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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction after surgery is a major issue in older adults. Here, we determined the effect of APOE4 on perioperative neurocognitive function in older patients. METHODS: We enrolled 140 English-speaking patients ≥60 yr old scheduled for noncardiac surgery under general anaesthesia in an observational cohort study, of whom 52 underwent neuroimaging. We measured cognition; Aß, tau, p-tau levels in CSF; and resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity in six Alzheimer's disease-risk regions before and 6 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant APOE4-related differences in cognition or CSF biomarkers, except APOE4 carriers had lower CSF Aß levels than non-carriers (preoperative median CSF Aß [median absolute deviation], APOE4 305 pg ml-1 [65] vs 378 pg ml-1 [38], respectively; P=0.001). Controlling for age, APOE4 carriers had significantly greater preoperative functional connectivity than non-carriers between several brain regions implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including between the left posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus (ß [95% confidence interval, CI], 0.218 [0.137-0.230]; PFWE=0.016). APOE4 carriers, but not non-carriers, experienced significant connectivity decreases from before to 6 weeks after surgery between several brain regions including between the left posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus (ß [95% CI], -0.196 [-0.256 to -0.136]; PFWE=0.001). Most preoperative and postoperative functional connectivity differences did not change after controlling for preoperative CSF Aß levels. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative change trajectories for cognition and CSF Aß, tau or p-tau levels did not differ between community dwelling older APOE4 carriers and non-carriers. APOE4 carriers showed greater preoperative functional connectivity and greater postoperative decreases in functional connectivity in key Alzheimer's disease-risk regions, which occur via Aß-independent mechanisms.

2.
Ecol Lett ; 24(11): 2452-2463, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474507

RESUMO

Populations in nature are comprised of individual life histories, whose variation underpins ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet the forces of environmental selection that shape intrapopulation life-history variation are still not well-understood, and efforts have largely focused on random (stochastic) fluctuations of the environment. However, a ubiquitous mode of environmental fluctuation in nature is cyclical, whose periodicities can change independently of stochasticity. Here, we test theoretically based hypotheses for whether shortened ('Fast') or lengthened ('Slow') environmental cycles should generate higher intrapopulation variation of life history phenotypes. We show, through a combination of agent-based modelling and a multi-generational laboratory selection experiment using the tidepool copepod Tigriopus californicus, that slower environmental cycles maintain higher levels of intrapopulation variation. Surprisingly, the effect of environmental periodicity on variation was much stronger than that of stochasticity. Thus, our results show that periodicity is an important facet of fluctuating environments for life-history variation.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361120

RESUMO

A major limiting factor for systemically delivered gene therapies is the lack of novel tissue specific AAV (Adeno-associated virus) derived vectors. Bispecific antibodies can be used to redirect AAVs to specific target receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of a short linear epitope "2E3" derived from human proprotein-convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) into different surface loops of the VP capsid proteins can be used for AAV de-targeting from its natural receptor(s), combined with a bispecific antibody-mediated retargeting. We chose to target a set of distinct disease relevant membrane proteins-fibroblast activation protein (FAP), which is upregulated on activated fibroblasts within the tumor stroma and in fibrotic tissues, as well as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is strongly upregulated in many cancers. Upon incubation with a bispecific antibody recognizing the 2E3 epitope and FAP or PD-L1, the bispecific antibody/rAAV complex was able to selectively transduce receptor positive cells. In summary, we developed a novel, rationally designed vector retargeting platform that can target AAVs to a new set of cellular receptors in a modular fashion. This versatile platform may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the role of disease relevant cell types and basis for novel gene therapy approaches.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Capsídeo/imunologia , Dependovirus/genética , Endopeptidases/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/genética , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211041206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were associated with the clinical outcomes of days on oxygen, duration of hospitalization, ICU admission, need for assisted ventilation, or mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 92 patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection between April 16, 2020 and October 17, 2020. Multivariable regression was performed to assess the independent relationship of 25(OH)D values on outcomes, adjusting for significant covariates and the hospitalization day the level was tested. RESULTS: About 15 patients (16.3%) had 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL. Only 1 patient (3.4%) who had documented vitamin D supplementation prior to admission had 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly associated with any of our primary outcomes of days on oxygen, duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for mechanical ventilation, or mortality in any of the adjusted multivariable models. Adjusting for the hospital day of 25(OH)D sampling did not alter the relationship of 25(OH)D with any outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status was not related to any of the primary outcomes reflecting severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. However, our sample size may have lacked sufficient power to demonstrate a small effect of vitamin D status on these outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4992, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404777

