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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160696

RESUMO

Although the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an important pathogen in crop cultivation, few methods are available to control this parasitic nematode. In this study, the nematicidal effects of approximately 30 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil samples of Mt. Naejang (Korea) were tested against Meloidogyne incognita, and the culture broth of the strains KRA-24 and KRA-28 exhibited an approximately 75% and 85% insecticidal activity in in vitro assays. In in vivo pot experiments, theses strains reduced the number of nematodes in the soil and the number of egg masses in the roots of red peppers. The two strains also survived in the presence of insecticidal agents (0.1 to 3.0%) such as fosthiazate, ethoprophos and terbufos when they used in parallel. The mixture of KRA-24 or KRA-28 culture broth and fosthiazate exhibited nematicidal effects that were similar to those observed when KRA-24 or KRA-28 used alone. Our results clearly suggest that the Streptomyces strains KRA-24 and KRA-28 should be promote as a biocontrol agent against Meloidogyne incognita.

2.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 73(3): 184-188, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853030

RESUMO

A LC-MS-guided screening led to the isolation of two new streptimidone derivatives (2 and 3) containing a glutarimide ring and two glutarimide ring-opened compounds (4 and 5) along with a known glutarimide-containing polyketide, streptimidone (1) from Streptomyces sp. W3002 strain. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with data from the literature. Compound 2 is a non-hydroxylated analog at the C-5 position of streptimidone. The structure of 3 was determined as a streptimidone derivative possessing the α, ß-unsaturated ketone moiety at positions C-5 and C-6. Compound 4 had similar chemical shifts and splitting patterns with 3, but the glutarimide ring is opened. Compound 5 closely resembles that of 4 with the only difference being the existence of an additional methoxy group instead of an amide group. Streptimidone (1) and 3 showed weak cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines, respectively.

3.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703464

RESUMO

Portulaca oleracea is as a medicinal plant known for its neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the specific active compounds responsible for the individual pharmacological effects of P. oleracea extract (95% EtOH) remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that alkaloids, the most abundant constituents in P. oleracea extract, are responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the phytochemical substituents (compounds 1-22) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and screened their effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. Compound 20, 1-carbomethoxy-ß-carboline, as an alkaloid structure, ameliorated nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and proinflammatory cytokines associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Subsequently, we observed that compound 20 suppressed nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) using immunocytochemistry. Moreover, we recently reported that compound 8, trans-N-feruloyl-3', 7'-dimethoxytyramine, was originally purified from P. oleracea extracts. Our results suggest that 1-carbomethoxy-ß-carboline, the most effective anti-inflammatory agent among alkaloids in the 95% EtOH extract of P. oleracea, was suppressing the MAPK pathway and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Therefore, P. oleracea extracts and specifically 1-carbomethoxy-ß-carboline may be novel therapeutic candidates for the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated with the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB.

4.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 11(5): 709-722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) to antiepileptic drug (AED), are rare, but result in significant morbidity and mortality. We investigated the major culprit drugs, clinical characteristics, and clinical course and outcomes of AED-induced SCARs using a nationwide registry in Korea. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AED-induced SCARs from 28 referral hospitals were analyzed. The causative AEDs, clinical characteristics, organ involvements, details of treatment, and outcomes were evaluated. We compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between SJS/TEN and DRESS according to the leading causative drugs. We further determined risk factors for prolonged hospitalization in AED-induced SCARs. RESULTS: Carbamazepine and lamotrigine were the most common culprit drugs causing SCARs. Valproic acid and levetiracetam also emerged as the major causative agents. The disease duration and hospital stay in carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN were shorter than those in other AEDs (P< 0.05, respectively). In younger patients, lamotrigine caused higher incidences of DRESS than other drugs (P= 0.045). Carbamazepine, the most common culprit drug for SCARs, was associated with a favorable outcome related with prolonged hospitalization in SJS (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.63, P= 0.12), and thrombocytopenia was found to be a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization in DRESS. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale epidemiological study of AED-induced SCARs in Korea. Valproic acid and levetiracetam were the significant emerging AEDs causing SCARs in addition to the well-known offending AEDs such as carbamazepine and lamotrigine. Carbamazepine was associated with reduced hospitalization, but thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization. Our results suggest that the clinical characteristics and clinical courses of AED-induced SCARs might vary according to the individual AEDs.

