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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(2): 99-108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527789

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract caused by interactions between genetic, environmental, immunological, and microbial factors. While the incidence and prevalence of IBD in Asian populations were relatively lower than those in Western countries, they appear to be gradually increasing. A Westernized diet, high socioeconomic status, improvement of hygiene, and development of vaccination could affect the increases in IBD incidence and prevalence in Asian countries. This review describes the latest trends in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in Asia. Studying the epidemiology of IBD in Asia may unravel the etiopathogenesis of and risk factors for IBD.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Migrantes
2.
Cell ; 184(4): 1047-1063.e23, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539780

RESUMO

DNA has not been utilized to record temporal information, although DNA has been used to record biological information and to compute mathematical problems. Here, we found that indel generation by Cas9 and guide RNA can occur at steady rates, in contrast to typical dynamic biological reactions, and the accumulated indel frequency can be a function of time. By measuring indel frequencies, we developed a method for recording and measuring absolute time periods over hours to weeks in mammalian cells. These time-recordings were conducted in several cell types, with different promoters and delivery vectors for Cas9, and in both cultured cells and cells of living mice. As applications, we recorded the duration of chemical exposure and the lengths of elapsed time since the onset of biological events (e.g., heat exposure and inflammation). We propose that our systems could serve as synthetic "DNA clocks."

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 808, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547292

RESUMO

Sarcomatoid and rhabdoid (S/R) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are highly aggressive tumors with limited molecular and clinical characterization. Emerging evidence suggests immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are particularly effective for these tumors, although the biological basis for this property is largely unknown. Here, we evaluate multiple clinical trial and real-world cohorts of S/R RCC to characterize their molecular features, clinical outcomes, and immunologic characteristics. We find that S/R RCC tumors harbor distinctive molecular features that may account for their aggressive behavior, including BAP1 mutations, CDKN2A deletions, and increased expression of MYC transcriptional programs. We show that these tumors are highly responsive to ICI and that they exhibit an immune-inflamed phenotype characterized by immune activation, increased cytotoxic immune infiltration, upregulation of antigen presentation machinery genes, and PD-L1 expression. Our findings build on prior work and shed light on the molecular drivers of aggressivity and responsiveness to ICI of S/R RCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , /imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Tumor Rabdoide/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Mutação , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/mortalidade , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/imunologia
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2189-2203, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416318

RESUMO

Elaborately and serially pH-modulated hydrogels possessing optimized viscoelastic natures for short gelation time and single syringe injection were designed for peritumoral injection of an anticancer agent. Boronate ester bonds between phenylboronic acid (PBA) (installed in HA-PBA (HP)) and dopamine (included in HA-dopamine (HD)) along with self-polymerization of dopamine (via interactions between HD conjugates) were introduced as the main cross-linking strategies of a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel. Considering pKa values (8.0-9.5) of PBA and dopamine, the pH of each polymer dispersion was controlled elaborately for injection through a single syringe, and the final pH was tuned nearby the physiological pH (pH 7.8). The shear-thinning behavior, self-healing property, and single syringe injectability of a designed hydrogel cross-linked nearby physiological pH may provide its convenient application to peritumoral injection and prolonged retention in local cancer therapy. Erlotinib (ERT) was encapsulated in a microsphere (MS), and it was further embedded in an HP/HD-based hydrogel for sustained and locoregional delivery. A rheologically tuned hydrogel containing an ERT MS exhibited superior tumor-suppressive efficiencies compared to the other groups in A549 tumor-bearing mice. A designed injectable hydrogel through a single syringe system may be efficiently applied to local cancer therapy with lower toxicities to healthy organs.

5.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445526

RESUMO

The current treatment strategy for patients with aggressive colorectal cancer has been hampered by resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy due to the existence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Recent studies have shown that SOX2 expression plays an important role in the maintenance of CSC properties in colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated the induction and regulatory role of SOX2 following the irradiation of radioresistant and radiosensitive colorectal cancer cells. We used FACS and western blotting to analyze SOX2 expression in cells. Among the markers of colorectal CSCs, the expression of CD44 increased upon irradiation in radioresistant cells. Further analysis revealed the retention of CSC properties with an upregulation of SOX2 as shown by enhanced resistance to radiation and metastatic potential in vitro. Interestingly, both the knockdown and overexpression of SOX2 led to increase in CD44+ population and induction of CSC properties in colorectal cancer following irradiation. Furthermore, selective genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway, but not the MAPK pathway, attenuated SOX2-dependent CD44 expression and metastatic potential upon irradiation in vitro. Our findings suggested that SOX2 regulated by radiation-induced activation of PI3K/AKT pathway contributes to the induction of colorectal CSCs, thereby highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target.

