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1.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359957

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are gene expression regulators associated with several human pathologies, including those generated by viral infections. Their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 has been investigated and reviewed in many informative studies; however, a thorough miRNA outline in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women (SIPW), at both systemic and placental levels, is missing. To fill this gap, blood and placenta biopsies collected at delivery from 15 asymptomatic SIPW were immediately analysed for: miRNA expression (n = 84) (QPCR array), antiviral/immune mRNA target expression (n = 74) (QGene) and cytokine/chemokines production (n = 27) (Multiplex ELISA). By comparing these results with those obtained from six uninfected pregnant women (UPW), we observed that, following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the transcriptomic profile of pregnant women is significantly altered in different anatomical districts, even in the absence of clinical symptoms and vertical transmission. This characteristic combination of miRNA and antiviral/immune factors seems to control both the infection and the dysfunctional immune reaction, thus representing a positive correlate of protection and a potential therapeutic target against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/genética , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/sangue , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 171: 105786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314858

RESUMO

Women of childbearing age are largely affected by several autoimmune disorders (the estimates range between 1.5 and 10 per 10,000). The increasing number of effective biological agents has dramatically revolutionized the treatment of these clinical conditions, ameliorating the patient's quality of life. The use of these agents by women during pregnancy is growing to ensure the disease activity control and avoid adverse health outcomes. However, for many newer biological agents, the degree of information concerning their use in pregnancy is often incomplete to perform a conclusive risk assessment on fetal and maternal health given the exclusion of this specific population from pharmacological clinical trials. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has confirmed the unacceptable inequities of pharmacological research and medical treatment for pregnant and lactating women, exacerbating the need for filling the gaps of quantitative and qualitative pharmacology data in this sensitive population. ere we summarize (i) what is already known about safety and effectiveness of biological agents in this understudied population (with specific focus on pregnancy-related health outcomes), and what we are going to learn from the on-going studies among pregnant women treated with biological agents; (ii) the methodological and ethical considerations that characterize the pharmacological research in pregnancy, also discussing emerging evidence on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in this clinical setting.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
3.
Reprod Sci ; 28(10): 2939-2941, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296422

RESUMO

Pregnant women display a higher risk of progression to disease and higher viral loads during infections due to their more permissive, tolerogenic immune system. However, only few studies have focused on SARS-CoV-2 intrapartum vertical transmission via vaginal secretions or faeces. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the virus in vaginal, rectal and blood specimens from pregnant women characterized by different COVID-19 disease severity. We enrolled 56 SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women, of which 46 (82%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, 6 (10%) in the second and 4 (7%) in the first. QPCR was performed to detect the virus in vaginal and rectal swabs and in plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 27% of rectal swabs of pregnant women in the third trimester, while no virus particles were detected in vaginal swabs of the same patients. Furthermore, only 4% plasma samples tested positive to SARS-CoV-2. No virus was detected in newborn's nasopharyngeal swabs. Despite the low number of subjects enrolled, our data suggest that, while theoretically possible, intrapartum vaginal or orofecal SARS-CoV-2 transmission seems to be unlikely.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920886

RESUMO

Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing worldwide, representing risk factors for both mother and child short/long-term outcomes. Oxidative stress, lipotoxicity and altered autophagy have already been reported in obesity, but few studies have focused on obese pregnant women with GDM. Antioxidant and macro/chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)-related gene expressions were evaluated herein in obese and GDM placentas. A total of 47 women with singleton pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section were enrolled: 16 normal weight (NW), 18 obese with no comorbidities (OB GDM(-)), 13 obese with GDM (OB GDM(+)). Placental gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR. Antioxidant gene expression (CAT, GPX1, GSS) decreased, the pro-autophagic ULK1 gene increased and the chaperone-mediated autophagy regulator PHLPP1 decreased in OB GDM(-) vs. NW. On the other hand, PHLPP1 expression increased in OB GDM(+) vs. OB GDM(-). When analyzing results in relation to fetal sex, we found sexual dimorphism for both antioxidant and CMA-related gene expressions. These preliminary results can pave the way for further analyses aimed at elucidating the placental autophagy role in metabolic pregnancy disorders and its potential targetability for the treatment of diabetes outcomes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Obesidade Materna/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Gravidez
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572203