5.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(4): 1485-1494, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179091

RESUMO

Background: Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a noninvasive and convenient technique to measure both airway resistance and reactance. This study aimed to evaluate whether IOS can be used to measure bronchodilator response (BDR) in elderly patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and also describe the difference between asthma and COPD. Methods: Seventy patients (30 and 40 with asthma and COPD, respectively) over 65 years of age were enrolled. IOS and spirometry measurements were obtained before and after bronchodilator administration. Correlation analysis was used to compare the percentage changes in spirometry and IOS parameters after bronchodilator administration between the asthma and COPD groups. Results: The changes in IOS parameters after bronchodilator administration were strongly correlated with changes in forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% (FEF25-75). However, the percentage changes in IOS parameters failed to discriminate between the asthma and COPD groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis of resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5-20) at the best cutoff (-15.4% change) showed both high sensitivity and specificity for BDR. Conclusions: IOS serves as a reliable and useful technique for identifying BDR in elderly patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. There was a difference in IOS parameters between the asthma and COPD groups; however, it was difficult to distinguish between both diseases. Further larger studies are required to investigate the real implications of using IOS in the clinical practice.

6.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 11(2): 212-221, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.

7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 3684845, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984230

RESUMO

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. (AB), a traditional East Asian medicine, exhibits protective effects against several inflammatory diseases. Our search for an inhibitor of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 activation revealed that AB ethanolic extract (ABE) had a significant inhibitory effect on IL-6-induced STAT3 expression in Hep3B cells. The isolation and purification of an EtOAc-soluble fraction of ABE (ABEA) using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) afforded 17 compounds. The structures of these compounds (1-17) were elucidated based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as well as electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data. ABE and ABEA were screened by a luciferase assay using Hep3B cells transfected with the STAT3 reporter gene. ABEA exhibited potent inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced STAT3 expression; moreover, these effects arose from the inhibition of the phosphorylation of the STAT3, JAK2, and ERK proteins in U266 cells. In addition, the compounds isolated from ABEA were measured for their inhibitory effects on IL-6-stimulated STAT3 expression. Of the compounds isolated, betulin showed the greatest inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in the luciferase assay (IC50 value: 3.12 µM). Because of its potential for inhibiting STAT3 activation, A. brevipedunculata could be considered a source of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.


Assuntos
Ampelopsis/química , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Fosforilação
8.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 176(3-4): 272-279, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema increasing after puberty. It can be fatal due to laryngeal or gastrointestinal (GI) involvement with varied and changing frequency of mortality according to studies published from the Western countries. Epidemiological and clinical data of HAE in Asian countries are sparse. We sought to examine the clinical characteristics of HAE patients in Korea. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with HAE at 15 tertiary hospitals across the country until 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients diagnosed with HAE by 2016 were identified. The prevalence of HAE was estimated at 1.3/1,000,000 in Korea. Of the 65 patients, 21 (32.3%) were males. A total of 90.8% patients had type I HAE, while the remaining 9.2% patients had type II HAE. The first symptom developed after 20 years in 73.8% of patients, with a mean age 28.4 ± 14.1 years. The age at diagnosis was 36.5 ± 15.8 years, with a mean time delay of 7.8 ± 10.5 years. While the face (82.3%) and extremities (upper 71.0%, lower 62.9%) were the most frequently involved, the GI tract was affected in 40.5% of Korean HAE patients. Prophylaxis was maintained in 62.5% of patients. There was no reported case of death from HAE so far. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestation and severity of HAE may vary according to ethnicity. HAE is more infrequent and GI involvement is less likely in Korea compared with Western countries.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/complicações , Adulto , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Danazol/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 10(3): 225-235, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) are difficult to control and are often associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, much is not understood regarding the diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma and ACOS. To evaluate the current perceptions of severe asthma and COPD among asthma and COPD specialists, we designed an e-mail and internet-based questionnaire survey. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on clinical specialty from among the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Of 432 subjects who received an e-mail invitation to the survey, 95 subjects, including 58 allergists and 37 pulmonologists, responded and submitted their answers online. RESULTS: The specialists estimated that the percentage of severe cases among total asthma patients in their practice was 13.9%±11.0%. Asthma aggravation by stepping down treatment was the most common subtype, followed by frequent exacerbation, uncontrolled asthma despite higher treatment steps, and serious exacerbation. ACOS was estimated to account for 20.7% of asthma, 38.0% of severe asthma, and 30.1% of COPD cases. A history of smoking, persistently low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and low FEV1 variation were most frequently classified as the major criteria for the diagnosis of ACOS among asthma patients. Among COPD patients, the highly selected major criteria for ACOS were high FEV1 variation, positive bronchodilator response, a personal history of allergies and positive airway hyperresponsiveness. Allergists and pulmonologists showed different assessments and opinions on asthma phenotyping, percentage, and diagnostic criteria for ACOS. CONCLUSIONS: Specialists had diverse perceptions and clinical practices regarding severe asthma and ACOS patients. This heterogeneity must be considered in future studies and strategy development for severe asthma and ACOS.

