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1.
Infect Chemother ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyomyositis (PM) is a serious soft tissue infection and despite its clinical importance, previous studies have not been able to fully determine the clinical characteristics and microbial epidemiology of PM in Korea, which we therefore aimed to investigate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 140 adult patients diagnosed with PM from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the clinical and microbial characteristics of community-onset PM and compared them with community-acquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HCA) PM. RESULTS: One hundred eleven organisms were isolated from 96 (68.6%) patients with PM. Staphylococcus aureus (38 patients) was the most common pathogen, followed by streptococci (24 patients), and enteric Gram-negative organisms (27 patients). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was identified in four (2.9%) patients and in-hospital mortality reached 8.6% (12/140). Enterococci isolates were identified in the HCA PM subgroup only The proportion of MRSA isolates was not comparable between CA and HCA PM subgroups. In the 83 patients with PM infected by monomicrobial pathogens, isolates of Gram-negative organisms were more commonly found in HCA PM subgroup than in CA PM subgroup (47.6% [10/21] of patients with HCA PM vs. 20.7% [12/58] of patients with CA PM; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Gram-positive cocci such as S. aureus and streptococci were dominant etiologies in community-onset PM, whereas MRSA appears to an uncommon causative organism of PM in Korea. Enteric Gram-negative organisms should also be considered as major etiologies, especially in HCA PM patient population in Korea.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the anatomy of the posterior palatal alveolar process, which is often used for placement of the orthodontic mini-implant (OMI), and to suggest simple guidelines for safe placement of OMI. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 60 patients (30 men, 30 women; age range, 18-39 years; average age, 25.8 years) was used to measure the palatal interradicular distance, the palatal bone thickness, and the palatal soft-tissue thickness. Measurements were performed on the area from the maxillary canine to the maxillary second molar based on the vertical distance apical from the cementoenamel junction. The CBCT data were analyzed by Bonferroni correction for multiple testing and the multivariable mixed linear model. RESULTS: The palatal interradicular distance was the widest between the second premolar and the first molar and the narrowest between the first and second premolars. The palatal bone thickness at interdental sites was the thickest between the first and second premolars and the thinnest between the first and second molars. The interdental palatal soft-tissue thickness from the canine to the second premolar was thicker than any other area. There were minor measurement differences between genders and positive correlations between vertical distance from the cementoenamel junction plane and all of the parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, we evaluated the anatomy of the posterior palatal area using CBCT scans of adult patients. The data will provide guidelines to the clinicians before OMI placement in the posterior palatal alveolar process.

3.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the 12-month efficacy and safety of fixed-combination brimonidine tartrate 0.2%/timolol maleate 0.5% (FCBT) with or without bimatoprost 0.01% (BIM) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), including normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, open-label study. METHODS: FCBT was self-administered twice daily after applicable washout (study eye). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at baseline and months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. BIM could be added for IOP ≥ 21 mmHg, IOP reduction from baseline < 20%, or the investigator deemed it necessary. Primary endpoint: mean (11-a.m.) month-12 IOP change from baseline. Secondary endpoints included mean IOP changes from baseline at other visits, median time to achieving and patients (%) achieving target IOP reduction with FCBT, and visual field (VF) progression rate over 12 months. Safety was assessed at each visit. RESULTS: Of 118 eyes with POAG (NTG, n = 93), 87 used FCBT; 31 required FCBT + BIM. Mean IOP changes from baseline (16.8 and 15.3 mmHg) to month 12 were - 4.1 mmHg (FCBT, n = 62) and - 3.5 mmHg (FCBT + BIM, n = 15), respectively (both P < 0.0001). Patients who achieved target IOP reduction with FCBT did so in 1 month (median). VF progression rates were 0.17%/year (FCBT, P = 0.8367) and - 0.08%/year (FCBT + BIM, P = 0.9410). Ocular treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 42.5% (FCBT) and 71.0% (FCBT + BIM) of patients; most were mild and included ocular hyperemia (9.2% and 41.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite low mean baseline IOP, ≥ 20% IOP reduction from baseline persisted over 12 months with FCBT and FCBT + BIM, without clinically significant VF progression. Tolerability was consistent with reported drug safety profiles.

