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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 752-759, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383070

RESUMO

An Al3+-based metal-organic framework (MOF), CAU-11-COOH, with a V-shaped ligand, DPSDA (3,3'-4,4'-diphenylsulfonetetracarboxylic dianhydride), was prepared using the solvothermal method, and was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and CO2 adsorption. The catalytic efficiency of CAU-11-COOH was investigated in the solvent-free cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides, which yielded five-membered cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions. CAU-11-COOH with a co-catalyst, tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), gave higher than 98% yield of epichlorohydrin carbonate at 80 °C without a solvent. A plausible reaction mechanism in which the Lewis acidic metal center, an uncoordinated carboxyl group, and a nucleophilic bromide anion operate synergistically is proposed. The CAU-11-COOH catalysts were found to exhibit high thermal stability and could be reused more than four times without any significant reduction in activity.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(17): 11389-11403, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433625

RESUMO

We synthesized two new adenine-based Zn(II)/Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, [Zn2(H2O)(stdb)2(5H-Ade)(9H-Ade)2]n (PNU-21) and [Cd2(Hstdb)(stdb)(8H-Ade)(Ade)]n (PNU-22), containing auxiliary dicarboxylate ligand (stdb = 4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylate). Both MOFs were characterized by multiple analytical techniques such as single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD), powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, as well as temperature program desorption and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Both MOFs were structurally robust and possessed unsaturated Lewis acidic metal centers [Zn(II) and Cd(II)] and free basic N atoms of adenine molecules. They were used as heterogeneous catalysts for the fixation of CO2 into five-membered cyclic carbonates. Significant conversion of epichlorohydrin (ECH) was attained at a low CO2 pressure (0.4 MPa) and moderate catalyst (0.6 mol %)/cocatalyst (0.3 mol %) amounts, with over 99% selectivity toward the ECH carbonate. They showed comparable or even higher catalytic activity than other previously reported MOFs. Because of high thermal stability and robust architecture of PNU-21/PNU-22, both catalysts could be reused with simple separation up to five successive cycles without any considerable loss of their catalytic activity. Densely populated acidic and basic sites in both Zn(II)/Cd(II) MOFs facilitated the conversion of ECH to ECH carbonate in high yields. The reaction mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between ECH and CO2 is described by possible intermediates, transition states, and pathways, from the density functional theory calculation in correlation with the SXRD structure of PNU-21.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 12(5): 1033-1042, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610753

RESUMO

A facile approach for modifying the UiO-66-NH2 metal-organic framework by incorporating imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts for the cycloaddition of epoxides to CO2 is reported. Methylimidazolium- and methylbenzimidazolium-based IL units (ILA and ILB, respectively) were introduced into the pore walls of the UiO-66-NH2 framework through a condensation reaction to generate ILA@U6N and ILB@U6N catalysts, respectively. The resultant heterogeneous catalysts, especially ILA@U6N, exhibited excellent CO2 adsorption capability, which makes them effective for cycloaddition reactions producing cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions in the absence of any cocatalyst or solvent. The significantly enhanced activity of ILA@U6N is attributed to the synergism between the coordinately unsaturated Lewis acidic Zr4+ centers and Br- ions in the bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts. The size effect of the ILs on coupling between the epoxide and CO2 was also studied for ILA@U6N and ILB@U6N. A periodic DFT study was performed to provide evidence of possible intermediates, transition states, and pathways, as well as to gain deeper insight into the mechanism of the ILA@U6N-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between epichlorohydrin and CO2 .

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(50): e321, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534033

RESUMO

Background: Pertussis is highly contagious respiratory disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important mediator of the disease. A seroprevalence of pertussis was investigated in HCWs to determine the immune status against pertussis and to detect the unidentified pertussis. Methods: This study was conducted for HCWs at a hospital located in Korea in 2011. After obtaining written informed consent for HCWs voluntarily participating in the study, 10 mL of blood was collected from each subject. Demographic and medical data were collected using questionnaire. Data on the underlying disease and vaccination history were reviewed again through medical records. The presence of anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected by quantitative analysis using a commercially available ELISA kit (EUROIMMUN, Lübeck, Germany). Results: A total of 412 HCW participated in the study. Among them, 14 were excluded due to the inadequate sample amount or medical history not secured. Of the 398 HCWs analyzed, 16.6% (66/398) were men and the mean age was 33.82 ± 9.10 years (range, 21-67). The mean anti-PT IgG titer was 8.32 ± 20.40 IU/mL (range, 0.4-287.5 IU/mL). The overall seroprevalence (rate of anti-PT IgG antibody [Ab] titer > 5 IU/mL) was 33.7%. Three (0.8%) HCWs had the Ab level > 100 IU/mL indicated acute infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence and mean titer of anti-PT IgG Ab according to age group, type of occupation, patient-facing position, or working in the pediatric department. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of pertussis of the HCWs of a university hospital in Korea was low, and there were some unrecognized acute infections. Therefore, booster immunization of pertussis to HCWs should be actively considered.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bordetella pertussis/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565531

