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1.
J Crit Care ; 63: 264-268, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The pathophysiology theories of COVID-19 attach the injury of target organs to faulty immune responses and occasionally hyper-inflammation. The damage frequently extends beyond the respiratory system, accompanying cardiovascular, renal, central nervous system, and/or coagulation derangements. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL)-1 and - 6 suppression may improve outcomes, as experimentally shown. Targeted therapies have been proposed, but mild therapeutic hypothermia-a more multifaceted approach-could be suitable. FINDINGS: According to evidence derived from previous applications, therapeutic hypothermia diminishes the release of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and at the tissue level. PaCO2 is reduced and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio is increased, possibly lasting after rewarming. Cooling might mitigate both ventilator and infectious-induced lung injury, and suppress microthrombi development, enhancing V/Q mismatch. Improvements in microhemodynamics and tissue O2 diffusion, along with the ischemia-tolerance heightening of tissues, could be reached. Arrhythmia incidence diminishes. Moreover, hypothermia may address the coagulopathy, promoting normalization of both hypo- and hyper-coagulability patterns, which are apparently sustained after a return to normothermia. CONCLUSIONS: As per prior therapeutic hypothermia literature, the benefits regarding inflammatory response and organic damage might be seen. Following the safety-cornerstones of the technique, the overall infection rate and infection-related mortality are not expected to rise, and increased viral replication does not seem to be a concern. Therefore, the possibility of a low cost and widely available therapy being capable of improving COVID-19 outcomes deserves further study.


Assuntos
/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , /sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very old patients (≥ 80 years-old, VOP) are increasingly admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for admission and the best strategy of support for respiratory failure in this scenario is not fully known. We evaluated whether noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would be beneficial compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) regarding hospital mortality. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study of VOPs admitted with CAP in need of IMV or NIV to 11 Brazilian ICUs from 2009 through 2012. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association between the initial ventilatory strategy (NIV vs. IMV) and hospital mortality adjusting for confounding factors. We evaluated effect modification with interaction terms in pre-specified sub-groups. RESULTS: Of 369 VOPs admitted for CAP with respiratory failure, 232 (63%) received NIV and 137 (37%) received IMV as initial ventilatory strategy. IMV patients were sicker at baseline (median SOFA 8 vs. 4). Hospital mortality was 114/232 (49%) for NIV and 90/137 (66%) for IMV. For the comparison NIV vs. IMV (reference), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.33-0.78, p = 0.002). This association was largely confounded by antecedent characteristics and non-respiratory SOFA (adjOR = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.41-1.20, p = 0.196). The fully adjusted model, additionally including Pao2/Fio2 ratio, pH and Paco2, yielded an adjOR of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.46-1.41, p = 0.452). There was no strong evidence of effect modification among relevant subgroups, such as Pao2/Fio2 ratio ≤ 150 (p = 0.30), acute respiratory acidosis (p = 0.42) and non-respiratory SOFA ≥ 4 (p = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: NIV was not associated with lower hospital mortality when compared to IMV in critically ill VOP admitted with CAP, but there was no strong signal of harm from its use. The main confounders of this association were both the severity of respiratory dysfunction and of extra-respiratory organ failures.

3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We designed a cohort study to describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in the largest public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, as Latin America becomes the epicenter of the pandemic. METHODS: This is the protocol for a study being conducted at an academic hospital in Brazil with 300 adult ICU beds dedicated to COVID-19 patients. We will include adult patients admitted to the ICU with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. The main outcome is ICU survival at 28 days. Data will be collected prospectively and retrospectively by trained investigators from the hospital's electronic medical records, using an electronic data capture tool. We will collect data on demographics, comorbidities, severity of disease, and laboratorial test results at admission. Information on the need for advanced life support and ventilator parameters will be collected during ICU stay. Patients will be followed up for 28 days in the ICU and 60 days in the hospital. We will plot Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate ICU and hospital survival and perform survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify the main risk factors for mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04378582. RESULTS: We expect to include a large sample of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and to be able to provide data on admission characteristics, use of advanced life support, ICU survival at 28 days, and hospital survival at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide epidemiological data about critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Brazil, which could inform health policy and resource allocation in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(1): 37-42, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol in critically ill patients at a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we included all adult patients admitted to the medical and surgical intensive care units of an academic tertiary hospital. Our sole exclusion criterion was upper gastrointestinal bleeding at intensive care unit admission. We collected baseline variables and stress ulcer prophylaxis indications according to the institutional protocol and use of prophylaxis. Our primary outcome was adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol. Secondary outcomes were appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence and factors associated with appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four patients were enrolled from July 2nd through July 31st, 2018. Patients were 52 ± 20 years old, 125 (53%) were surgical patients, and the mean SAPS 3 was 52 ± 20. In the longitudinal follow-up, 1499 patient-days were studied; 1069 patient-days had stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, and 777 patient-days contained prophylaxis use (73% stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol adherence). Of the 430 patient-days without stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, 242 involved prophylaxis (56% inappropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis use). The overall appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was 64%. Factors associated with proper stress ulcer prophylaxis prescription were mechanical ventilation OR 2.13 (95%CI 1.64 - 2.75) and coagulopathy OR 2.77 (95%CI 1.66 - 4.60). The upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence was 12.8%. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol was low and inappropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was frequent in this cohort of critically ill patients.