4.
J Glaucoma ; 30(1): 10-16, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351548

RESUMO

PRCIS: Recognizing the shortcomings of poor consistency of the fovea-disc relationship at different time points and comparing PanoMaps may well facilitate the understanding of the spatial relationship between parapapillary and macular areas in glaucoma. PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of the frequently damaged areas in early glaucoma, compare the patterns between nonprogressors and progressors using the combined wide-field parapapillary and macular deviation maps (PanoMap), and to evaluate the consistency of the fovea-disc relationship in PanoMap. The fovea-disc distance (FDD) and fovea-disc axis (FDA) were compared at baseline and at the last follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 118 patients with early glaucoma and a minimum follow-up period of 3 years were included in this retrospective observational study. The pattern of structural changes was evaluated by averaging the PanoMaps of the enrolled patients at baseline and last follow-up. Longitudinal comparison of the FDD and FDA was performed at baseline and the last follow-up. Patients were divided into nonprogressor (n=44) and progressor (n=74), and the patterns of glaucoma progression in PanoMaps were compared between them. RESULTS: At baseline, the glaucomatous damage was found more frequently in the macular compared with the parapapillary area. The spatial distribution of frequently damaged areas was similar between the nonprogressor and progressor. At the last follow-up, compared with the baseline structural change on the PanoMap, the progressive structural changes extended toward the fovea at both the parapapillary and macular areas in the progressor. The FDD and FDA were significantly different between the baseline and the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The PanoMaps showed a clear spatial distribution of early glaucomatous changes, indicating that the damaged area was frequently observed in the macular area. As the consistency of the fovea-disc relationship in PanoMaps was not excellent, this aspect should be considered when interpreting the PanoMap.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21052, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273643

RESUMO

Visual field assessment is recognized as the important criterion of glaucomatous damage judgement; however, it can show large test-retest variability. We developed a deep learning (DL) algorithm that quantitatively predicts mean deviation (MD) of standard automated perimetry (SAP) from monoscopic optic disc photographs (ODPs). A total of 1200 image pairs (ODPs and SAP results) for 563 eyes of 327 participants were enrolled. A DL model was built by combining a pre-trained DL network and subsequently trained fully connected layers. The correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE) between the predicted and measured MDs were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the detection ability for glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss. The data were split into training/validation (1000 images) and testing (200 images) sets to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The predicted MD showed a strong correlation and good agreement with the actual MD (correlation coefficient = 0.755; R2 = 57.0%; MAE = 1.94 dB). The model also accurately predicted the presence of glaucomatous VF loss (AUC 0.953). The DL algorithm showed great feasibility for prediction of MD and detection of glaucomatous functional loss from ODPs.

6.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(6): 451-458, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The surface roughness of various orthodontic materials could affect biofilm formation and friction. The purpose of this study was to examine the surface roughness and chemical composition of the slots and wings of several ceramic self-ligating brackets. STUDY DESIGN: Four types of ceramic self-ligating brackets were separated into experimental groups (DC, EC, IC, and QK) while a metal self-ligating bracket (EM) was used as the control group. Atomic force microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscope were used to examine the surface roughness and chemical composition of each bracket slot and wing. RESULTS: The control group was made of ferrum and chrome while all the experimental groups were comprised of aluminum and oxide. There was a statistically significant difference in the roughness average (Sa) among the various self-ligating brackets (p< 0.001 in slots and p<0.01 in the wing). The slots in the EC group had the lowest Sa, followed by the DC, IC, control, and QK groups. The wings in the IC group had the lowest Sa, followed by the EC, DC, control, and QK groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant difference in the surface roughness of the slots and wings among several types of ceramic self-ligating brackets.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Biofilmes , Cerâmica , Ligas Dentárias , Fricção , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Fios Ortodônticos , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 34(6): 425-431, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the current management patterns of glaucoma subspecialists with regard to normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) in Korea and to determine the effect of the two largest NTG trials on their clinical practice. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was sent to glaucoma subspecialist members of the Korean Glaucoma Society. The questionnaire concerned regular practice with respect to NTG and the extent to which it has been influenced by the Collaborative Normal-tension Glaucoma Study and the Low-pressure Glaucoma Treatment Study (LoGTS). RESULTS: A total of 134 glaucoma subspecialists completed the survey, with a response rate of 56%. The survey reported that 88% and 78% of glaucoma subspecialists were familiar with the Collaborative Normal-tension Glaucoma Study and the LoGTS, respectively. With respect to mild or moderate NTG, most of the respondents (87%-91%) tended to treat their patients immediately without waiting for structural or functional progression. Among the respondents, 47 indicated that the LoGTS results-according to which, 20% of the respondents tended to use brimonidine more often-affected their management. The first-choice topical drugs for NTG were prostaglandin analogues (76%), brimonidine (9%), beta-blockers (8%), and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding mild-to-moderate NTG, Korean glaucoma subspecialists tended to initiate treatment without waiting for further progression. The impact of the LoGTS on NTG management was not dominant in clinical practice in Korea. Prostaglandin analogs are the most frequently selected first-choice drugs for the management of NTG in Korea.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143023

