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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992898

RESUMO

Studies investigating exercise-induced gut microbiota have reported that people who exercise regularly have a healthy gut microbial environment compared with sedentary individuals. In contrast, recent studies have shown that high protein intake without dietary fiber not only offsets the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota but also significantly lowers the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. In this study, to resolve this conundrum and find the root cause, we decided to narrow down subjects according to diet. Almost all of the studies had subjects on an ad libitum diet, however, we wanted subjects on a simplified diet. Bodybuilders who consumed an extremely high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet were randomly assigned to a probiotics intake group (n = 8) and a placebo group (n = 7) to find the intervention effect. Probiotics, comprising Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, were consumed for 60 days. As a result, supplement intake did not lead to a positive effect on the gut microbial environment or concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). It has been shown that probiotic intake is not as effective as ergogenic aids for athletes such as bodybuilders with extreme dietary regimens, especially protein and dietary fiber. To clarify the influence of nutrition-related factors that affect the gut microbial environment, we divided the bodybuilders (n = 28) into groups according to their protein and dietary fiber intake and compared their gut microbial environment with that of sedentary male subjects (n = 15). Based on sedentary Korean recommended dietary allowance (KRDA), the bodybuilders' intake of protein and dietary fiber was categorized into low, proper, and excessive groups, as follows: high-protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 12), high-protein/adequate dietary fiber (n = 10), or adequate protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 6). We found no significant differences in gut microbial diversity or beneficial bacteria between the high-protein/restricted dietary fiber and the healthy sedentary groups. However, when either protein or dietary fiber intake met the KRDA, gut microbial diversity and the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria showed significant differences to those of healthy sedentary subjects. These results suggest that the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota is dependent on protein and dietary fiber intake. The results also suggest that the question of adequate nutrition should be addressed before supplementation with probiotics to derive complete benefits from the intervention.


Assuntos
Atletas , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282561

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the effects of self-acupunctural hand massage using aromatic oil on the stress, fatigue, and vital signs of Korean middle-aged women. A quasi-experimental study using a pretest/posttest control group, nonsynchronized design was employed. The study participants consisted of 55 middle-aged women (27 in the experiment group and 28 in the control group), who visited a community center in Seoul, South Korea. Self-acupunctural hand massage using aromatic oil as an experimental intervention was performed once per day, 6 minutes per session for the left and right hands each, for 3 weeks. A questionnaire was designed to measure the general characteristics, stress, fatigue, and vital signs (blood pressure and pulse rate). There were significant differences in the degrees of stress, fatigue, and vital signs (blood pressure) between the 2 groups. Self-acupunctural hand massage using aromatic oil decreased the stress, fatigue, and vital signs (blood pressure) of Korean middle-aged women. Self-acupunctural hand massage using aromatic oil can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for decreasing stress, fatigue, and vital signs (blood pressure) for middle-aged women in clinical practice.