10.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 71(3): 153-161, 2018 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566476

RESUMO

Background/Aims: This study analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for pancreatic solid masses in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis as well as the clinical parameters relevant to a malignancy when EUS-FNA was negative or inconclusive. Methods: A total of 97 patients, who underwent EUS-FNA for solid pancreatic masses over 2 years at a single institution, were evaluated. All patients underwent EUS-FNA for 3-5 passes with 22 or 25 G needles without an on-site cytopathologist. The final diagnosis was obtained by surgery or compatible clinical outcomes for a more than 12 month follow-up. The diagnostic yields in the patients with or without chronic pancreatitis were compared and the histories and laboratory data relevant to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) or pseudo-tumor were analyzed. Results: The final diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in 88 patients (90.7%) and inflammatory pseudo-tumor in 9 (9.3%). The results of EUS-FNA were adenocarcinoma (74), suspicious (7), atypical (5), negative (10), and inadequate specimen (1). The diagnostic accuracies were 76.9% and 91.6% in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis, respectively. Among the 23 cases with non-diagnostic results of EUS-FNA, PDAC was finally diagnosed in 5 out of 7 suspicious, 3 out of 5 atypical, and 5 out of 10 negative cytology cases. The clinical parameters related to a pseudo-tumor were a history of alcohol consumption and pancreatitis, and normal alkaline phosphatase levels. Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic masses in the background of chronic pancreatitis was low. When EUS-FNA produced inconclusive results, the histories of alcohol consumption, pancreatitis, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase are useful for making a final diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar
11.
Korean J Intern Med ; 33(5): 1008-1015, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the management and educational status of adult anaphylaxis patients at emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: Anaphylaxis patients who visited ED from 2011 to 2013 were enrolled from three hospitals. We analyzed clinical features, prior history of anaphylaxis, management and provided education for etiology and/or prevention. For analyzing associated factors with epinephrine injection, Pearson chi-square test was used by SPSS version 21 (IBM Co.). RESULTS: A total of 194 anaphylaxis patients were enrolled. Ninety-nine patients (51%) visited ED by themselves. Time interval from symptom onset to ED visit was 62 ± 70.5 minutes. Drug (56.2%) was the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis. Forty-seven patients (24.2%) had prior history of anaphylaxis and 33 patients had same suspicious cause with current anaphylaxis. Cutaneous (88.7%) and respiratory (72.7%) symptoms were frequent. Hypotension was presented in 114 patients (58.8%). Mean observation time in ED was 12 ± 25.7 hours and epinephrine was injected in 114 patients (62%). In 68 patients, epinephrine was injected intramuscularly with mean dose of 0.3 ± 0.10 mg. Associated factor with epinephrine injection was hypotension (p = 0.000). Twenty-three patients (13%) were educated about avoidance of suspicious agent. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed only in five patients. Only 34 (19%) and 72 (40%) patients were consulted to allergist at ED and outpatient allergy department respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggested that management and education of anaphylaxis were not fully carried out in ED. An education and promotion program on anaphylaxis is needed for medical staff.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Escolaridade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adulto , Idoso , Anafilaxia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 9(6): 499-508, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inhalant allergen sensitization is one of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of allergic respiratory diseases. However, the sensitization is determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Thus, testing panels of inhalant allergens may differ among geographical areas. Here we aimed to determine 10 common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies and to examine the variation between different geographical locations. METHODS: A total of 28,954 patient records were retrieved for retrospective analysis, from 12 referral allergy clinics located in 9 different areas. Inclusion criteria were Korean adults (≥18 years old) who underwent the inhalant allergen skin prick test for suspected history of respiratory allergy. The primary outcome was inhalant allergen skin prick response. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Positive skin prick responses to allergens were defined as allergen-to-histamine wheal ratio ≥1. Based on skin test results, the most prevalent aeroallergens were determined. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization was 45.3%. Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were the most commonly sensitized allergens. Other common inhalant allergens were cat epithelium (8.1%), birch (7.7%), mugwort (6.9%), alder (6.7%), hazel (6.7%), beech (6.7%), oak (6.6%), and Tyrophagus putres (6.2%), in decreasing order frequency. These 10 inhalant allergens explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization in the study participants. However, distinct patterns of the 10 inhalant sensitization were observed in patients living in Chungnam and Jeju. American cockroach, Gernam cockroach, and Trichophyton metagrophytes were unique in Chungnam. Orchard, Japanese cedar, and Velvet were unique in Jeju. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis suggests a panel of 10 most common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies, which explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization. This panel can be utilized as a practical and convenient tool for primary practice and epidemiological surveys of respiratory allergic diseases.