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity during pregnancy have been associated with increased birth weight, childhood obesity, and noncommunicable diseases in the offspring, leading to a vicious transgenerational perpetuating of metabolic derangements. Key components in intrauterine developmental programming still remain to be identified. Obesity involves chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that, in addition to physiological adaptations to pregnancy, may potentially expand to the placental interface and lead to intrauterine derangements with a threshold effect. Animal models, where maternal inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resembling the obesity-induced immune profile, showed increased adiposity and impaired metabolic homeostasis in the offspring, similar to the phenotype observed after exposure to maternal obesity. Cytokine levels might be specifically important for the metabolic imprinting, as cytokines are transferable from maternal to fetal circulation and have the capability to modulate placental nutrient transfer. Maternal inflammation may induce metabolic reprogramming at several levels, starting from the periconceptional period with effects on the oocyte going through early stages of embryonic and placental development. Given the potential to reduce inflammation through inexpensive, widely available therapies, examinations of the impact of chronic inflammation on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as preventive interventions, are now needed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/imunologia , Obesidade Materna/imunologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/imunologia , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Obesidade Materna/complicações , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 32-38, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582312

RESUMO

Among the innate and adaptative immune cells recruited to the tumour site, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are particularly abundant and by simplified classification can be classified into (M1) and (M2) TAMs. In the present study, we quantified by immunohistochemistry ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive total and CD204-positive M2-polarized TAMs in 60 canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs) to analyze the relationship between M1 or M2 response and the histopathologic features of examined CMMTs, the dogs' body condition score (BCS) and the progression of the neoplastic disease. The mean number of total and CD204+ TAMS were significantly higher in solid and in grade III than in grades I and II carcinomas. Moreover, the mean number of CD204-positive TAMs was significantly higher in CMMTs with lymphatic invasion and necrosis rather than CMMTs without. The presence of higher number of CD204-positive M2-polarized TAMs was associated with a worst outcome of the neoplastic disease: bitches bearing CMMTs with a prevalent M2-polarized TAM response had a median cancer-specific survival time of 449 days, while in animals with a M1-polarized TAM response the median cancer-specific survival time was 1209 days. The results of our study confirm that in CMMTs the presence of a M2-polarized TAMs response might affect the tumour development and behaviour. Finally, it strongly suggests the potential of CD204 expression as a prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/classificação , Prognóstico
7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(3): e324-e329, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833307

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the incidence of normal vision following anatomically successful macular hole surgery and associated clinical variables. METHODS: Multicentre, retrospective chart review. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records from seven European vitreoretinal units. Inclusion criteria were as follows: eyes undergoing primary vitrectomy for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole from January 2015 to January 2018; postoperative macular hole closure confirmed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT); preoperative pseudophakia or phakic eyes receiving combined cataract surgery; one-year follow-up. The primary outcome was 'normal vision' defined as a final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥ 20/25. Univariate, multivariate and decision-tree analyses were conducted to evaluate the clinical variables associated with 'normal vision'. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of 327 eligible cases, 91 (27.8%) achieved 'normal vision' at 1 year. Multivariate analysis identified variables significantly associated with 'normal vision': shorter symptom duration (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.02-1.09; p = 0.002), smaller preoperative OCT minimum linear diameter (OR per 100-micron increase = 1.65; 95%CI:1.31-2.08; p < 0.001) and better mean preoperative BCVA (OR = 15.13; 95%CI: 3.59-63.65; p < 0.001). The decision-tree analysis found that the most significant variable associated with 'normal vision' was symptom duration. 'Normal vision' was achieved in 70.6% of eyes operated within one week from symptom onset and in 45% of eyes with symptom duration between 1 and 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested urgent surgery is justified for small macular holes of short duration.

8.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(1): 151-157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969522

RESUMO

The Italian Law 38/2010, 'Dispositions to guarantee access to Palliative Care and Pain Management' orders that the health care systems of Italian regions create dedicated structures for palliative care and pain therapies, according to a specific organizational model called 'Hub-Spoke', to ensure the diagnostic-therapeutic continuity of patients affected by chronic pain (CP). The aim of our study was to investigate the Italian pain therapy network, 8 years following the approval of the Law. We sent a questionnaire to the national health representatives operating in CP management. The main result emerging from the analysis concerns the management of mini-invasive procedures, showing that 93.2% of the responding facilities carry out invasive procedures, 6.8% do not perform them and that 100% of the facilities belonging to 12 regions provided these procedures, while in eight regions more than 80%. Finally, only 38.5% of facilities declared to have a shared protocol with the relevant territorial facilities in order to guarantee the process of care and assistance of patients affected by CP. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the efficacy of the organizational model in most of the responding facilities, although the territorial management of patients after their hospital discharge should be strengthened.