RESUMO

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics studies are increasingly applied to large population cohorts, which run for several weeks or even years in data acquisition. This inevitably introduces unwanted intra- and inter-batch variations over time that can overshadow true biological signals and thus hinder potential biological discoveries. To date, normalisation approaches have struggled to mitigate the variability introduced by technical factors whilst preserving biological variance, especially for protracted acquisitions. Here, we propose a study design framework with an arrangement for embedding biological sample replicates to quantify variance within and between batches and a workflow that uses these replicates to remove unwanted variation in a hierarchical manner (hRUV). We use this design to produce a dataset of more than 1000 human plasma samples run over an extended period of time. We demonstrate significant improvement of hRUV over existing methods in preserving biological signals whilst removing unwanted variation for large scale metabolomics studies. Our tools not only provide a strategy for large scale data normalisation, but also provides guidance on the design strategy for large omics studies.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Fluxo de Trabalho
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298601

RESUMO

The focus of treating cancer with oncolytic viruses (OVs) has increasingly shifted towards achieving efficacy through the induction and augmentation of an antitumor immune response. However, innate antiviral responses can limit the activity of many OVs within the tumor and several immunosuppressive factors can hamper any subsequent antitumor immune responses. In recent decades, numerous small molecule compounds that either inhibit the immunosuppressive features of tumor cells or antagonize antiviral immunity have been developed and tested for. Here we comprehensively review small molecule compounds that can achieve therapeutic synergy with OVs. We also elaborate on the mechanisms by which these treatments elicit anti-tumor effects as monotherapies and how these complement OV treatment.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of generalist radiologists working in a community setting against abdominal radiologists working in an academic setting for the interpretation of MR when diagnosing acute appendicitis among emergency department patients. METHODS: This observational study examined MR image interpretation (non-contrast MR with diffusion-weighted imaging and intravenous contrast-enhanced MR) from a prospectively enrolled cohort at an academic hospital over 18 months. Eligible patients had an abdominopelvic CT ordered to evaluate for appendicitis and were > 11 years old. The reference standard was a combination of surgery and pathology results, phone follow-up, and chart review. Six radiologists blinded to clinical information, three each from community and academic practices, independently interpreted MR and CT images in random order. We calculated test characteristics for both individual and group (consensus) diagnostic accuracy then performed Chi-square tests to identify any differences between the subgroups. RESULTS: Analysis included 198 patients (114 women) with a mean age of 31.6 years and an appendicitis prevalence of 32.3%. For generalist radiologists, the sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 93.8% (84.6-98.0%) and 88.8% (82.2-93.2%) for MR and 96.9% (88.7-99.8%) and 91.8% (85.8-95.5%) for CT. For fellowship-trained radiologists, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% (88.2-99.5%) and 89.6% (82.8-94%) for MR and 98.4% (90.5-99.9%) and 93.3% (87.3-96.7%) for CT. No statistically significant differences were detected between radiologist groups (p = 1.0, p = 0.53, respectively) or when comparing MR to CT (p = 0.21, p = 0.17, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MR is a reliable, radiation-free imaging alternative to CT for the evaluation of appendicitis in community-based generalist radiology practices. KEY POINTS: • There was no significant difference in MR image interpretation accuracy between generalist and abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists when evaluating sensitivity (p = 1.0) and specificity (p = 0.53). • There was no significant difference in accuracy comparing MR to CT imaging for diagnosing appendicitis for either sensitivity (p = 0.21) or specificity (p = 0.17). • With experience, generalist radiologists enhanced their MR interpretation accuracy as demonstrated by improved interpretation sensitivity (OR 2.89 CI 1.44-5.77, p = 0.003) and decreased mean interpretation time (5 to 3.89 min).