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe problem for public health. Developing new antibiotics for MDR bacteria is difficult, from inception to the clinically approved stage. Here, we have used a new approach, modification of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CFX), with triphenylphosphonium (TPP, PPh3) moiety via ester- (CFX-ester-PPh3) and amide-coupling (CFX-amide-PPh3) to target bacterial membranes. In this study, we have evaluated the antibacterial activities of CFX and its derivatives against 16 species of bacteria, including MDR bacteria, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, morphological monitoring, and expression of resistance-related genes. TPP-conjugated CFX, CFX-ester-PPh3, and CFX-amide-PPh3 showed significantly improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, including MDR S. aureus (methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) strains. The MRSA ST5 5016 strain showed high antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 11.12 µg/mL for CFX-ester-PPh3 and 2.78 µg/mL for CFX-amide-PPh3. The CFX derivatives inhibited biofilm formation in MRSA by more than 74.9% of CFX-amide-PPh3. In the sub-MIC, CFX derivatives induced significant morphological changes in MRSA, including irregular deformation and membrane disruption, accompanied by a decrease in the level of resistance-related gene expression. With these promising results, this method is very likely to combat MDR bacteria through a simple TPP moiety modification of known antibiotics, which can be readily prepared at clinical sites.

9.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237622

RESUMO

Biocreative Orthodontic Strategy (BOS) is designed to establish a physiologically stable occlusion in harmony with masticatory and TMJ function and healthy supporting tissues with strategic use of temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). This narrative review surveys current research that demonstrates how BOS with TSADs uses a target approach to overcome the limitations experienced with conventional orthodontic treatment. A narrative review article including research on TSADs orthodontics in the permanent dentition. This review is a brief survey of five BOS principles for contemporary TSAD orthodontics: elegant selection of TSADs, bracket prescription to enhance TSAD orthodontics, antero-posterior dimension control, transverse dimension control and airway control issues. Severe malocclusion and craniofacial dysmorphology can be treated with Biocreative Orthodontic Strategy with a minimum number of TSADs. In order to achieve successful treatment outcome using TSADs, it is critical to understand the key diagnosis and treatment principles of BOS and how to develop a target approach for the tooth and bone movement.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17422, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060820

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The questionnaire for alcohol consumption pattern and targeted genotyping for ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism was performed from 445 Korean POAG patients. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured and compared according to alcohol consumption and ALDH2 rs671 genotype. Heavy drinking group eyes had thinner RNFL thickness than did abstinence group eyes (65.0 ± 10.9 vs. 70.9 ± 11.5 µm, P = 0.023). Both mild (65.8 ± 9.6 µm) and heavy (63.8 ± 8.4 µm) drinking group eyes had significantly thinner macular GCIPL thickness than did abstinence group eyes (68.1 ± 8.2 µm, P = 0.003). However, ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism did not show any significant association with RNFL or GCIPL thickness. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with GCIPL thinning (ß = -0.446, P = 0.035) after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. As excessive alcohol consumption was significantly associated with thinner GCIPL thickness while ALDH2 polymorphism had no significant effect on RNFL or GCIPL thickness, glaucoma patients should avoid excessive alcohol consumption regardless of ALDH2 polymorphism.

