-III acute GVHD (18%) and six developed chronic GVHD (27%) that was moderate in two and severe in one patient. One patient died of intracranial hemorrhage and one of GVHD. Nineteen patients had stable donor chimerism, 1-year post-transplant. One patient who developed secondary graft failure survives disease-free after a second BMT. The one-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) are 91% (95% CI 68%-98%) and 86% (95% CI, 63%-95%), respectively, and 3-year EFS is 82%. Statistically significant improvements in the pain interference and physical function domains of health-related quality of life were observed. The study satisfied the primary endpoint of 1-year EFS ≥70%. This regimen is being studied in a prospective clinical trial comparing HLA-matched donor BMT with standard of care in adults with severe SCD (NCT02766465).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the DOCK8 gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8 deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range: 0.7-27.2) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (3-135), 68 of 81 patients are alive (84%). Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 11% and 10% respectively. Causes of death wereinfections (n=5), GVHD (5), multi-organ failure (2) and pre-existent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n=40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared to fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs. 78%; p=0.049). 96% of patients aged <8 years at HSCT survived, compared to 78% of those ≥8 years (p=0.06). Of 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had >90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections and Mollusca resolved better than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8 deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections and graft-versus-host disease have historically resulted in high mortality among children undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, recent advances in clinical practice have likely improved outcomes of these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years of age) undergoing UCBT at Duke University between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. We compared two-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality during three time periods based on year of transplantation (1995-2001, 2002-2007, 2008-2014). We used multivariable Cox regression to identify demographic and UCBT characteristics that were associated with all-cause mortality, transplantation-related mortality, and death from invasive aspergillosis after adjustment for time period. RESULTS: During the 20-year study period, 824 children underwent UCBT. Two-year all-cause mortality declined from 48% in 1995-2001 to 30% in 2008-2014 (P=0.0002). White patient race and non-malignant UCBT indications were associated with lower mortality. Black children tended to have a higher risk of death for which graft-versus-host disease (18% vs 11%; P=0.06) or graft failure (9% vs 3%; P=0.01) were contributory than white children. Comparing 2008-2014 to 1995-2001, more than half (59%) of the reduced mortality was attributable to a reduction in infectious mortality, with 45% specifically related to reduced mortality from invasive aspergillosis. Antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole was associated with lower mortality from invasive aspergillosis than low-dose amphotericin B lipid complex [hazard ratio (HR): 0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.76]. With the decline in mortality from invasive aspergillosis, adenovirus and cytomegalovirus have become the most frequent infectious causes of death in children after UCBT. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in clinical practice over the past 20 years improved survival of children after UCBT. Reduced mortality from infections, particularly invasive aspergillosis, accounted for the largest improvement in survival and was associated with use of voriconazole for antifungal prophylaxis.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(11): 2233-2238, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933067

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can retard the progression of early infantile Krabbe disease (EIKD). Superior outcomes are achieved if HSCT is performed before the onset of symptoms; however, little information is available about the long-term outcomes in surviving patients. We now describe functional outcomes in presymptomatic infants who underwent HSCT for EIKD at ≤ 2 months of age. Records of the 19 patients who underwent HSCT for EIKD at ≤ 2 months of age from 1996 to 2010 were reviewed. Long-term functional outcomes were compared between those transplanted at < 30 days and ≥ 30 days of life. Median age at transplant was 27 days (range, 19 to 61). Median follow-up of the cohort was 12.6 years. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years post-transplant was 84.2% (95% confidence interval, 58.7% to 94.6%) and 78.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.5% to 91.4%), respectively. More favorable outcomes were seen in patients who underwent HSCT at < 30 days of age, particularly in domains of mobility (P = .01), communication (P = .02), and feeding (P = .008). Improved functional outcomes were observed when HSCT was performed in the first month of life, defining a critical period for intervention. These results support the implementation of newborn screening to enable rapid diagnosis and early treatment of infants with EIKD.