13.
Yonsei Med J ; 58(1): 252-254, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27873521

RESUMO

Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/induzido quimicamente , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Urticária/induzido quimicamente , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Testes Cutâneos , Fatores de Tempo , Urticária/diagnóstico
14.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int ; 15(6): 619-625, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis in old people is a cause of mortality and prolonged hospital stay. We evaluated the effects of methods and timing of biliary drainage on the outcomes of acute cholangitis in elderly and very elderly patients. METHODS: We analyzed 331 patients who were older than 75 years and were diagnosed with acute calculous cholangitis. They were admitted to our hospital from 2009 to 2014. Patients' demographics, severity grading, methods and timing of biliary drainage, mortality, and hospital stay were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Clinical parameters and outcomes were compared between elderly (75-80 years, n=156) and very elderly (≥81 years, n=175) patients. We analyzed the effects of methods [none, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, or failure] and timing (urgent or early) of biliary drainage on mortality and hospital stay in these patients. RESULTS: Acute cholangitis in older patients manifested as atypical symptoms characterized as infrequent Charcot's triad (4.2%) and comorbidity in one-third of the patients. Patients were graded as mild, moderate, and severe cholangitis in 104 (31.4%), 175 (52.9%), and 52 (15.7%), respectively. Urgent biliary drainage (≤24 hours) was performed for 80.5% (247/307) of patients. Very elderly patients tended to have more severe grades and were treated with sequential procedures of transient biliary drainage and stone removal at different sessions. Hospital stay was related to methods and timing of biliary drainage. Mortality was very low (1.5%) and not related to patient age but rather to the success or failure of biliary drainage and severity grading of the acute cholangitis. CONCLUSIONS: The methods and timing used for biliary drainage and severity of cholangitis are the major determinants of mortality and hospital stay in elderly and very elderly patients with acute cholangitis. Urgent successful ERCP is mandatory for favorable prognosis in these patients.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangite/terapia , Drenagem/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/mortalidade , Colangite/diagnóstico por imagem , Colangite/mortalidade , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Arch Pharm Res ; 39(12): 1671-1681, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539608