9.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(1): e74-e80, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588978

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report clinical outcomes of two different timings of intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implant administration for prevention of diabetic macular oedema (DME) worsening following cataract surgery. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective study included patients with DME who received an intravitreal DEX implant 1 month before cataract surgery, 'precataract DEX' group, or at the time of cataract surgery, 'concomitant treatments' group. Inclusion criteria were a follow-up ≥3 months and ophthalmological examination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at baseline (cataract surgery) and throughout follow-up. Anatomical improvement was considered to be a decrease in OCT central subfield (CSF) thickness ≥20% compared to baseline. The primary outcomes were anatomical and functional results at 3 months. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-one patients were included: 136 in the 'precataract DEX' group and 85 in the 'concomitant treatments' group. At 3 months, a reduction of CSF thickness ≥ 20% was found in 7.3% of eyes in the 'precataract DEX group' and in 83.7% of eyes in the 'concomitant treatments' group (p < 0.001), with mean CSF thickness lower in the latter group (371 ± 52 µm versus 325 ± 57 µm, p < 0.001). At 3 months, mean best-corrected visual acuity had improved from baseline in both groups (p < 0.001), with no difference between groups (p = 0. 20). No serious systemic adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Both approaches prevented a worsening of DME, showing a comparable visual outcome. Dexamethasone (DEX) implant given at the same time as cataract surgery provided a better anatomical outcome.

10.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(3): 241-250, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245671

RESUMO

Introduction: The prognosis of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer has radically improved after the introduction of (neo)adjuvant anti-HER2 targeted therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate combining the anticancer properties of the anti-HER2 agent trastuzumab and the antineoplastic cytotoxic drug DM1. After demonstrating to be an effective and safe treatment for patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer, the development of T-DM1 has moved to the early setting.Areas covered: The aim of this review is to explore the current role of T-DM1 in the treatment landscape of HER2-positive early breast cancer, focusing specifically on the efficacy and safety data available in the adjuvant setting.Expert opinion: T-DM1 is an effective and safe treatment option in the adjuvant setting for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer without pathologic complete response after standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus anti-HER2 targeted therapy. With the availability of more effective anti-HER2 targeted agents, including T-DM1, there is an urgent need for more chemotherapy de-escalation research efforts in the early setting.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271887

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is considered the most important respiratory nematode of domestic cats worldwide. This parasite inhabits the alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles and causes a subacute to chronic respiratory clinical disease. Clinical signs may occur in domestic cats of any age, though they are more often described in young animals. Physical examination, echocardiography, thoracic radiography, pulmonary and cardiac pathological findings, classical, and molecular parasitological analysis of a six-month-old kitten referred at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Pisa (Italy) led to a diagnosis of parasitic bronchopneumonia caused by A. abstrusus, which was complicated by severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right-sided congestive heart failure (R-CHF) that caused the death of the animal. Cases of reversible PH associated with A. abstrusus infection have been seldom reported in cats. This is the first report of fatal PH and R-CHF in a kitten with clinical aelurostrongylosis.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008982, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370309

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging and globally spread zoonosis caused by pathogenic genomospecies of Leptospira. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are an important Leptospira host and are increasing in population all over Europe. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate Leptospira spp. infection in the reproductive systems of wild boar hunted in two Italian regions: Tuscany and Sardinia. From 231 animals, reproductive system tissue samples (testicles, epididymides, uteri) as well as placentas and fetuses were collected. Bacteriological examination and Real-Time PCR were performed to detect pathogenic Leptospira (lipL32 gene). Leptospires were isolated from the testicles and epididymides of one adult and two subadult wild boar. Four isolates from the two subadult males were identified as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis by MLST, whereas Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Grippotyphosa was identified from the adult testicles and epididymis. Using Real-Time PCR, 70 samples were positive: 22 testicles (23.16%) and 22 epididymides (23.16%), 10 uteri (7.35%), 3 placentas (6.66%), and 13 fetuses (28.88%). Amplification of the rrs2 gene identified L. interrogans and L. kirschneri species. The results from this investigation confirmed that wild boar represent a potential source of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Isolation of Leptospira serogroups Australis and Grippotyphosa from the male reproductive system and the positive Real-Time PCR results from both male and female samples could suggest venereal transmission, as already demonstrated in pigs. Furthermore, placentas and fetuses were positive for the lipL32 target, and this finding may be related to a possible vertical transmission of pathogenic Leptospira.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Epididimo/microbiologia , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/microbiologia , Testículo/microbiologia , Útero/microbiologia
13.
ESMO Open ; 5(Suppl 4): e000771, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115753