10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(suppl_1): S31-S39, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746680

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital disorder characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and development of severe inflammation secondary to a congenital defect in 1 of the 5 phagocyte oxidase (phox) subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a curative treatment for patients with CGD that provides donor neutrophils with functional NADPH and superoxide anion production. Many characteristics of CGD, including preexisting infection and inflammation and the potential for cure with mixed-donor chimerism, influence the transplant approach and patient outcome. Because of the dangers of short-term death, graft-versus-host disease, and late effects from chemotherapy, HCT historically has been reserved for patients with high-risk disease and a matched donor. However, as advances in CGD and HCT treatments have evolved, recommendations on transplant eligibility also must be amended, but the development of modern guidelines has proven difficult. In this review, we provide an overview of HCT in patients with CGD, including the debate over HCT indications in them, the unique aspects of CGD that can complicate HCT, and a summary of transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Células Mieloides/transplante , NADPH Oxidases/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo
11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(6): 1216-1222, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374585

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). In a multicenter trial we investigated the efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before unrelated donor (URD) HSCT in children with TDT. Thirty-three children, ages 1 to 17 years, received bone marrow (BM) or umbilical cord blood (UCB) allografts. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range, 10 to 25) and 24 days (range, 18 to 49) and platelet engraftment 23 days (range, 12 to 46) and 50 days (range, 31 to 234) after BM and UCB allografts, respectively. With a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 7 to 79), overall and thalassemia-free survival was 82% (95% CI, .64% to .92%) and 79% (95% CI, .6% to .9%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after BM and UCB allografts was 24% and 44%; the 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic extensive GVHD was 29% and 21%, respectively; 71% of BM and 91% of UCB recipients discontinued systemic immunosuppression by 2 years. Six patients who had Pesaro risk class 2 (n = 5) and class 3 (n = 1) died of GVHD (n = 3), viral pneumonitis (n = 2) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n = 1). Outcomes after this RIC compared favorably with URD HSCT outcomes for TDT and supported engraftment in 32 of 33 patients. Efforts to reduce GVHD and infectious complications are being pursued further.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

13.
Blood ; 130(25): 2718-2727, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021228

RESUMO

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is enrolling children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) to a prospective natural history study. We analyzed patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2010 to 2014, including 68 patients with typical SCID and 32 with leaky SCID, Omenn syndrome, or reticular dysgenesis. Most (59%) patients were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. The 2-year overall survival was 90%, but was 95% for those who were infection-free at HCT vs 81% for those with active infection (P = .009). Other factors, including the diagnosis of typical vs leaky SCID/Omenn syndrome, diagnosis via family history or newborn screening, use of preparative chemotherapy, or the type of donor used, did not impact survival. Although 1-year post-HCT median CD4 counts and freedom from IV immunoglobulin were improved after the use of preparative chemotherapy, other immunologic reconstitution parameters were not affected, and the potential for late sequelae in extremely young infants requires additional evaluation. After a T-cell-replete graft, landmark analysis at day +100 post-HCT revealed that CD3 < 300 cells/µL, CD8 < 50 cells/µL, CD45RA < 10%, or a restricted Vß T-cell receptor repertoire (<13 of 24 families) were associated with the need for a second HCT or death. In the modern era, active infection continues to pose the greatest threat to survival for SCID patients. Although newborn screening has been effective in diagnosing SCID patients early in life, there is an urgent need to identify validated approaches through prospective trials to ensure that patients proceed to HCT infection free. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01186913.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Reconstituição Imune , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/etiologia , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(10): 1695-1700, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627425

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative in patients with ß-thalassemia major. However, most reports on HCT outcomes lack long-term follow-up data with the exception of single-center reports. An international multicenter retrospective data collection and analysis was conducted in 176 ß-thalassemia patients who were 1 year or beyond after first HCT to evaluate follow-up methods and outcomes at 7 centers. Median age at HCT was 5.5 years (range, .6 to 18.5), and median follow-up was 7 years (range, 1 to 20). HCT was predominantly from HLA-matched related donors (91%) with bone marrow as stem cell source (91%) and myeloablative conditioning regimens (88%). Late mortality or persistent chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was rare (<2%). Graft rejection was reported in 23% (24% of these occurred beyond 1 year) post-HCT. Of 119 patients with donor chimerism results available for ≥4 years post-HCT, 50% had >95%, 22% had 50% to 95%, 7% had 20% to 50% and 25 (21%) had <20% donor chimerism. Organ dysfunction was identified in 10% pre-HCT and in 20% post-HCT even without complete clinical details on all patients. Hypogonadism and elevated creatinine for age were most commonly reported and significantly higher in recipients ≥ 7 years at the time of HCT (P = .007) and in those with pre-existing morbidity before HCT (P = .02). Outcomes were unaffected by pre-HCT ferritin or GVHD. Mean z scores for height and weight were low at baseline and remained low post-HCT (79%), confirming that growth impairment from disease lacked recovery post-HCT during this follow-up period. HCT for ß-thalassemia has a high rate of cure and low mortality, especially in the young and from HLA-matched related donors. Half of the number of recipients live with mixed chimerism that requires continued follow-up because of a risk of late graft rejection (14%). Organ function after HCT when <7 years of age was generally preserved. Hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, and growth impairment that failed to correct were late complications identified most frequently in older transplant recipients. Systematic follow-up of individual organs such as lung and heart were inadequate but important. These data support the development of simple measures of uniformly tracking long-term HCT outcomes and organ functions in children and adolescents who undergo HCT for thalassemia, allowing for systematic identification and implementation of standardized surveillance strategies and interventions.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(10): 1722-1728, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647558