12.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the association between strabismus and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in a representative Korean population. METHODS: A total of 11 114 participants aged 20 years or older in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database for the years 2010 through 2011 were reviewed. A standardised protocol was used to interview every participant and to perform comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on fundus photography and frequency-doubling technology perimetry results, according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Ocular alignment was evaluated using the alternate prism and cover test, and clinically significant horizontal strabismus was defined as exodeviation of ≥15 prism dioptres (PD) and esodeviation of ≥10 PD. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the potential risk factors for POAG. RESULTS: In the Korean population, subjects with clinically significant esodeviation had a much higher prevalence of POAG (12.32%) than those without clinically significant esodeviation (3.14%, p=0.016). After adjusting for age and intraocular pressure, clinically significant esodeviation was independently associated with POAG (OR 7.61, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Esodeviation was independently associated with POAG in the Korean population. This could be the result of, at least in part, ocular-adduction-induced greater strain on the temporal optic nerve head and peripapillary tissues, which makes eyes with esodeviation more vulnerable to POAG.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002080

RESUMO

Optic-disc photography (ODP) has proven to be very useful for optic nerve evaluation in glaucoma. In real clinical practice, however, limited patient cooperation, small pupils, or media opacities can limit the performance of ODP. The purpose of this study was to propose a deep-learning approach for increased resolution and improved legibility of ODP by contrast, color, and brightness compensation. Each high-resolution original ODP was transformed into two counterparts: (1) down-scaled 'low-resolution ODPs', and (2) 'compensated high-resolution ODPs' produced via enhancement of the visibility of the optic disc margin and surrounding retinal vessels using a customized image post-processing algorithm. Then, the differences between these two counterparts were directly learned through a super-resolution generative adversarial network (SR-GAN). Finally, by inputting the high-resolution ODPs into SR-GAN, 4-times-up-scaled and overall-color-and-brightness-transformed 'enhanced ODPs' could be obtained. General ophthalmologists were instructed (1) to assess each ODP's image quality, and (2) to note any abnormal findings, at 1-month intervals. The image quality score for the enhanced ODPs was significantly higher than that for the original ODP, and the overall optic disc hemorrhage (DH)-detection accuracy was significantly higher with the enhanced ODPs. We expect that this novel deep-learning approach will be applied to various types of ophthalmic images.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografação/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Limite de Detecção , Fotografação/normas
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early replacement of a new central venous catheter (CVC) may pose a risk of persistent or recurrent infection in patients with a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). We evaluated the clinical impact of early CVC reinsertion after catheter removal in patients with CRBSIs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with confirmed CRBSIs in 2 tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period. RESULTS: To treat their infections, 316 patients with CRBSIs underwent CVC removal. Among them, 130 (41.1%) underwent early CVC reinsertion (≤3 days after CVC removal), 39 (12.4%) underwent delayed reinsertion (>3 days), and 147 (46.5%) did not undergo CVC reinsertion. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups, except for nontunneled CVC, presence of septic shock, and reason for CVC reinsertion. The rate of persistent CRBSI in the early CVC reinsertion group (22.3%) was higher than that in the no CVC reinsertion group (7.5%; P = .002) but was similar to that in the delayed CVC reinsertion group (17.9%; P > .99). The other clinical outcomes did not differ among the 3 groups, including rates of 30-day mortality, complicated infection, and recurrence. After controlling for several confounding factors, early CVC reinsertion was not significantly associated with persistent CRBSI (OR, 1.59; P = .35) or 30-day mortality compared with delayed CVC reinsertion (OR, 0.81; P = .68). CONCLUSIONS: Early CVC reinsertion in the setting of CRBSI may be safe. Replacement of a new CVC should not be delayed in patients who still require a CVC for ongoing management.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate, with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the glaucoma-diagnostic ability of a deep-learning classifier. METHODS: A total of 777 Cirrus high-definition SD-OCT image sets of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) of 315 normal subjects, 219 patients with early-stage primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 243 patients with moderate-to-severe-stage POAG were aggregated. The image sets were divided into a training data set (252 normal, 174 early POAG and 195 moderate-to-severe POAG) and a test data set (63 normal, 45 early POAG and 48 moderate-to-severe POAG). The visual geometry group (VGG16)-based dual-input convolutional neural network (DICNN) was adopted for the glaucoma diagnoses. Unlike other networks, the DICNN structure takes two images (both RNFL and GCIPL) as inputs. The glaucoma-diagnostic ability was computed according to both accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: For the test data set, DICNN could distinguish between patients with glaucoma and normal subjects accurately (accuracy=92.793%, AUC=0.957 (95% CI 0.943 to 0.966), sensitivity=0.896 (95% CI 0.896 to 0.917), specificity=0.952 (95% CI 0.921 to 0.952)). For distinguishing between patients with early-stage glaucoma and normal subjects, DICNN's diagnostic ability (accuracy=85.185%, AUC=0.869 (95% CI 0.825 to 0.879), sensitivity=0.921 (95% CI 0.813 to 0.905), specificity=0.756 (95% CI 0.610 to 0.790)]) was higher than convolutional neural network algorithms that trained with RNFL or GCIPL separately. CONCLUSION: The deep-learning algorithm using SD-OCT can distinguish normal subjects not only from established patients with glaucoma but also from patients with early-stage glaucoma. The deep-learning model with DICNN, as trained by both RNFL and GCIPL thickness map data, showed a high diagnostic ability for discriminatingpatients with early-stage glaucoma from normal subjects.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933932