6.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 32(1): 73-77, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172821

RESUMO

Background: It is anticipated that the combined treatments of ablative laser and human stem cell-conditioned media produce the synergistic effects.Objectives: To investigated the effects of human stem cell-conditioned media (HSCM) as a post-procedural agent after fractional CO2 laser procedure in patients with atrophic acne scars and skin pores. Method: Both cheeks of 15 subjects were treated with a fractional CO2 laser. HSCM was randomly applied to one of the resurfacing sites (T) and normal saline was applied to the other site as a control (C). During the next six days, a solution containing 80% HSCM and hyaluronic acid (HA) was applied on the treated side (T) and HA alone was applied to the control side (C). Scar volume and erythema were objectively evaluated using an Antera 3D® CS. Result: After two months, the scar volume was reduced by 23.5% (T) versus 15.0% (C) (p = .143) and the volume of the skin pores was reduced by 37.6% (T) versus 15.9% (C) (p = .006), while the erythema was increased by 2.8% (T) versus 3.1% (C) (p = .934). Atrophic scar and the skin pores in the HSCM-applied area improved by at least 15.0% after a single treatment session, suggesting better results compared with the control side.Conclusion: HSCM may augment the regenerative effects of fractional CO2 laser.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/radioterapia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Acne Vulgar/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Cicatriz/etiologia , Eritema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Lasers de Gás/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/patologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23455, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afatinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) with proven efficacy for treating patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, responses are limited by acquired resistance. Because traditional Korean medicine may have synergistic effects when combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the aim of our study is to elucidate the efficacy and safety of afatinib plus HangAmDan-B1 (HAD-B1) combination therapy in the treatment of patients with NSCLC, as well as EGFR mutations, who need afatinib therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, multi-center, open clinical trial. A total of 178 eligible subjects, recruited at 8 centers, are randomly assigned to take Afatinib (20-40 mg) ±â€ŠHAD-B1 (0.972 g/day) for 48 weeks. In the test group, HAD-B1 and afatinib will be used in combination. The primary outcome is a comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) between afatinib monotherapy and afatinib plus HAD-B1 combination therapy in patients with local advanced or metastatic (Stage IIIA, B, C/IV) NSCLC. Secondary outcomes are the overall survival rates, clinical responses, tumor size reductions, health-related qualities of life, and safety. DISCUSSION: The result of this clinical trial will provide evidence for the efficacy and safety of using HAD-B1 in the treatment of EGFR-positive patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who require afatinib therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Republic of Korea (ID: KCT0005414), on September 23, 2020.

8.
Dermatology ; : 1-7, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acneiform eruption is the most common cutaneous adverse event associated with cetuximab. As it can affect quality of life and adversely affect chemotherapy schedule, additional medical care is required. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the adherence to and the duration of antibiotic administration to treat cetuximab-induced acneiform eruption. METHODS: Medical data of patients who were referred to the Department of Dermatology were reviewed from January 2013 to June 2018. Dermatologists assessed the severity of acneiform eruption and prescribed tetracycline-class antibiotics according to the severity every 2 or 4 weeks. We investigated the duration and amount of oral antibiotic administration and analyzed the factors that may affect the control of acneiform eruption statistically. RESULTS: A total of 207 of 267 patients referred to the Department of Dermatology showed acneiform eruption; 124 patients were treated with minocycline, 34 patients with doxycycline, 27 patients with both, and 22 patients with topical agents. The mean duration of oral antibiotic medication was 82.7 days. A statistical analysis of the factors that prolonged the use of antibiotics for more than 90 days showed that male and younger age were risk factors. Shorter time interval from starting cetuximab to starting antibiotics was associated with longer duration of antibiotic use, statistically. CONCLUSIONS: Cetuximab-induced acneiform eruption can be well controlled with tetracycline-class antibiotics in about 3 months. It can last longer in male and younger patients. The sooner and the more severe it appears, the longer it can last.