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, central nervous system disease, increased inflammatory markers, and hemophagocytosis. Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative approach for patients with HLH, with reported survival ranging from 50% to 70% with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, donor availability and transplantation-related mortality associated with conventional MAC are major barriers to success. Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) provides a readily available alternative donor source for patients lacking matched related donors. Accordingly, we report the results of UCBT in 14 children treated between 1998 and 2016. All children received standard HLH chemotherapy before UCBT. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 months (range, .8 to 10.4) and at transplantation was 7.5 months (range, 3.8 to 17). Ten patients received MAC with busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide /antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 5), busulfan/cyclophosphamide /ATG (n = 4), or busulfan /melphalan/ATG (n = 1). Four patients received reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) with alemtuzumab/fludarabine/melphalan/hydroxyurea ± thiotepa. Cord blood units were mismatched at either 1 (n = 9) or 2 (n = 5) loci and delivered a median total nucleated cell dose of 11.9 × 107/kg (range, 4.6 to 27.9) and CD34+ dose of 3.1 × 105/kg (range, 1.1 to 6.8). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment by day 42 was 78.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.9% to 93.4%) with a median of 19 days (range, 13 to 27), and that for platelet (50,000) engraftment by day 100 was 64.3% (95% CI, 28.2% to 85.7%) with a median of 51 days (range, 31 to 94). Six patients developed either grade II (n = 5) or grade IV (n = 1) acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); no extensive chronic GVHD was seen. Ten patients (71.4%) are alive and well at a median of 11.2 years after transplantation (range, .85 to 18.25), 9 of whom maintain sustained full donor chimerism after a single UCBT, whereas 1 patient with autologous recovery after first UCBT with RTC has achieved full donor chimerism after a second UCBT with MAC. This series demonstrates that, in combination with standard HLH therapy, UCBT after MAC or RTC conditioning can provide long-term survival with durable complete donor chimerism comparable to that of conventional donors. UCBT should be considered for patients with HLH lacking a fully matched related or unrelated adult donor.


Assuntos
Quimerismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/normas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Humanos , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
16.
Pediatr Transplant ; 19(7): 753-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26369627