RESUMO

AIM: To validate six previously known primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)-related loci in a Korean population. METHODS: Representative POAG-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six loci (cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B antisense RNA 1 (CDKN2B)-AS1, sineoculis homeobox homolog 1/sineoculis homeobox homolog 6(SIX1/SIX6), atonal BHLH transcription factor 7 (ATOH7), cell division cycle 7-transforming growth factor beta receptor 3, CAV1, transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 1 (TMCO1) were selected and genotyped from discovery (POAG=309, heathy=5400) and replication cohorts (POAG=310, healthy=5612 and POAG=221, healthy=6244, respectively). Data were analysed using logistic regression to calculate the OR for POAG risk associated with SNP. RESULTS: From the discovery cohort, rs1900004 in ATOH7 (OR=1.29, p=0.0024); rs1063192 (OR=0.69, p=0.0006), rs2157719 (OR=0.63, p=0.0007) and rs7865618 (OR=0.63, p=0.0006) in CDKN2B-AS1, and rs10483727 in SIX1/SIX6 (OR=0.68, p=7.9E-05) were nominally associated with the risk of POAG. The replication cohorts revealed nominal associations with rs2157719 (OR=0.72, p=0.0135), rs1063192 (OR=0.63, p=0.0007) and rs7865618 (OR=0.52, p=0.0004) in CDKN2B-AS1. A mega-analysis from the entire Korean population revealed significance with rs1063192 (OR=0.77, p=6.0E-05), rs2157719 (OR=0.63, p=0.0007) and rs7865618 (OR=0.58, p=1.9E-06) in CDKN2B-AS1 and with rs10483727 in SIX1/SIX6 (OR=0.79, p=9.4E-05), with the same direction of effect between the discovery association and the replication sample. CONCLUSIONS: Variants near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6 may require further investigation to obtain more genetic information on POAG development in a Korean population.

17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors for glaucoma conversion of the contralateral eye in unilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on a total of 76 subjects who had been diagnosed with unilateral NTG at the baseline and followed up for more than 5 years. Glaucoma conversion in the contralateral eye was defined as increased thinning of neuro-retinal rim, development of retinal nerve fibre layer defect and/or development of glaucomatous visual field defect. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 7.3±2.4 years, 21 of 79 (26.6%) subjects were confirmed to have developed glaucoma in the non-glaucomatous contralateral eye. The 5-year rate of glaucoma conversion in contralateral eyes was 19.7%. The maximum width of ß-zone parapapillary atrophy (MWßPPA)-disc diameter (DD) ratio at the baseline and the presence rate of disc haemorrhage during follow-up period were significantly greater in the contralateral eyes of the conversion group than in those of the non-conversion group (p=0.011, <0.001, respectively). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) over 17 mm Hg (HR 5.05, p=0.031), central corneal thickness (CCT) under 491 µm (HR 4.25, p=0.025) and MWßPPA-DD ratio over 0.32 (HR 6.25, p=0.003) in contralateral eye at the baseline as the independent risk factors for glaucoma conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Among unilateral NTG patients, those with low CCT and high MWßPPA-DD ratio as well as high IOP in the contralateral eye are more likely to develop glaucoma in that eye during long-term follow-up.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14162, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843653