RESUMO

Survivorship is an area of paramount importance to be addressed as early as possible after cancer diagnosis by all health care providers. On this regard, cancer care in young patients often poses several age-related considerations among which fertility and pregnancy-related issues have a crucial role. According to the available guidelines on the topic, all patients with cancer diagnosed during their reproductive years should be provided a proper oncofertility counselling before starting anticancer treatments. This is an important step in order to inform patients about the potential treatment-induced gonadotoxicity and the available strategies for fertility preservation so that they can be referred as early as possible to fertility specialists if potentially interested in these options.In this manuscript, we aim to provide an up to date overview on the available efficacy and safety data with the main strategies for fertility preservation in male and female cancer patients in order to help optimising the oncofertility counselling performed by healthcare providers involved in cancer care and dealing with young patients. In male patients with cancer, sperm cryopreservation is the standard technique for fertility preservation. Oocyte/embryo cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and temporary ovarian suppression with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy are the main options in female patients with cancer.A multidisciplinary management building a strong network between fertility and oncology/haematology units is crucial to properly address fertility care in all young patients with cancer, at both diagnosis and during oncologic follow-up. Discussing fertility and pregnancy-related issues with young patients with cancer has to be considered mandatory nowadays keeping in mind that returning to a normal life (including the possibility to have a family and to live with as few side effects as possible) should be considered an important ambition in cancer care in the 21st century .

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916873

RESUMO

Pearsonema spp. nematodes infect the urinary bladder of domestic and wild carnivores. The red fox is considered a reservoir of Pearsonema plica, while the prevalence of Pearsonema spp. in domestic carnivores is still poorly known. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of Pearsonema spp. infection in privately owned cats (26) and dogs (83) from central and northern Italy alongside occurrence in red foxes (42) from central Italy. In positive dogs and cats, associated clinical signs were also evaluated. Urine samples were first examined under a stereomicroscope; then, they were centrifuged and microscopically examined after a flotation test. As for foxes, the urinary bladders were opened and urine was collected and processed as above, while collected nematodes were identified at the species level. Among examined animals, 2/26 cats (7.7%), 1/83 dogs (1.2%), and 38/42 foxes (90.5%) scored positive. Recurrent cystitis, pollakiuria, and hematuria were the main clinical signs in symptomatic dogs and cats. This is the first study on Pearsonema spp. infection in domestic carnivores examining a large number of privately owned pet animals. Obtained results confirm the role of the red fox as a reservoir for P. plica and suggest a possible high occurrence of Pearsonema spp. infection in domestic cats of central Italy.

15.
Breast Cancer (Auckl) ; 14: 1178223420954179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952399

RESUMO

The improved prognosis of breast cancer patients makes survivorship issues an area of crucial importance. In this regard, an increased attention is needed toward the development of potential anticancer treatment-related long-term side-effects, including gonadal failure and infertility in young women. Therefore, fertility preservation and family planning are crucial issues to be addressed in all young women of reproductive age with newly diagnosed cancer. Despite a growing availability of data on the efficacy and safety of fertility preservation options and the fact that conceiving after prior history of breast cancer has become more accepted over time, there are still several gray zones in this field so that many physicians remain uncomfortable to deal with these topics. The purpose of this review is to answer some of the most controversial questions frequently asked by patients during their oncofertility counseling, in order to provide a detailed and up-to-date overview on the evidence available in this field to physicians involved in the care of young women with breast cancer.

16.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 14: 1179554920931816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647477

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed in premenopausal women. In this age group, breast tumors tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages and to harbor more aggressive biological features. In addition, specific age-related issues including genetic counseling, fertility preservation, impact on social and couple relationships, working life, and management of long-term side effects should be considered highly relevant when managing early breast cancer in premenopausal women. Therefore, the care of these patients is particularly complex and a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. The present review summarizes the current state of art in the adjuvant systemic treatment of premenopausal women with early breast cancer focusing on the optimal chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and targeted therapy approaches in this specific patient population.