RESUMO

The use of HSCT is the only potentially curative treatment for CAMT, but access is limited by the availability of suitable donors. We report five consecutive patients with CAMT who received MAC and partially HLA-mismatched, UCBT (unrelated, n = 4). Median times to neutrophil (>500/µL) and platelet (≥20 000 and ≥50 000/µL) engraftment were 19, 57, and 70 days, respectively. Acute GvHD, grade II, developed in one patient, who subsequently developed limited chronic GvHD. At median follow-up of 14 yr, all patients are alive with sustained donor cell engraftment. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-center series of UCBT for patients with this disease and suggests that UCBT is a successful curative option for patients with CAMT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 62(12): 2216-22, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) due to mutations in the gene encoding CD40 ligand results in failure of Ig class switching and an increased propensity for recurrent sinopulmonary and other infections, and thus decreased life expectancy. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative, but long-term follow-up data are limited. PROCEDURES: We conducted a retrospective analysis of seven patients who have undergone allogeneic HSCT for HIGM syndrome at Duke University Medical Center. RESULTS: Median age at transplant was 5.2 years (range 0.7-19.3). None of the patients had active hepatic or pulmonary disease immediately prior to transplant, but all had a history of serious infections. Five patients received myeloablative conditioning, and two patients received reduced intensity conditioning. Graft sources included bone marrow, peripheral blood, and unrelated umbilical cord blood. Post-transplantation complications included veno-occlusive disease, hemorrhagic cystitis, adenoviremia, and cryptosporidium recurrence in one patient each. Two patients developed acute GVHD grades II-IV that resolved promptly with treatment and none developed extensive chronic GVHD. All patients are intravenous IgG-independent and 6/7 have normal antibody titers. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels normalized in all but one patient and T and B cell numbers and function are otherwise normal in all. All patients are alive at a median follow-up of 9.7 (range 9.7-16.1) years post-transplantation with predominantly donor chimerism and no recurrent infections. CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic HSCT results in excellent survival and sustained immune reconstitution in patients with CD40 ligand deficiency using both myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning approaches and various graft sources, including bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM Tipo 1/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/imunologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/etiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/etiologia , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/mortalidade , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/etiologia , Cistite/imunologia , Cistite/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM Tipo 1/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM Tipo 1/mortalidade , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/imunologia , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 300-3, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25121636

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a disease caused by dysregulation and hyperactivation of the immune system, and can be familial or acquired. HLH presenting in infancy can be rapidly fatal if not promptly recognized and treated. Congenital HLH can be caused by various genetic mutations or part of immunodeficiency syndromes. We present an infant with Griscelli syndrome and familial HLH with atypical genetic mutations, presenting as thrombocytopenia on the first day of life, cured with chemotherapy and unrelated cord blood transplant.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/congênito , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Piebaldismo/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP
19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 20(3): 326-36, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24296492

RESUMO

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have the potential to decrease transplantation-related morbidity and mortality. However, engraftment failure has been prohibitively high after RIC unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in chemotherapy-naïve children with nonmalignant diseases (NMD). Twenty-two children with a median age of 2.8 years, many with severe comorbidities and prior viral infections, were enrolled in a novel RIC protocol consisting of hydroxyurea, alemtuzumab, fludarabine, melphalan, and thiotepa followed by single UCBT. Patients underwent transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders (n = 8), primary immunodeficiencies (n = 9), hemoglobinopathies (n = 4) and Diamond Blackfan anemia (n = 1). Most umbilical cord blood (UCB) units were HLA-mismatched with median infused total nucleated cell dose of 7.9 × 10(7)/kg. No serious organ toxicities were attributable to the regimen. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 86.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 100%) in a median of 20 days, with the majority sustaining > 95% donor chimerism at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and III to IV by day 180 was 27.3% (95% CI, 8.7% to 45.9%) and 13.6% (95 CI, 0% to 27.6%), respectively. Cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was 9.1% (95% CI, 0% to 20.8%). The primary causes of death were viral infections (n = 3), acute GVHD (n = 1) and transfusion reaction (n = 1). One-year overall and event-free survivals were 77.3% (95% CI, 53.7% to 89.8%) and 68.2% (95% CI, 44.6% to 83.4%) with 31 months median follow-up. This is the first RIC protocol demonstrating durable UCB engraftment in children with NMD. Future risk-based modifications of this regimen could decrease the incidence of viral infections. (www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00744692).


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/terapia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/imunologia , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/mortalidade , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/mortalidade , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Hemoglobinopatias/imunologia , Hemoglobinopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Quimeras de Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Doadores não Relacionados
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 32(5): 1141-4, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22864628

RESUMO

Two infants are described who presented with 22q11.2 deletion and a T(-)B(-)NK(+) immune phenotype. For both infants, the initial diagnosis was athymia secondary to complete DiGeorge anomaly. The first infant underwent thymus transplantation but 6 months after transplantation had circulating thymus donor T cells; the patient did not develop recipient naïve T cells. Genetic analyses revealed that both patients had Artemis deficiency, a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Both infants have subsequently undergone bone marrow transplantation. These cases illustrate the importance and paradox of differentiating SCID from complete DiGeorge anomaly because hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the preferred treatment for SCID but is ineffective for complete DiGeorge anomaly. However, if the thymus is completely absent, donor stem cells from a HSCT would not be able to be educated.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Endonucleases , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
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