3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 21, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, gut microbiota have been studied extensively for health promotion, disease prevention, disease treatment, and exercise performance. It is recommended that athletes avoid dietary fiber and resistant starch to promote gastric emptying and reduce gastrointestinal distress during exercise, but this diet may reduce microbial diversity and compromise the health of the athlete's gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: This study compared fecal microbiota characteristics using high-throughput sequencing among healthy sedentary men (as controls), bodybuilders, and distance runners, as well as the relationships between microbiota characteristics, body composition, and nutritional status. METHODS: Body composition was measured using DXA, and physical activity level was assessed using IPAQ. Dietary intake was analyzed with the computerized nutritional evaluation program. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and it was sequenced for the analysis of gut microbial diversity through bioinformatics cloud platform. RESULTS: We showed that exercise type was associated with athlete diet patterns (bodybuilders: high protein, high fat, low carbohydrate, and low dietary fiber diet; distance runners: low carbohydrate and low dietary fiber diet). However, athlete type did not differ in regard to gut microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Athlete type was significantly associated with the relative abundance of gut microbiota at the genus and species level: Faecalibacterium, Sutterella, Clostridium, Haemophilus, and Eisenbergiella were the highest (p < 0.05) in bodybuilders, while Bifidobacterium and Parasutterella were the lowest (p < 0.05). At the species level, intestinal beneficial bacteria widely used as probiotics (Bifidobacterium adolescentis group, Bifidobacterium longum group, Lactobacillus sakei group) and those producing short chain fatty acids (Blautia wexlerae, Eubacterium hallii) were the lowest in bodybuilders and the highest in controls. In addition, aerobic or resistance exercise training with an unbalanced intake of macronutrients and low intake of dietary fiber led to similar diversity of gut microbiota. Specifically, daily protein intake was negatively correlated with operation taxonomic unit (r = - 0.53, p < 0.05), ACE (r = - 0.51, p < 0.05), and Shannon index (r = - 0.64, p < 0.01) in distance runners.. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that high-protein diets may have a negative impact on gut microbiota diversity for athletes, while athletes in resistance sports that carry out the high protein low carbohydrates diet demonstrate a decrease in short chain fatty acid-producing commensal bacteria.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Exerc Sci Fit ; 17(1): 26-33, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662511

RESUMO

Background/Objective: South Korea's 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the second comprehensive evaluation of physical activity and the sources of influence based on the 10 core indicators provided by the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. It will serve as an advocacy tool to promote physical activity among children and youth. Methods: Three national surveillance data (i.e., 2017 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016 Physical Activity Promotion System) were used as main sources to evaluate the indicators. Descriptive statistics were performed to obtain prevalence estimates of physical activity-related indicators. In addition, expert opinions as well as the most recently available published or unpublished relevant sources were synthesized. Results: South Korea's 2018 Report Card, compared to the 2016 Report Card, showed favourable changes in the Active Transportation (B+), Organized Sports Participation (C), Sedentary Behaviours (D), and School (D+) indicators, while unfavourable changes were shown in Overall Physical Activity (F) and Government (D). Physical Fitness was graded as D+. In parallel with the 2016 Report Card, Active Play, Family and Peers, and Community and Environment remain ungraded due to insufficient data. Conclusions: Successes as well as gaps and research needs were identified in the 2018 Report Card. Though some indicators have shown improvement, most children and youth continue to be insufficiently physically active with overall poor grades (Average of D+). To achieve substantial improvement in all grades in future Report Cards, more institutional and governmental support and investment is needed to promote physical activity. Furthermore, effort should be made to generate data pertaining to the indicators that were ungraded.

5.
Plant Physiol ; 179(2): 558-568, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545904

RESUMO

Root hairs are important for absorption of nutrients and water from the rhizosphere. The Root Hair Defective-Six Like (RSL) Class II family of transcription factors is expressed preferentially in root hairs and has a conserved role in root hair development in land plants. We functionally characterized the seven members of the RSL Class II subfamily in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. In root hairs, six of these genes were preferentially expressed and four were strongly expressed. Phenotypic analysis of each mutant revealed that Os07g39940 plays a major role in root hair formation, based on observations of a short root hair phenotype in those mutants. Overexpression (OX) for each of four family members in rice resulted in an increase in the density and length of root hairs. These four members contain a transcription activation domain and are targeted to the nucleus. They interact with rice Root Hairless1 (OsRHL1), a key regulator of root hair development. When heterologously expressed in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, OsRHL1 was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with each of the four RSL Class II members, however, OsRLH1 was translocated to the nucleus. Transcriptome analysis using Os07g39940-OX plants revealed that 86 genes, including Class III peroxidases, were highly up-regulated. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species levels in the root hairs were increased in Os07g39940-OX plants but were drastically reduced in the os07g39940 and rhl1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that RSL Class II members function as essential regulators of root hair development in rice.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transporte Proteico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem ; 22(3): 27-34, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of weight loss practices on nutritional status, bone health, and injury history among Korean professional jockeys. METHODS: Forty-three male jockeys completed a questionnaire to assess their weight loss practices. Of these, 10 jockeys were selected for in-depth assessment of their nutritional status, bone health, and injury history. RESULTS: The questionnaires revealed that 81.4% of jockeys lost weight every week mainly by dieting and/or exercising. None of the jockeys consumed enough food during the weight loss period. Two jockeys were diagnosed with osteopenia and one was diagnosed with osteoporosis. Only history of fracture showed a significant correlation with low bone mineral density. All jockeys had more than one injury experience throughout their career. Fracture was the most common type of injury, occurring during practice and/or competition and caused mainly by difficulties in handling the horses. CONCLUSION: Professional jockeys in Korea use extreme weight loss methods. Their repeated periods of poor nutritional intake may result in seriously low bone mineral density, which may aggravate injuries sustained during horse races. Implementation of balanced dietary programs and delivery of health education on weight management are urgently required.