RESUMO

The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis through the regulation of bone formation and resorption. In this study, it was observed that ethanol extract of Salvia plebeia R.Br. (S.P-EE) inhibited IL-6-induced signaling cascade including phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 and ERK. Subsequently, it was examined whether S.P-EE treatment could recover bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Indeed, S.P-EE exhibited both preventive and therapeutic effect on OVX-induced bone loss in trabecular microarchitecture along with significant increase in bone mineral density and content. To understand the mechanism of action of S.P-EE in bone metabolism, the effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation and activity was investigated. S.P-EE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by suppressing phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt, and expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast marker genes. S.P-EE also inhibited bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Furthermore, isolation and identification of the active compounds which are responsible for the inhibitory effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation was carried out. Six major flavonoids and plebeiolide A-C were isolated and examined their effects on osteoclast differentiation. Luteolin and hispidulin, and plebeiolide A and C, not B exhibited potent inhibitory activity on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salvia , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 67(5): 267-271, 2016 May 25.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206439

RESUMO

Anti-tuberculosis drugs can produce levels of hepatotoxicity ranging from mild elevation of aminotransferase to severe acute hepatitis. A few cases of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis or the drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) syndrome by anti-tuberculosis medications have been reported. However, concomitant occurrence of these two disorders has not been reported. Here, we present a case of severe acute hepatitis with DRESS syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis resulting from primary standard anti-tuberculosis drugs. Both conditions were successfully treated with a systemic steroid regimen.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Etambutol/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Ciclosserina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Etambutol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hepatite Autoimune/etiologia , Hepatite Autoimune/patologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Fígado/enzimologia , Protionamida/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(23): 6662-6, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098851

RESUMO

Simple defects such as sodium deficiencies can induce the selective synthesis of triclinic Na2 CoP2 O7 , providing an increase in energy density of more than 40 % compared to the stoichiometric polymorph that is preferentially formed under the commonly used synthesis conditions. Such a significant improvement, which was achieved just by changing the crystal structure, suggests that controlling the polymorphism could be an effective and facile method for developing high-performance electrode materials and that defects can play a remarkable role in this process.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(5): 3929-35, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765283

RESUMO

The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs.

19.
Nano Lett ; 15(6): 4071-9, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985060

RESUMO

Rechargeable magnesium batteries have lately received great attention for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high volumetric capacities, low materials cost, and safe characteristic. However, the bivalency of Mg(2+) ions has made it challenging to find cathode materials operating at high voltages with decent (de)intercalation kinetics. In an effort to overcome this challenge, we adopt an unconventional approach of engaging crystal water in the layered structure of Birnessite MnO2 because the crystal water can effectively screen electrostatic interactions between Mg(2+) ions and the host anions. The crucial role of the crystal water was revealed by directly visualizing its presence and dynamic rearrangement using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Moreover, the importance of lowering desolvation energy penalty at the cathode-electrolyte interface was elucidated by working with water containing nonaqueous electrolytes. In aqueous electrolytes, the decreased interfacial energy penalty by hydration of Mg(2+) allows Birnessite MnO2 to achieve a large reversible capacity (231.1 mAh g(-1)) at high operating voltage (2.8 V vs Mg/Mg(2+)) with excellent cycle life (62.5% retention after 10000 cycles), unveiling the importance of effective charge shielding in the host and facile Mg(2+) ions transfer through the cathode's interface.

20.
Molecules ; 19(7): 10309-19, 2014 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033058

RESUMO

A reproducible analytical method using reverse-phase high liquid performance chromatography combined with UV detecting was developed for the quantitative determination of four compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of Phaseolus angularis seeds (PASE): oleanolic acid (1), oleanolic acid acetate (2), stigmasterol (3) and ß-sitosterol (4). This method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.999), accuracy (98.5%-100.8%), precision (<0.92%), LOD (<0.0035 mg/mL), and LOQ (<0.0115 mg/mL). The effects of the PASE and isolated compounds 1-4 on TLR4 activation were tested in THP1-Blue cells. Among the tested substances, compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.89 ± 0.17 µM.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/química , Fitosteróis/química , Sementes/química , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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