RESUMO

We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.

6.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased serum biomakers, such as S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study is to investigate the serum levels of S100B and NSE in pediatric TBI patients and to predict a clinical outcome. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood was collected within 6 h of injury and at 1 week to measure S100B and NSE. The serum S100B and NSE levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The authors divided participants into two groups at admission: a favorable group (patients with Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores of 10-15) and an unfavorable group (patients with GCS scores of less than 9). Both S100B and NSE levels were compared between the two groups at the time of admission and 1 week later. RESULTS: Ten pediatric patients were enrolled (5 in the favorable group, 5 in the unfavorable group). The median serum S100B level of 134.21 pg/ml (range, 51.00-789.65 pg/ml) in patients with TBI at admission dropped to 41.49 pg/ml (range, 25.65-260.93 pg/ml) after 1 week, with significant differences between the traumatic event and 1 week later (p = 0.007). The median serum NSE level of 14.76 ng/ml (range, 6.48-21.23 ng/ml) in patients with TBI at admission was higher than that after 1 week (4.96 ng/ml, range, 3.01-31.21 ng/ml), with significant differences (p = 0.015). A significant difference was observed in S100B after 1 week between patients in the favorable and unfavorable groups (p = 0.047). One patient whose serum S100B and NSE levels were elevated 1 week after TBI eventually died. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum S100B and NSE levels in pediatric TBI patients decreased 1 week after traumatic events. The serum S100B level 1 week after TBI was related to the severity of brain damage. These results indicated that serum S100B and NSE might play a role in predicting the prognosis and monitoring ongoing brain injury in pediatric TBI patients.

7.
Nat Med ; 24(10): 1627, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104770

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, a grant was omitted from the Acknowledgements section. The following sentence should have been included: "R.B.M. was supported by a Department of Veterans Affairs Merit Award (5I01BX003272)." The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of this article.

8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 294: 48-55, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125551

RESUMO

Vascular inflammation has been suggested to play a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Hyperoside (HPS) is a plant-derived quercetin 3-d-galactoside reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-coagulant, and cardioprotective activities. However, the effects of HPS on vascular inflammation have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of HPS on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-dependent inflammatory responses in MOVAS-1 cells, a murine vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) line. HPS did not show any significant cytotoxicity up to 10 µg/mL over 24 h. TNFα challenge of VSMCs significantly increased the mRNA (3-fold) and protein expression (20-fold) of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). However, these increases were abolished in the presence of HPS. Additionally, HPS significantly decreased monocyte adhesion to TNFα-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Further, TNFα challenge induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as p38 MAPK (38.0 ±â€¯3.08 fold), JNK (51.6 ±â€¯2.26 fold), and ERK (14.1 ±â€¯0.77 fold); expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB; ≅ 4-fold) and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1; 2.7 ±â€¯0.198 fold) were also increased. Notably, the TNFα-induced expression of these molecules was also significantly inhibited by the presence of HPS. Given that p38 MAPK, JNK, ERK, NF-κB, and TNFR1 all play regulatory roles in the expression of VCAM-1, this study provides insight into the mechanism of action of HPS. In summary, HPS can inhibit TNFα-mediated vascular inflammatory responses and has potential as a new anti-atherosclerotic drug.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Nat Med ; 24(8): 1121-1127, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967351