8.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(11 Suppl 2): S274-S278, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Korea's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of physical activity according to the indicators set by Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. METHODS: National surveys were used as preferred sources of data. This was then supported by peer-reviewed papers and government reports identified by a systematic search of the literature written in English or Korean. A Research Working Group then graded indicators based on the collected evidence. RESULTS: Each indicator was graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity, D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, C-; Active Transport, C+; Sedentary Behavior, F; School, D; Government and Investment, C; Active Play, Physical Literacy, Family and Peers, and Community and Built Environment were graded INC (incomplete) due to lack of available evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Though the final grades of key indicators for South Korean children and youth are not satisfactory, increasing interests and investments have been demonstrated at a national level. More evidence is required for comprehensive assessment on all indicators to better inform policy and practice. This should be accompanied by the use of consistent criteria to contribute to global efforts for active healthy kids.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Criança , Planejamento Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Jogos e Brinquedos , República da Coreia , Comportamento Sedentário
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1413, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729915

RESUMO

The Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO) family is unique to plants, containing genes that were initially identified as a susceptibility factor to powdery mildew pathogens. However, little is known about the roles and functional diversity of this family in rice, a model crop plant. The rice genome has 12 potential MLO family members. To achieve systematic functional assignments, we performed a phylogenomic analysis by integrating meta-expression data obtained from public sources of microarray data and real-time expression data into a phylogenic tree. Subsequently, we identified 12 MLO genes with various tissue-preferred patterns, including leaf, root, pollen, and ubiquitous expression. This suggested their functional diversity for morphological agronomic traits. We also used these integrated transcriptome data within a phylogenetic context to estimate the functional redundancy or specificity among OsMLO family members. Here, OsMLO12 showed preferential expression in mature pollen; OsMLO4, in the root tips; OsMLO10, throughout the roots except at the tips; and OsMLO8, expression preferential to the leaves and trinucleate pollen. Of particular interest to us was the diurnal expression of OsMLO1, OsMLO3, and OsMLO8, which indicated that they are potentially significant in responses to environmental changes. In osdxr mutants that show defects in the light response, OsMLO1, OsMLO3, OsMLO8, and four calmodulin genes were down-regulated. This finding provides insight into the novel functions of MLO proteins associated with the light-responsive methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. In addition, abiotic stress meta-expression data and real-time expression analysis implied that four and five MLO genes in rice are associated with responses to heat and cold stress, respectively. Upregulation of OsMLO3 by Magnaporthe oryzae infection further suggested that this gene participates in the response to pathogens. Our analysis has produced fundamental information that will enhance future studies of the diverse developmental or physiological phenomena mediated by the MLO family in this model plant system.