17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560356

RESUMO

This study investigated the associations between maternal adherence to a healthy diet, first trimester placental markers, and pregnancy outcome. Singleton spontaneous pregnancies were enrolled at 11+0-13+6 gestational weeks in a prospective cohort study. A nutritional score (0-10) measuring the adherence to a healthy diet was calculated. A transabdominal ultrasound scan for placental marker assessment was performed (uterine artery (UtA) doppler, placental volume). Biochemical placental markers were recorded (Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A (PAPP-A), free ß- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)). Birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. Associations between the maternal nutritional score, first trimester placental markers, and pregnancy outcome were investigated by using multi-adjusted general linear models. In total, 112 pregnancies were enrolled with a median nutritional score of 7 (range 3-10). Median gestational age at birth was 277 days (range 203-296). The nutritional score was positively associated with PAPP-A concentrations, whereas a negative association was detected with the UtA mean pulsatility index and placental volume. A positive association was detected between nutritional score and gestational age at birth. This study demonstrates that a first trimester nutritional score as a measure of adherence to a healthy diet is significantly associated with early biochemical and ultrasound markers of placental development, with further association with gestational age at birth.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Placenta/fisiologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Projetos Piloto , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Uterina/fisiologia
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(4): 985-991, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558332

RESUMO

Pathogenic Leptospira is widespread in rodents, the most studied reservoir and the main hosts involved in its transmission. In Italy, among rodents, Hystrix cristata (crested porcupine) is the largest species and it is distributed all over the country. In this paper, the isolation and characterization of pathogenic Leptospira spp. from the kidney of H. cristata is reported for the first time. During Autumn 2018, Leptospira detection by real-time PCR and isolation were performed from kidneys of two died female porcupines (an adult and a porcupette). Only for porcupette kidney sample, real-time PCR for pathogenic Leptospira tested positive. The isolated strain was identified as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Pomona serovar Pomona, using the three schemes of multilocus sequence typing. The results show that H. cristata could be a Leptospira host. The infection of serovars Pomona could be related to the habitat shared with wild boar, a typical reservoir host for this serovar.

19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 252-258, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical evolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized pregnant women and potential factors associated with severe maternal outcomes. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study of pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to 12 Italian maternity hospitals between February 23 and March 28, 2020. Clinical records, laboratory and radiologic examinations, and pregnancy outcomes were collected. A subgroup of patients with severe disease was identified based on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, delivery for respiratory compromise, or both. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included, 14 of whom had severe disease (18%). Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were admitted during the third trimester, and 84% were symptomatic on admission. Eleven patients underwent urgent delivery for respiratory compromise (16%), and six were admitted to the ICU (8%). One woman received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; no deaths occurred. Preterm delivery occurred in 12% of patients, and nine newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Patients in the severe subgroup had significantly higher pregestational body mass indexes (BMIs) and heart and respiratory rates and a greater frequency of fever or dyspnea on admission compared with women with a nonsevere disease evolution. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, one in five women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection delivered urgently for respiratory compromise or were admitted to the ICU. None, however, died. Increased pregestational BMI and abnormal heart and respiratory rates on admission were associated with severe disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432130

RESUMO

Sarcoptic mange represents the most severe disease for wild Caprinae individuals and populations in Europe, raising concerns for both conservation and management of these ungulates. To date, this disease has been investigated in different wild caprine species and under many different perspectives including diagnostics, epidemiology, impact on the host populations, and genetics of both hosts and parasite, with the aim to disentangle the host-Sarcoptes scabiei relationship. Notwithstanding, uncertainty remains and basic questions still need an answer. Among these are the effect of immune responses on mange severity at an individual level, the main drivers in host-parasite interactions for different clinical outcomes, and the role of the immune response in determining the shift from epidemic to endemic cycle. A deeper approach to the pathology of this disease seems therefore advisable, all the more reason considering that immune response to S. scabiei in wild Caprinae, generally classified as a hypersensitivity, remains poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed the pathological features associated to sarcoptic mange in wildlife, exploring different kinds of hypersensitivity and outcomes, with the objective of highlighting the major drivers in the different responses to this disease at an individual level and proposing some key topics for future research, with a particular attention to Alps-dwelling wild caprines.

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