9.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 52(6): 327-335, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1.0 mg risuteganib in subjects with nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a phase 2a, prospective, double-masked, sham-controlled study. Eyes with nonexudative (dry) AMD and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20/40 and 20/200 were included. Subjects were randomized to intravitreal 1.0 mg risuteganib or sham injection. At Week 16, subjects in the risuteganib group received a second 1.0-mg dose and the sham group crossed over to receive a dose of 1.0 mg risuteganib and were evaluated at Week 28. The primary endpoint was proportion of subjects with 8 letters ETDRS or more BCVA gain from baseline to Week 28 in the risuteganib group versus baseline to Week 12 for the sham group. BCVA was tested and subjects were observed for adverse events (AEs) every 4 weeks until completion of the study at 32 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects (risuteganib, n = 29; sham, n = 16) were enrolled in the study, of whom 39 (risuteganib, n = 25; sham, n = 14) completed the study and were included in the per protocol efficacy analysis. At baseline, mean age was 78.8 and 75.9 years and mean BCVA was 67.1 and 64.4 letters in the sham and risuteganib groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was met by 48% of the risuteganib group at Week 28 and 7% of the sham group at Week 12 (P = .013). Of the risuteganib subjects, 20% gained 15 letters or more at Week 28, whereas no patients in the sham group at Week 12 achieved this visual acuity gain. The only ocular treatment-related treatment-emergent AE was vitreous floaters, which spontaneously recovered without sequelae. No drug-related serious AE was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Risuteganib demonstrated significant BCVA improvement in patients with non-exudative AMD. No drug-related AEs were seen during a 32-week observation period. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2021;52:327-335.].

10.
Am Surg ; : 31348211023446, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is commonly treated by colorectal surgeons. Pharmacological treatment is considered first-line therapy. An alternative treatment modality is chemical sphincterotomy with injection of botulinum toxin (BT). However, there is a lack of a consensus on the BT administration procedure among colorectal surgeons. METHODS: A national survey approved by the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) Executive Council was sent to all members. An eight-question survey was sent via ASCRS email correspondence between December 2019 and February 2020. Questions were derived from available meta-analyses and expert opinions on BT use in CAF patients and included topics such as BT dose, injection technique, and concomitant therapies. The survey was voluntary and anonymous, and all ASCRS members were eligible to complete it. Responses were recorded and analyzed via an online survey platform. RESULTS: 216 ASCRS members responded to the survey and 90% inject 50-100U of BT. Most procedures are performed under MAC anesthesia (56%). A majority of respondents (64%) inject into the internal sphincter and a majority (53%) inject into 4 quadrants in the anal canal circumference. Some respondents perform concomitant manual dilatation (34%) or fissurectomy (38%). Concomitant topical muscle relaxing agents are not used uniformly among respondents. DISCUSSION: Injection of BT for CAF is used commonly by colorectal surgeons. There is consensus on BT dosage, administration site, technique, and the use of monitored anesthesia care.

11.
Orbit ; : 1-6, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120561

RESUMO

Anti-TNF-α agents (e.g. infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept) are effective management options in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease). The occurrence during anti-TNF-α agent therapy of a new onset or exacerbation of an inflammatory condition that usually responds to this class of drug has been termed a paradoxical adverse event (PAE). A wide range of ophthalmic PAEs have been reported including uveitis, optic neuritis/neuropathy, scleritis, orbital myositis, retinal vasculitis, and others. The patient reported herein developed a dramatic orbital inflammatory PAE during his infliximab infusions, which manifested as an acute orbital apex syndrome with vision loss. Physicians using this medication should be aware of this serious vision-threatening PAE, and urgent therapy with high dose intravenous corticosteroids may be required.

12.
J Biomech Eng ; 143(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159357

RESUMO

The urinary bladder is a highly dynamic organ that undergoes large deformations several times per day. Mechanical characteristics of the tissue are crucial in determining the function and dysfunction of the organ. Yet, literature reporting on the mechanical properties of human bladder tissue is scarce and, at times, contradictory. In this study, we focused on mechanically testing tissue from both human and pig bladders using identical protocols to validate the use of pigs as a model for the human bladder. Furthermore, we tested the effect of two treatments on tissue mechanical properties. Namely, elastase to digest elastin fibers, and oxybutynin to reduce smooth muscle cell spasticity. Additionally, mechanical properties based on the anatomical direction of testing were evaluated. We implemented two different material models to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. We found that human tissue behaves similarly to pig tissue at high deformations (collagen-dominated behavior) while we detected differences between the species at low deformations (amorphous matrix-dominated behavior). Our results also suggest that elastin could play a role in determining the behavior of the fiber network. Finally, we confirmed the anisotropy of the tissue, which reached higher stresses in the transverse direction when compared to the longitudinal direction.