10.
Restor Dent Endod ; 40(4): 322-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26587419

RESUMO

A recent treatment option for non-vital immature teeth in young patients is revascularization with triple antibiotic paste (TAP). However, tooth discoloration was reported with the use of conventional minocycline-containing TAP. In this case report, amoxicillin-containing TAP was used for revascularization of non-vital immature teeth to prevent tooth discoloration. At the 1 yr follow up, the teeth were asymptomatic on clinical examination and showed slight discoloration of the crown due to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filling rather than amoxicillin-containing TAP. Radiographic examination revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucency, and closed apex with obvious periodontal ligament space. However, the root growth was limited, and the treatment outcome was more like apexification rather than revascularization. These results may be due to unstable blood clot formation which could not resist the condensation force of MTA filling, whether or not a collagen matrix was in place. These cases showed that although revascularization was not successful, apexification could be expected, resulting in the resolution of the periapical radiolucency and the closure of the apex. Therefore, it is worthwhile attempting revascularization of non-vital immature teeth in young patients.

11.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem ; 19(4): 311-7, 2015 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of six-weeks of endurance swim training and short-term intake of Rg1 on the expression of related proteins as well as improvement of aerobic exercise capacity in 8-week-old male SD rats. METHODS: The groups were divided into placebo (NP, n=6), Rg1 (NRG, n=6), exercise+placebo (EP, n=7), and exercise+Rg1 (ERG, n=7). On completion of the 6-week swimming exercise, Rg1-intake groups were treated with acute uptakes (3 times within 24hrs) of Rg1. After the treatment, all groups were subjected to a swim to exhaustion test, and then the mass of muscle tissue, mRNA expression level and activity of citrate synthase (CS) were analyzed on plantaris. RESULTS: There were no differences in the effect of 6-week swimming exercise and short-term intake of Rg1 on body weight and muscle mass between groups. Although the CS mRNA expression was elevated in the exercise group and combined treatment group, there was no significant difference in CS activity. Acute uptakes of Rg1 did not affect swimming time to exhaustion, but it was increased by 235% and 314% by the 6-weeks of exercise and combined treatment of exercise and Rg1, respectively, which suggests that the combined treatment increased the effect on the capacity of aerobic exercise. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it was confirmed that even a short-term treatment of Rg1 can give an additive effect for improvement of exercise function, and additional studies are needed for the mechanisms and modes of its working.

12.
J Biol Chem ; 289(1): 450-63, 2014 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24214979

RESUMO

To survive and replicate within the human host, malaria parasites must invade erythrocytes. Invasion can be mediated by the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding homologue protein 4 (PfRh4) on the merozoite surface interacting with complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) on the erythrocyte membrane. The PfRh4 attachment site lies within the three N-terminal complement control protein modules (CCPs 1-3) of CR1, which intriguingly also accommodate binding and regulatory sites for the key complement activation-specific proteolytic products, C3b and C4b. One of these regulatory activities is decay-accelerating activity. Although PfRh4 does not impact C3b/C4b binding, it does inhibit this convertase disassociating capability. Here, we have employed ELISA, co-immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance to demonstrate that CCP 1 contains all the critical residues for PfRh4 interaction. We fine mapped by homologous substitution mutagenesis the PfRh4-binding site on CCP 1 and visualized it with a solution structure of CCPs 1-3 derived by NMR and small angle x-ray scattering. We cross-validated these results by creating an artificial PfRh4-binding site through substitution of putative PfRh4-interacting residues from CCP 1 into their homologous positions within CCP 8; strikingly, this engineered binding site had an ∼30-fold higher affinity for PfRh4 than the native one in CCP 1. These experiments define a candidate site on CR1 by which P. falciparum merozoites gain access to human erythrocytes in a non-sialic acid-dependent pathway of merozoite invasion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Receptores de Complemento 3b/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Complemento C3b/química , Complemento C3b/genética , Complemento C3b/metabolismo , Complemento C4b/química , Complemento C4b/genética , Complemento C4b/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Merozoítos/química , Mutagênese , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Plasmodium falciparum/química , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Receptores de Complemento 3b/química , Receptores de Complemento 3b/genética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
13.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem ; 18(2): 189-95, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25566455