9.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 34(6): 446-453, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307604

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of head tilt on the tube position of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implanted in patients with glaucoma and to assess how the head tilt-induced alterations of tube parameters and the level of tube entry influence corneal endothelial cell density (ECD). METHODS: A total of 29 eyes of 26 patients with AGV implantation were included. Tube-cornea distance, tube-cornea angle, and intracameral tube length were measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in three different head positions (neutral, 30° temporalward tilt, and 30° nasalward tilt). The tube entry was assessed using static gonioscopy. ECD was measured using specular microscopy before and after surgery. RESULTS: The mean tube-cornea distance, tube-cornea angle, and intracameral tube length (neutral: 0.87 ± 0.39 mm, 30.56 ± 5.89˚, and 3.10 ± 0.82 mm, respectively) decreased with head tilts (temporalward: 0.82 ± 0.39 mm, 29.27 ± 5.82˚, and 3.04 ± 0.82 mm, respectively; nasalward: 0.83 ± 0.40 mm, 29.61 ± 6.04˚, and 3.05 ± 0.81 mm, respectively; all p < 0.01). The multivariate analyses found age and the tube insertion level to be associated with postoperative changes in the central ECD (p = 0.039 and 0.013, respectively), and the postoperative follow-up period and tube insertion level to be associated with the difference between the inferonasal and superotemporal ECDs (p = 0.034 and 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Mild alterations of head positions induced changes in the intracameral tube positions of AGV implants; nevertheless, it did not significantly affect ECD loss. However, the eyes with tubes inserted anteriorly to Schwalbe's line may be more susceptible to corneal ECD loss.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(49): 20531-20535, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226798

RESUMO

Conductive metal-organic frameworks (c-MOFs) have drawn increasing attention for their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. However, the majority of reported c-MOFs are based on 2D structures. Synthetic strategies for 3D c-MOFs are under-explored, leaving unrealized functionality in both their structures and properties. Herein we report Zn-HAB, a 3D c-MOF comprised of hexaaminobenzene and Zn(II). Zn-HAB is shown to have microporosity with a band gap of approximately 1.68 eV, resulting in a moderate conductivity of 0.86 mS cm-1 and a high Seebeck coefficient of 200 µV K-1 at 300 K. The power factor of 3.44 nW m-1 K-2 constitutes the first report of the thermoelectric properties of an intrinsically conductive 3D MOF.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19738, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184416

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX)-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) including phloretin (PHL) were designed and the feasible contribution of sialic acid (SA) to the improved tumor targeting and penetration capabilities was elucidated in lung adenocarcinoma models. DOX has been clinically used as liposomal formulations after its introduction to the inner side of vehicles, however DOX is anchored in the outer surface of PLGA NPs for improved tumor penetration by interactions with SA in this study. DOX (positively charged at physiological pH) was adsorbed onto the negatively charged PLGA NPs via electrostatic interactions and consequent binding of SA (negatively charged at physiological pH) to DOX located in NPs was also elucidated. DOX layer in DOX@PLGA NPs rendered improved endocytosis and partial contribution of SA (expressed in cancer cells) to that endocytosis was demonstrated. DOX@PLGA/PHL NPs provided enhanced antiproliferation potentials in A549 cells rather than single agent (DOX or PHL)-installed NPs. In addition, DOX-SA interactions seemed to play critical roles in tumor infiltration and accumulation of DOX@PLGA NPs in A549 tumor-xenografted mouse model. All these findings support the novel use of DOX which is used for the surface engineering of NPs for improved tumor targeting and penetration.

12.
Soft Matter ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155611

RESUMO

Capillary water bridges clogged in the holes of mesh-type fog harvesters have previously been considered only as a drawback because they decrease fog-harvesting yield by hindering airflow in front of the clogged mesh in the usual wind conditions. In this study, we show that the role of a clogged water bridge may not be entirely negative and can contribute to increased fog harvesting by increasing the effective shade coefficient in a special condition with high fog inertia. As the fog speed close to the mesh or the plate increases, clogged mesh as well as the impermeable solid plate are found to produce high fog-harvesting efficiency owing to the high inertia of fog particles that impact the blocked wall. For fast fog speeds (∼4 m s-1) near the mesh, our results show that the fog-harvesting efficiency is proportional to the effective shade coefficient because fog flow circumventing the mesh is limited owing to high fog inertia. We analyzed the clogging effect on fog-harvesting performance by distinguishing between self-clogging and non-self-clogging patterns based on the water bridge stability clogged in mesh holes.