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pathological result of a dysfunctional repair response to tissue injury and occurs in a number of organs, including the lungs1. Cellular metabolism regulates tissue repair and remodelling responses to injury2-4. AMPK is a critical sensor of cellular bioenergetics and controls the switch from anabolic to catabolic metabolism5. However, the role of AMPK in fibrosis is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that in humans with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and in an experimental mouse model of lung fibrosis, AMPK activity is lower in fibrotic regions associated with metabolically active and apoptosis-resistant myofibroblasts. Pharmacological activation of AMPK in myofibroblasts from lungs of humans with IPF display lower fibrotic activity, along with enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and normalization of sensitivity to apoptosis. In a bleomycin model of lung fibrosis in mice, metformin therapeutically accelerates the resolution of well-established fibrosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. These studies implicate deficient AMPK activation in non-resolving, pathologic fibrotic processes, and support a role for metformin (or other AMPK activators) to reverse established fibrosis by facilitating deactivation and apoptosis of myofibroblasts.

10.
Infect Chemother ; 50(1): 67-100, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637759

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.

11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(9): 6283-6287, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677782

RESUMO

The increasing role of catalysis by noble metals coupled with their high price requires the development of cheaper and more effective catalysts, e.g., highly dispersed supported catalyst. Herein, Pd supported on Al2O3 catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation under different conditions were subjected to X-ray diffraction, N2-physisorption, NH3/CO2 temperature programmed desorption, CO-chemisorption, and field-emission transmission electron microscopy analyses, which revealed that the size and distribution of Pd particles were influenced by Al2O3 support type (particle size and phase transition) and preparation conditions (metal precursor type, pH value, and solution temperature). The Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using type A (particle size = 3 micron) or type B (particle size = 20 nm) as a support and PdCl2 (PC) or Pd(NO3)2·2H2O (PN) as a Pd precursor, respectively. In XRD results, type A (particle size = 3 micron) Al2O3 had γ and  phase, and type B (particle size = 20 nm) Al2O3 had only thermally stable γ phase. In addition, Pd dispersion and crystallite size showed an obvious dependence on pH value, solution temperature and attractive/repulsive forces between the functional groups of Al2O3 and Pd precursors. Optimal results were obtained using PdCl2 (PC) as a Pd precursor and type B (particle size = 20 nm) as a support at 60 °C and pH 5.5.

12.
ChemSusChem ; 11(5): 924-932, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316308

RESUMO

A pyridinium-based ionic-liquid-decorated 1 D metal-organic framework (MOF; IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ]; IL=ionic liquid; dpa=diphenic acid; 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline) was developed as a bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst system for CO2 -oxirane coupling reactions. An aqueous-microwave route was employed to perform the hydrothermal reaction for the synthesis of the [In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] MOF, and the IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] catalyst was synthesized by covalent postfunctionalization. As a result of the synergetic effect of the dual-functional sites, which include Lewis acid sites (coordinatively unsaturated In sites) and the I- ion in the IL functional sites, IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] displayed a high catalytic activity for CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reactions under mild and solvent-free conditions. Microwave pulses were employed for the first time in MOF-catalyzed CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reactions to result in a high turnover frequency of 2000-3100 h-1 . The catalyst had an excellent reusability and maintained a continuous high selectivity. Furthermore, only a small amount of leaching was observed from the spent catalyst. A plausible reaction mechanism based on the synergistic effect of the dual-functional sites that catalyze the CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reaction effectively is proposed.

13.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232939

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Unlike Western countries, the 2009 pandemic influenza infection among pregnant women was reported as mild in a previous interim study in South Korea. However, several mortalities were reported thereafter, suggesting that nationwide data were lacking. Methods: This case-control study covers the entire 2009 pandemic inf luenza period, from May 2009 to February 2010. The clinical and economic data of pregnant (case) and age-matched non-pregnant (control) women with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (H1N1pdm09) infection were retrospectively collected from nine hospitals in South Korea. Results: A total of 130 pregnant women with H1N1pdm09 infection were identified. The mean age of the pregnant women was 31.1 years (range, 19 to 41) and mean gestational age was 18.4 weeks (range, 3 to 40). Both case and control groups were similar in terms of age (p = 0.43) and comorbidities (p = 0.18). The overall rate of complications was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.648). However, mortality was reported only among the cases, so mean economic per capita burden is estimated to be higher for pregnant women compared to the control (4,821,992 Korean won [KRW] vs. 351,233 KRW, p = 0.31). Obstetric complications were observed in 12 cases, including preterm labor (n = 7), low birth-weight (n = 3), miscarriage (n = 1), stillbirth (n = 1), and cleft lip (n = 1). Conclusions: Although statistically insignificant, the detrimental impact of influenza A H1N1pdm09 on pregnancy can be serious in some complicated cases in South Korea. Thus, the strong recommendation of influenza vaccination should be maintained for pregnant women as a high priority.