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Various kinds of food substances from all over the world have been proposed to use as ergogenic aids for the additional improvement of exercise performance especially in athletes. Herb medicine which usually being applied for the cure of disease is used as a performance booster in several far eastern countries including Korea. Many scientists and coaches have asked very objective verifications on the reality of herb medicines practically used but never been scientifically elucidated well enough. In addition to the possibility as an ergogenic aid, the safety in doping is the critical factor to be examined thoroughly. In this study, Sibjeondaebo-Tang, a leading popular prescribed herb medicine in Korea, was examined. METHODS: After the intake of Sibjeondaebo-Tang, its effects on VO2max, recovery from fatigue, and doping safety through the official process as WADA suggested. Six volunteered male Taekwondo Pumsae players were subjected in a repeatedly examined protocol. RESULTS: First of all, every subjects showed 'negative' in doping test, and the treatment did not show any significant improvement on VO2max even though there was a significant decrease in blood lactate level on a step test. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Sibjeondaebo-Tang may have some limited effects as a fatigue delayer and the use of it showed safe to doping test with the strict limitation as the way in this study. So we should abstain from the over-interpreted application of the results so far.

14.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem ; 18(3): 249-57, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25566461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training on body composition, abdominal fat, blood lipids, and insulin resistance in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women. METHODS: Fifty-two elderly women were randomly assigned to either the vitamin D supplementation with circuit training group (D+T: n = 15), the circuit training group (T: n = 13), the vitamin D supplementation group (D: n = 11), or the control group (CON: n = 13). The subjects in D took vitamin D supplements at 1,200 IU per day for 12 weeks; the subjects in T exercised 3 to 4 times per week, 25 to 40 minutes per session for 12 weeks; and the subjects in D+T participated in both treatments. Subjects in CON were asked to maintain normal daily life pattern for the duration of the study. Body composition, abdominal fat, blood lipids, and surrogate indices for insulin resistance were measured at pre- and post-test and the data were compared among the four groups and between two tests by utilizing two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The main results of the present study were as follows: RESULTS: 1) Body weight, fat mass, percent body fat, and BMI decreased significantly in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. Lean body mass showed no significant changes in all groups. 2) TFA and SFA decreased significantly in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. The other abdominal fat related variables showed no significant changes in all groups. 3) TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C showed improvements in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. 4) Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR tended to be lower in D+T. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the 12 weeks of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training would have positive effects on abdominal fat and blood lipid profiles in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women. Vitamin D supplementation was especially effective when it was complemented with exercise training.

15.
Cytokine ; 63(1): 27-35, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23669253

RESUMO

Vitamin D is an important factor for calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. A negative relationship has been observed between vitamin D status and diseases such as cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and muscle fiber atrophy. However, the relationship between vitamin D and prevention of skeletal muscle damage has not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D on exercise-induced muscle changes. Rats were divided into 3 groups: (1) sedentary control (C: n=10), (2) high-intensity exercise (HE: n=10), and (3) high-intensity exercise with vitamin D supplementation (HED: n=10; i.p. 1000 IU/kg body weight). Rats were trained for 30 min/day on treadmills (5 days/week for 8 weeks) with the running speed gradually increased up to 30 m/min at a 3° incline. At the end of the training period, the running speed was 38 m/min at a 5° incline. The high-intensity exercise significantly increased plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. In addition, IL-6 and TNF-α levels as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, p38, ERK1/2, IKK, and IκB were significantly increased. Vitamin D-treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma CK level, phosphorylation of AMPK, p38, ERK1/2, IKK, and IκB, and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, the protein expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly increased in the muscles of HED-treated rats, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that vitamin D may play a pivotal role in exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation through the modulation of MAPK and NF-κB involved with VDR.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 7(7): e40073, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22808092