13.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from a nationwide sample of US breast cancer survivors were used to examine associations between patient characteristics (breast cancer clinical features, prognostic factors, and treatments) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations between postdiagnosis HRQOL and mortality were then evaluated. METHODS: The authors identified female breast cancer survivors (n = 2453) from the Sister Study or Two Sister Study who were at least 1 year from breast cancer diagnosis and who had responded to a survivorship survey in 2012. HRQOL was assessed with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global 10 measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess predictors associated with HRQOL. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between HRQOL and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: HRQOL, assessed an average of 4.9 years after the cancer diagnosis (standard deviation of 1.9 years), was negatively associated with a higher cancer stage at diagnosis; a higher comorbidity score at the survey; experience of surgical complications; dissatisfaction with breast surgery; and experience of any recent recurrence, metastasis, or secondary malignancy. Since the completion of the survey, there were 85 deaths (3.5%) during a mean follow-up of 4 years (standard deviation of 0.5 years). In multivariate models, decreases in PROMIS physical T scores and mental T scores were associated with increased mortality (HR for physical T scores, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.11; HR for mental T scores, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic and cancer treatment-related factors affect HRQOL in breast cancer survivors and may inform targeted survivorship care. PROMIS global health measures may offer additional insights into patients' well-being and mortality risk. LAY SUMMARY: Findings from a study suggest that prognostic and cancer treatment-related factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in breast cancer survivors and that poor HRQOL may increase the mortality risk. The evaluation of HRQOL is important because it may hold potential as a tool for optimizing survivorship care.

14.
Ann Rehabil Med ; 44(5): 370-377, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of ultrasound-guided and non-guided botulinum toxin injections into the neck muscles involved in cervical dystonia. METHODS: Two physicians examined six muscles (sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, levator scapulae, splenius capitis, scalenus anterior, and scalenus medius) from six fresh cadavers. Each physician injected ultrasound-guided and non-guided injections to each side of the cadaver's neck muscles, respectively. Each physician then dissected the other physician's injected muscle to identify the injection results. For each injection technique, different colored dyes were used. Dissection was performed to identify the results of the injections. The muscles were divided into two groups based on the difficulty of access: sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscles (group A) and the levator scapulae, splenius capitis, scalenus anterior, and scalenus medius muscles (group B). RESULTS: The ultrasound-guided and non-guided injection accuracies of the group B muscles were 95.8% and 54.2%, respectively (p<0.001), while the ultrasound-guided and non-guided injection accuracies of the group A muscles were 100% and 79.2%, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into inaccessible neck muscles provide a higher degree of accuracy than non-guided injections. It may also be desirable to consider performing ultrasound-guided injections into accessible neck muscles.

15.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 891-894, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975064

RESUMO

The cellular entry of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor that is expressed on both lung and intestinal epithelial cells. We performed a quantitative proteomic analysis to investigate the expression of possible receptors for SARS-CoV-2 in the intestinal mucosa of 23 patients with chronic colitis. ACE2 expression was low and remained unaltered in the gut of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), intestinal Behcet's disease (BD), and intestinal tuberculosis (TB), when compared with that of healthy individuals. Additionally, the expression levels of some probable co-receptors, including dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), aminopeptidase N (AMPN), and glutamyl aminopeptidase (AMPE), were unchanged in the affected UC, CD, intestinal BD, and intestinal TB colon mucosa samples. In conclusion, gut inflammation associated with chronic colitis does not mediate a further increase in the cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Enterocolite , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral , Proteômica , Betacoronavirus , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Enterocolite/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pandemias
16.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876761

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) for prevention of radiodermatitis in an irradiated mouse model and compare the efficacy of PBM using 633- or 830-nm wavelengths. Irradiated mice were randomly distributed into three groups: A (633 nm), B (830 nm), and C (without PBM). On post-irradiation days 7 and 21, we compared acute damage and recovery in treated skin samples to non-irradiated skin using H&E, Masson's trichrome, anti-CD45 and PCNA immunohistochemistry, and a TUNEL assay. Grade 3 radiodermatitis was evident only in group C. Compared with that in group C, the skin in groups A and B had significantly less epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and thinner dermis on day 7 and less inflammatory cell infiltration, fewer apoptotic cells, and thinner dermis on day 21. However, there was no significant difference between groups A and B. This study indicates PBM could prevent severe radiodermatitis by reducing epidermal and dermal damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. There was no difference in PBM efficacy between the 633- and 830-nm wavelengths.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(35): 39074-39081, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805928