14.
Infect Chemother ; 49(3): 194-204, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there are very few published studies about renal insufficiency in HIV-infected persons in Asia, especially in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of renal insufficiency, defined as <60 mL/min/1.73 m², in subjects in the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study enrolled from 19 institutions between December 2006 and July 2013. Data at entry into the cohort were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 454 enrolled subjects, 24 (5.3%) showed renal insufficiency at entry into the cohort. The mean age of patients in the renal insufficiency group was 5.28 years and the majority were male subjects (91.7%). All the patients were receiving antiretroviral agents, mostly protease inhibitor-based regimens (76.4%), for an average of 19 months. In univariate analysis, older age (P = 0.002), diabetes mellitus (DM) (P = 0.0002), unknown route of transmission (P = 0.007), and taking indinavir (P = 0.0022) were associated with renal insufficiency. In multivariable analysis, older age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.12, P = 0.002], DM [OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.17-7.82, P = 0.022], unknown route of transmission [OR 6.15, 95% CI 1.77-21.33, P = 0.004], and taking indinavir [OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.17-8.05, P = 0.023] were independent risk factors of renal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of renal insufficiency in HIV-infected subjects in this study was relatively low, similar to that in other countries. Aging, DM, and taking indinavir were significantly associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, unknown route of transmission was an independent risk factor, which was interpreted as a reflection of patient compliance. Further studies on the incidence and risk factors of renal insufficiency during HIV infection using follow-up cohort data are necessary.

15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 96: 563-571, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032340

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and the increased expression of adhesion molecules on vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the progression of vascular disease. Quinic acid (QA) has been shown to possess radioprotection, anti-neuroinflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities; however, an anti-vascular inflammatory effect has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of QA on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) stimulated by TNF-α in MOVAS cells. Pre-incubation of MOVAS cells, the mouse vascular smooth muscle cell line for 2h with QA (0.1, 1 and 10 µg/mL) dose-dependently inhibits TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1 and monocyte adhesion. QA inhibits TNF-α-stimulated phosphorylation of MAP kinase and NK-κB activation. Our results indicate that QA inhibits the TNF-α-stimulated induction of VCAM-1 in VSMC by inhibiting the MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways and the adhesion capacity of VSMC, which may explain the ability of QA to inhibit vascular inflammation such as atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Ácido Quínico/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/toxicidade , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Ácido Quínico/uso terapêutico , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/biossíntese
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 95: 1661-1668, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954385

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity is a main problem in cancer patients using cisplatin. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are the important mechanisms of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of morning glory on nephrotoxicity by cisplatin in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK-293) and mice. Previous studies have reported that morning glory extracts showed potent activity on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. However, the protective effects of the n-hexane layer of morning glory seed (MGs-Hx) on nephrotoxicity and its mechanisms have not been clearly understood. Oral administration with MGs-Hx showed protective effects in vivo experiments test and the treatment of MGs-Hx in a concentration of 100mg/kg/day had significant effect both of decreasing serum creatinine, BUN, serum uric acid level and reduced iNOS, COX-2 mRNA expressions with low side-effect. Moreover, cell viability was restored by MGs-Hx treatment compared to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Co-treatment with MGs-Hx and cisplatin showed the significant effect to reduce inflammatory enzyme, iNOS expression and continuous production of NO. In addition, it exhibited a tendency to decreasing expression of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, 8 and 9, and NF-κB translocation to nucleus as well as phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Our study provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of MGs-Hx and suggests that MGs-Hx might be a potential therapeutic agent to modulate inflammation and apoptosis in nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Ipomoea nil/química , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Células HEK293 , Hexanos/química , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes
17.
Infect Chemother ; 49(2): 101-108, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD4+ cell counts reflect immunologic status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Recommended CD4+ cell counts for the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased over the past several years in various HIV treatment guidelines. We investigated the trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and treatment start using data from the Korea HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cohort Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study started in 2006 and enrolled HIV patients from 21 tertiary and secondary hospitals in South Korea. The data for CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and HAART initiation from these HIV patients were analyzed by three-year time intervals and presented by number of CD4+ cells (≤100, 101-200, 201-350, 351-500 and >500 cells/mm³). The HIV-RNA titer at diagnosis and HAART initiation were presented by 3-year intervals by groups ≤50,000, 50,001-100,000, 100,001-200,000, 200,001-1,000,000, and >1,000,000 copies/mL. RESULTS: Median values of CD4+ cell count and HIV-RNA titer at initial HIV diagnosis were 247 cells/mm³ and 394,955 copies/mL, respectively. At time of initiating HAART, median values of CD4+ cell count and HIV-RNA were 181 cells/mm³ and 83,500 copies/mL, respectively. Patients with low CD4+ cell count (CD4+ cell count ≤200 cells/mm³) at diagnosis (31-51%) and initiation of HAART accounted for the largest proportion (30-65%) over the three-year time intervals. This proportion increased until 2010-2012. CONCLUSION: CD4+ cell count at initiation of HAART was found to be very low, and the increase in late initiation of HAART in recent years is of concern. We think that this increase is primarily due to an increasing proportion of late presenters. We recommend early detection of HIV patients and earlier start of HAART in order to treat and prevent spread of HIV infection.