RESUMO

By catabolizing glucose and lipids, mitochondria produce ATPs to meet energy demands. When the number and activity of mitochondria are not sufficient, the human body becomes easily fatigued due to the lack of ATP, thus the control of the quantity and function of mitochondria is important to optimize energy balance. By increasing mitochondrial capacity? it may be possible to enhance energy metabolism and improve exercise endurance. Here, through the screening of various functional food ingredients, we found that chitooligosaccharide (COS) is an effective inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis. In rodents, COS increased the mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and enhanced exercise endurance. In cultured myocytes, the expression of major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and key components of mitochondrial electron transfer chain was increased upon COS treatment. COS-mediated induction of mitochondrial biogenesis was achieved in part by the activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, our data suggest that COS could act as an exercise mimetic by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and enhancing exercise endurance through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK.


Assuntos
Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Renovação Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/enzimologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/enzimologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuína 1/genética
18.
Discov Med ; 13(70): 229-34, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463799

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory arthritis that can lead to significant damage and dysfunction of involved joints. Prior to 1998, treatment options were limited to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, commonly referred to as DMARDs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and gold salts. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a central cytokine that drives the inflammation in RA; hence inhibition of TNF-α offers an attractive treatment strategy in RA. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors, a class of biologic DMARDs, has dramatically changed the treatment of RA as these are highly effective therapies. Medication-related adverse events remain a major problem in health care. This is true of the TNF-α antagonists as well, with particular concerns about increased risks of infections and malignancy. Because clinical trials performed prior to medication approval are limited by the number and clinical complexity of participants and the duration of the trials, post-marketing surveillance is critical in identifying adverse events. In order to better clarify the safety issues related to the use of TNF-α inhibitors in RA, several studies using large observational registries along with pooled meta-analyses of these studies have been published. This review will summarize the data from these recent studies on the question of malignancy risk associated with TNF-α inhibitor use in RA. It is comforting that the data from these studies do not support an increased risk of cancer, except non-melanoma skin cancer, with the use of TNF-α antagonists in adults with RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Genes Nutr ; 7(2): 319-29, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21853335

RESUMO

Ginsenosides, bioactive compounds of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer, are divided into protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxtriol (PT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different PD and PT combination ratios on liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice. R1 (PD/PT = 1, high Rg(1) and Rb(1)) and R2 (PD/PT = 2, high Re and Rd) extracts were intraperitoneally injected by 100 mg/kg/day at the 8th week. R1 and R2 improved atherogenic indices by increasing HDL and lowering total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglyceride (TG) selectively. R1 decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) level in plasma and liver tissue of hyperlipidemic mice, and R2 lowered plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) level. R1 and R2 not only regulated the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, IκB-α, phopho-ERK 1/2, and phopho-SAPK/JNK levels but also were significantly effective in blocking apoptotic signals, such as caspase-8, -9, as well as the cleavage of PARP in liver. Different combinational treatment of PD and PT extracts might ameliorate the liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice, which is atherosclerotic animal model.

20.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 37(4): 593-606, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22075199

RESUMO

It is essential to be aware of both neoplastic and paraneoplastic vasculitides, vasculopathy, and hypercoagulability, considering the importance of an accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of the underlying malignancy. Characteristics such as the type of vasculitis, age, gender, atypical presentation, and lack of response to common therapies should prompt investigation for an occult malignancy, whereas vasculitis such as GPA require due malignancy vigilance given a significantly increased risk of malignancy at the time of diagnosis and in the following years. Vasculopathies are rarer than vasculitides, but are associated with specific malignancies and, in the context of such malignancies, should be kept in mind. Hypercoagulability is a well-documented neoplastic phenomenon with an increased risk of thrombosis in the setting of positive aPLs. Most neoplastic and paraneoplastic vascular syndromes require no specific treatment outside of treatment of the underlying malignancy. The two key exceptions are PACNS, because of its poor prognosis, and erythromelalgia, in which aspirin is an effective agent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/etiologia , Trombofilia/etiologia , Vasculite/etiologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/fisiopatologia , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Vasculite/fisiopatologia
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