RESUMO

Catalytic systems whose properties can be systematically tuned via changes in synthesis conditions are highly desirable for the next-generation catalyst design and optimization. Herein, we present a two-dimensional (2D) conductive metal-organic framework consisting of M-N4 units (M = Ni, Cu) and a hexaaminobenzene (HAB) linker as a catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. By varying synthetic conditions, we prepared two Ni-HAB catalysts with different crystallinities, resulting in catalytic systems with different electric conductivities, electrochemical activity, and stability. We show that crystallinity has a positive impact on conductivity and demonstrate that this improved crystallinity/conductivity improves the catalytic performance of our model system. Additionally, density functional theory simulations were performed to probe the origin of M-HAB's catalytic activity, and they suggest that M-HAB's organic linker acts as the active site with the role of the metal being to modulate the linker sites' binding strength.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625126

RESUMO

Background: Although mismatch negativity (MMN) is associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, whether MMN progressively worsens during the initial years of psychotic disorder has not yet been sufficiently studied. We aimed to investigate whether longitudinal reduction of MMN occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether it is reflective of change in cognitive functioning or clinical status. Methods: MMN and the clinical status of 25 patients with FEP were measured and the Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered at baseline and reassessed after 1 year of usual treatment. The MMN of 25 matched healthy controls (HCs) was measured at baseline. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MMNs at baseline among the groups, and paired t-test was utilized to compare the baseline and 1-year MMN amplitudes of FEP patients. To identify the association between changes in MMN and changes in cognitive, symptomatic, or functional status over 1 year, multiple regression analysis was used to control for other possible confounders. Results: MMN amplitudes at baseline were significantly attenuated in FEP patients compared to those in HC. The 1-year follow-up MMN amplitude decreased significantly at the Fz electrode site in the FEP group. Additionally, the decreased MMN amplitude significantly correlated with worsened TMT part B (TMT-B) performance over 1 year but did not correlate with symptomatic or functional improvement. Conclusions: FEP patients with an MMN amplitude reduction showed worsening of cognitive functioning, which might reflect pathophysiological progression during the early years of a psychotic episode.

19.
Schizophr Bull ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotion dysregulation is crucial to both poor social functioning and psychotic symptom formation in patients with schizophrenia. The efficient use of emotion regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal, has been less frequently observed in the early phases of psychotic disorder. It is unknown whether neurophysiological responses related to emotion regulation by cognitive reappraisal are altered in early psychosis. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 34 subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, and 30 healthy controls (HCs) participated in event-related potential recordings during a validated emotion regulation paradigm to measure the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotion regulation. Late positive potentials (LPPs), which reflect emotional arousal, were compared across the groups and the 3 conditions (negative, cognitive reappraisal, and neutral). The relationship among LPP modulation by cognitive reappraisal and social/role functioning and severity of psychotic symptoms was investigated in the early psychosis group. RESULTS: The FEP and CHR participants showed comparably larger LPP amplitudes in the negative and cognitive reappraisal conditions than in the neutral condition, whereas the HCs presented larger LPPs in the negative condition than in the cognitive reappraisal and neutral conditions. LPP modulation by cognitive reappraisal was negatively correlated with positive symptom severity in the FEP patients and with disorganization severity in the CHR subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Inefficient use of cognitive reappraisal may be related to the impaired emotion regulation and psychotic symptoms from the very beginning of psychotic disorder. This study provides the first neurophysiological evidence regarding current concepts of emotion regulation in early psychosis.

20.
Mar Drugs ; 18(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707897

RESUMO

Radiation dermatitis (RD) is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy; its symptoms progress from erythema to dry and moist desquamation, leading to the deterioration of the patients' quality of life. Active metabolites in brown seaweed, including phlorotannins (PTNs), show anti-inflammatory activities; however, their medical use is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of PTNs in a mouse model of RD in vivo. X-rays (36 Gy) were delivered in three fractions to the hind legs of BALB/c mice. Macroscopic RD scoring revealed that PTNs significantly mitigated RD compared with the vehicle control. Histopathological analyses of skin tissues revealed that PTNs decreased epidermal and dermal thickness compared with the vehicle control. Western blotting indicated that PTNs augmented nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway activation but attenuated radiation-induced NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and inflammasome activation, suggesting the mitigation of acute inflammation in irradiated mouse skin. PTNs also facilitated fast recovery, as indicated by increased aquaporin 3 expression and decreased γH2AX (histone family member X) expression. Our results indicate that topical PTN application may alleviate RD symptoms by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and by promoting the healing process. Therefore, PTNs may show great potential as cosmeceuticals for patients with cancer suffering from radiation-induced inflammatory side effects such as RD.

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