18.
Infect Chemother ; 49(1): 10-21, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378540

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life threatening condition mediated by systemic infection, but also triggered by hemorrhage and trauma. These are significant causes of organ injury implicated in morbidity and mortality, as well as post-sepsis complications associated with dysfunction of innate and adaptive immunity. The role of cellular bioenergetics and loss of metabolic plasticity of immune cells is increasingly emerging in the pathogenesis of sepsis. This review describes mitochondrial biology and metabolic alterations of immune cells due to sepsis, as well as indicates plausible therapeutic opportunities.

19.
Infect Chemother ; 49(1): 22-30, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood cultures and radiologic imaging studies for developing therapeutic strategies in community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinical data of CA-APN patients who visited 11 hospitals from March 2010 to February 2011. RESULTS: Positive urine and blood cultures were obtained in 69.3% (568/820) and 42.7% (277/648), respectively, of a total of 827 CA-APN patients. Blood culture identified the urinary pathogen in 60 of 645 (9.3%) patients for whom both urine and blood cultures were performed; the organisms isolated from urine were inconsistent with those from blood in 11 and only blood cultures were positive in 49 patients. Final clinical failure was more common in the bacteremic patients than the non-bacteremic ones (8.0% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.003), as was hospital mortality (3.6% vs. 0.3%, P = 0.003). Likewise, durations of hospitalization and fever were significantly longer. Bacteremia was independent risk factor for mortality (OR 9.290, 1.145-75.392, P = 0.037). With regard to radiologic studies, the detection rate of APN was 84.4% (445/527) by abdominal computed tomography and 40% (72/180) by abdominal ultrasonography. Eighty-one of 683 patients (11.9%) were found to have renal abscess, perinephric abscess, urolithiasis, hydronephorosis/hydroureter or emphysematous cystitis, which could potentially impact on clinical management. Patients with Pitt score ≥ 1, flank pain or azotemia were significantly more likely to have such structural abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Blood cultures are clinically useful for diagnosis of CA-APN, and bacteremia is predictive factor for hospital mortality. Early radiologic imaging studies should be considered for CA-APN patients with Pitt scores ≥1, flank pain or azotemia.

20.
Infect Chemother ; 49(4): 268-274, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite declines in mortality and morbidity rates of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as the result of highly active antiretroviral therapy, liver diseases due to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. However, HIV and HBV or HCV coinfection is still poorly documented, and more information is needed to better understand the characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate clinical characteristics and prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV patients enrolled in the Korea HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cohort study from 17 institutions between December 2006 and July 2013. RESULTS: Among the 1,218 HIV-infected participants, 541 were included in this study. The prevalence of HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV coinfection was 5.0% (27/541) and 1.7% (9/541), respectively. There was no patient who was positive for both HBs antigen and HCV antibody. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, HBV unvaccinated status was a significant risk factor for HBV-HIV coinfection (odds ratio = 4.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.43-17.13). CONCLUSIONS: HBV and HCV infection was more common in HIV-infected persons enrolled in the Korean HIV/AIDS cohort, than in the general population in Korea.

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