13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 24-33, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Multivariable logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analysis were used to identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. RESULTS: The 461 patients were young (median age, 35 years), male (82%), severely injured (median Injury Severity Score, 33), in shock (median shock index, 1.2; base excess, -9), and transfused a median of 29 U of RBCs, 22 U of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 24 U of platelets (PLT). Mortality was 46% at 24 hours and 65% at discharge. Transfusion of RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 or RBC/PLT ≥1.5:1 was significantly associated with mortality, most pronounced for the 18% of patients who received both RBC/PLT and RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 (odds ratios, 3.11 and 2.81 for mortality at 24 hours and discharge; both p < 0.01). Classification and Regression Tree identified that age older than 50 years, low initial Glasgow Coma Scale, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy were associated with low likelihood of survival (14-26%), while absence of these factors was associated with the highest survival (71%). CONCLUSION: Despite modern massive transfusion protocols, one half of trauma patients receiving UMT are transfused with either RBC/FFP or RBC/PLT in unbalanced ratios ≥1.5:1, with increased associated mortality. Maintaining focus on balanced ratios during UMT is critical, and consideration of advanced age, poor initial mental status, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy can aid in prognostication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187807

RESUMO

Polyploidy is defined as a cell with three or more whole genome sets and enables cell growth across the kingdoms of life. Studies in model organisms have revealed that polyploid cell growth can be required for optimal tissue repair and regeneration. In mammals, polyploid cell growth contributes to repair of many tissues, including the liver, heart, kidney, bladder, and eye, and similar strategies have been identified in Drosophila and zebrafish tissues. This review discusses the heterogeneity and versatility of polyploidy in tissue repair and regeneration. Polyploidy has been shown to restore tissue mass and maintain organ size as well as protect against oncogenic insults and genotoxic stress. Polyploid cells can also serve as a reservoir for new diploid cells in regeneration. The numerous mechanisms to generate polyploid cells provide an unlimited resource for tissues to exploit to undergo repair or regeneration.

15.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922315

RESUMO

Despite effective prevention programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death. Novel biomarkers are needed for improved risk stratification and primary prevention. To assess for independent associations between plasma metabolites and specific CAD plaque phenotypes we performed liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry on plasma from 1002 patients in the BioHEART-CT study. Four metabolites were examined as candidate biomarkers. Dimethylguanidino valerate (DMGV) was associated with presence and amount of CAD (OR) 1.41 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.12-1.79, p = 0.004), calcified plaque, and obstructive CAD (p < 0.05 for both). The association with amount of plaque remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors, ß-coefficient 0.17 (95% CI 0.02-0.32, p = 0.026). Glutamate was associated with the presence of non-calcified plaque, OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.09-2.01, p = 0.011). Phenylalanine was associated with amount of CAD, ß-coefficient 0.33 (95% CI 0.04-0.62, p = 0.025), amount of calcified plaque, (ß-coefficient 0.88, 95% CI 0.23-1.53, p = 0.008), and obstructive CAD, OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.01-3.31, p = 0.046). Trimethylamine N-oxide was negatively associated non-calcified plaque OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.53-0.97, p = 0.029) and the association remained when adjusted for traditional risk factors. In targeted metabolomic analyses including 53 known metabolites and controlling for a 5% false discovery rate, DMGV was strongly associated with the presence of calcified plaque, OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26-2.01, p = 0.006), obstructive CAD, OR 2.33 (95% CI 1.59-3.43, p = 0.0009), and amount of CAD, ß-coefficient 0.3 (95% CI 0.14-0.45, p = 0.014). In multivariate analyses the lipid and nucleotide metabolic pathways were both associated with the presence of CAD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. We report novel associations between CAD plaque phenotypes and four metabolites previously associated with CAD. We also identified two metabolic pathways strongly associated with CAD, independent of traditional risk factors. These pathways warrant further investigation at both a biomarker and mechanistic level.

16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(9): 1762-1765, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638694