RESUMO

Antibacterial properties of 3',4'-difluoroquercetin (di-F-Q), a fluorine-substituted stable quercetin derivative, were investigated. Even though di-F-Q itself did not show interesting antibacterial activity, treatment of the Staphylococcus aureus strains with di-F-Q resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in biofilm formation with IC50 values of 1.8 ~ 5.3 mg/L. Also, the antibacterial activity of ceftazidime (CAZ) against carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) showed eightfold decrease upon combination with di-F-Q. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of CAZ in combination with di-F-Q against 50 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa confirmed 15.7% increase in the percentages of susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates upon addition of di-F-Q to CAZ. Further mechanistic studies revealed that di-F-Q affected the antibiotics efflux system in CRPA but not the ß-lactamase activity. Thus, di-F-Q was almost equally effective as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine in inhibiting antibiotic efflux by P. aeruginosa. In vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of CAZ-(di-F-Q) combination against P. aeruginosa showed 20% of the mice treated with CAZ-(di-F-Q) survived after 7 days in IMP carbapenemase-producing multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infection group while no mice treated with CAZ alone survived after 2 days. Taken together, di-F-Q demonstrated unique strain-specific antimicrobial properties including anti-biofilm and antibiotic-potentiating activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806703

RESUMO

This study researched the association between alcohol consumption, intraocular pressure (IOP), and risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) using nationwide population-based cross-sectional data from the Korean population based survey. Information on alcohol intake was obtained by questionnaire and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Among a total of 6057 participants, the prevalence of OAG was 4.4% (6.0% for men and 3.0% for women). Multivariate adjusted models showed that alcohol consumption showed significant relationship with changes in IOP. In sex-stratified analyses, alcohol consumption more than 2 times per week was associated with increased IOP in men without OAG, while in women with OAG drinking alcohol more than 4 times per week was associated with increased IOP. This study showed significant differences between men and women without glaucoma who consumed alcohol more than four times per week (p-value: 0.03). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption is associated with risk of elevated IOP depending on sex and presence of glaucoma in Koreans. Therefore, patients who need to control IOP should consider the effects of alcohol consumption.

20.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 220: 183-190, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if the size and location of facial port-wine stains (PWS) can predict glaucoma risk in neonates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Children with facial PWS who had undergone ophthalmologic examination within 4 weeks of their birth were included. Clinical information, including facial photographs, intraocular pressure, corneal diameter, optic disc cup-to-disc ratio, and Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) diagnoses were collected. Based on facial photographs, PWS distribution, eyelid involvement, and PWS scores according to degree of involvement in each embryonic facial vasculature distribution (segment [S]1, S2 and S3) were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 34 patients, 7 (21%) had bilateral PWS lesions. Eighteen (53%) had diagnoses of glaucoma. The proportion of eyes showing PWS involving both S1 and S2 was the highest (n = 15, 37%), and the frequency of glaucoma diagnosis (n = 9, 60%) was also the greatest. In eyelid involvement analysis, among the 7 eyes with only lower-eyelid lesions, 5 (83%) had glaucoma. Among the 11 eyes with only upper-eyelid lesions, however, 2 (18%) had diagnoses of glaucoma. A logistic regression model showed that the significant factors associated with glaucoma risk were greater PWS scores in S2 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.604; 95% confidence interval: 1.078-12.050; P = .037) or lower-eyelid involvement (OR: 12.816; 95% CI: 1.698-96.744; P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: Among the newborns with facial PWS, 1) a greater extent of birthmarks involving the S2 area, and 2) lesions including the lower eyelid were associated with higher risk of glaucoma development within the neonatal period.

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