RESUMO

Chyluria is characterized by chyle in the urinary tract and often presents as milky-white urine. We present a case of chyluria from a lymphatic malformation in a 13-year-old boy diagnosed using dynamic intranodal contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography. This report demonstrates the utility of intranodal lymphangiography and interstitial lymphatic embolization to treat a pediatric patient presenting with persistent chyluria. Glue migration into the urinary collecting system is a potential complication of this procedure that can be mitigated by adjusting the n-butyl cyanoacrylate dilution with Lipiodol.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007058, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a significant prognostic determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Despite the importance of RV function in PAH, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RV dysfunction secondary to PAH remain unclear. We aim to identify and compare molecular determinants of RV failure using RNA sequencing of RV tissue from 2 clinically relevant animal models of PAH. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on RV from rats treated with monocrotaline or Sugen with hypoxia/normoxia. PAH and RV failure were confirmed by catheterization and echocardiography. We validated the RV transcriptome results using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed on human RV tissue from control (n=3) and PAH-induced RV failure patients (n=5). RESULTS: We identified similar transcriptomic profiles of RV from monocrotaline- and Sugen with hypoxia-induced RV failure. Pathway analysis showed genes enriched in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and metabolism. Histological staining of human RV tissue from patients with RV failure secondary to PAH revealed significant RV fibrosis and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, as well as elevated cellular communication network factor 2 (top gene implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition/endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition) expression in perivascular areas compared with normal RV. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic signature of RV failure in monocrotaline and Sugen with hypoxia models showed similar gene expressions and biological pathways. We provide translational relevance of this transcriptomic signature using RV from patients with PAH to demonstrate evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition/endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and protein expression of cellular communication network factor 2 (CTGF [connective tissue growth factor]). Targeting specific molecular mechanisms responsible for RV failure in monocrotaline and Sugen with hypoxia models may identify novel therapeutic strategies for PAH-associated RV failure.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/genética , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Indóis/toxicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monocrotalina/toxicidade , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/patologia , Pirróis/toxicidade , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcriptoma , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/patologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040679, 2021 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to explore experiences of patients with pleural mesothelioma of follow-up care in three National Health Service (NHS) Trusts to develop recommendations for practice. DESIGN: The study design was qualitative and comprised three interlinked phases: a documentary analysis, interviews and consultation meetings. Altheide and Johnson's Analytic Realism theoretical framework guided the thematic data analysis process. SETTING: The study was conducted in three NHS Trusts in South England. Two were secondary care settings and the third was a tertiary centre. PARTICIPANTS: The secondary care trusts saw 15-20 patients with new mesothelioma per year and the tertiary centre 30-40. The tertiary centre had a designated mesothelioma team. Twenty-one patients met the inclusion criteria: >18 years, mesothelioma diagnosis and in follow-up care. Non-English speaking participants, those unable to provide written informed consent or those whom the clinical team felt would find participation too distressing were excluded. All participants were white, 71% were 70-79 years old and 71% were men. Three consultation meetings were conducted with key stakeholders including mesothelioma nurse specialists, patients with mesothelioma, carers and local clinical commissioning group members. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specific outcomes were to gain a detailed understanding of mesothelioma follow-up care pathways and processes and to develop coproduced recommendations for practice. RESULTS: Mesothelioma pathways were not always distinct from lung cancer care pathways. All trusts provided follow-up information and resources but there was varied information on how to access local support groups, research or clinical trial participation. Five themes were developed relating to people; processes; places; purpose and perception of care. Coproduced recommendations for improving mesothelioma follow-up pathways were developed following the consultation meetings. CONCLUSIONS: This study has developed recommendations which identify the need for patients with pleural mesothelioma to access consistent, specialist, streamlined mesothelioma care, centred around specialist mesothelioma nurses and respiratory consultants, with input from the wider multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Mesotelioma , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medicina Estatal
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3047, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542362

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived lipids play key roles in initiating and resolving inflammation. Neuro-inflammation is thought to play a causal role in perioperative neurocognitive disorders, yet the role of these lipids in the human central nervous system in such disorders is unclear. Here we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify AA, DHA, and EPA derived lipid levels in non-centrifuged cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), centrifuged CSF pellets, and centrifuged CSF supernatants of older adults obtained before, 24 h and 6 weeks after surgery. GAGE analysis was used to determine AA, DHA and EPA metabolite pathway changes over time. Lipid mediators derived from AA, DHA and EPA were detected in all sample types. Postoperative lipid mediator changes were not significant in non-centrifuged CSF (p > 0.05 for all three pathways). The AA metabolite pathway showed significant changes in centrifuged CSF pellets and supernatants from before to 24 h after surgery (p = 0.0000247, p = 0.0155 respectively), from before to 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.0000497, p = 0.0155, respectively), and from 24 h to 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.0000499, p = 0.00363, respectively). These findings indicate that AA, DHA, and EPA derived lipids are detectable in human CSF, and the AA metabolite pathway shows postoperative changes in centrifuged CSF pellets and supernatants.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412303

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without an identifiable underlying cause. Pregnancy has unique and important diagnostic and therapeutic implications for patients with IIH. Despite these implications, there are no guidelines to assist clinicians in managing IIH during pregnancy. Our review aims to summarize the key considerations related to the diagnosis and management of IIH during pregnancy, to optimize the care of these patients and mitigate the risk of disease-related complications. The optimal management of IIH in pregnancy should include a multidisciplinary team, including an obstetrician (or maternal-fetal medicine specialist), a neurologist, and an ophthalmologist (or neuro-ophthalmologist).

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