5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 37-42, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138451

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse em pacientes críticos de um hospital universitário terciário. Métodos: Neste estudo de coorte prospectiva, incluímos todos os pacientes adultos admitidos às unidades de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica de um hospital terciário acadêmico. Nosso único critério de exclusão foi a presença de sangramento gastrointestinal alto quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva. Colhemos as variáveis basais e indicações de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, segundo o protocolo institucional, assim como o uso de profilaxia. Nosso desfecho primário foi a adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse. Os desfechos secundários foram uso apropriado da profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, incidência de sangramento gastrointestinal superior e fatores associados com o uso apropriado da profilaxia de úlcera de estresse. Resultados: Foram incluídos 234 pacientes no período compreendido entre 2 de julho e 31 de julho de 2018. Os pacientes tinham idade de 52 ± 20 anos, sendo 125 (53%) deles cirúrgicos, e o SAPS 3 médio foi de 52 ± 20. No seguimento longitudinal, foram estudados 1.499 pacientes-dias; 1.069 pacientes-dias tiveram indicação de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, e 777 pacientes-dias tiveram uso profilático (73% de adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse). Dentre os 430 pacientes-dias sem indicações de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, 242 envolveram profilaxia (56% de uso impróprio de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse). O total de uso apropriado de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi de 64%. Fatores associados com prescrição adequada de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foram ventilação mecânica, com RC 2,13 (IC95% 1,64 - 2,75), e coagulopatia, com RC 2,77 (IC95% 1,66 - 4,60). A incidência de sangramento do trato gastrointestinal superior foi de 12,8%. Conclusão: A adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi baixa, e o uso inadequado de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi frequente nesta coorte de pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol in critically ill patients at a tertiary university hospital. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we included all adult patients admitted to the medical and surgical intensive care units of an academic tertiary hospital. Our sole exclusion criterion was upper gastrointestinal bleeding at intensive care unit admission. We collected baseline variables and stress ulcer prophylaxis indications according to the institutional protocol and use of prophylaxis. Our primary outcome was adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol. Secondary outcomes were appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence and factors associated with appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis. Results: Two hundred thirty-four patients were enrolled from July 2nd through July 31st, 2018. Patients were 52 ± 20 years old, 125 (53%) were surgical patients, and the mean SAPS 3 was 52 ± 20. In the longitudinal follow-up, 1499 patient-days were studied; 1069 patient-days had stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, and 777 patient-days contained prophylaxis use (73% stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol adherence). Of the 430 patient-days without stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, 242 involved prophylaxis (56% inappropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis use). The overall appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was 64%. Factors associated with proper stress ulcer prophylaxis prescription were mechanical ventilation OR 2.13 (95%CI 1.64 - 2.75) and coagulopathy OR 2.77 (95%CI 1.66 - 4.60). The upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence was 12.8%. Conclusion: Adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol was low and inappropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was frequent in this cohort of critically ill patients.

7.
Ferreira, Juliana C.; Ho, Yeh-Li; Besen, Bruno A.M.P.; Malbuisson, Luiz M.S.; Taniguchi, Leandro U.; Mendes, Pedro V.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Park, Marcelo; Daltro-Oliveira, Renato; Roepke, Roberta M.L.; Silva Jr, João M.; Carmona, Maria José C.; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Hirota, Adriana; Kanasiro, Alberto Kendy; Crescenzi, Alessandra; Fernandes, Amanda Coelho; Miethke-Morais, Anna; Bellintani, Arthur Petrillo; Canasiro, Artur Ribeiro; Carneiro, Bárbara Vieira; Zanbon, Beatriz Keiko; Batista, Bernardo Pinheiro De Senna Nogueira; Nicolao, Bianca Ruiz; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Biselli, Bruno; Macedo, Bruno Rocha De; Toledo, Caio Machado Gomes De; Pompilio, Carlos Eduardo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro De; Mol, Caroline Gomes; Stipanich, Cassio; Bueno, Caue Gasparotto; Garzillo, Cibele; Tanaka, Clarice; Forte, Daniel Neves; Joelsons, Daniel; Robira, Daniele; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Silva Júnior, Elson Mendes Da; Regalio, Fabiane Aliotti; Segura, Gabriela Cardoso; Marcelino, Gustavo Brasil; Louro, Giulia Sefrin; Ho, Yeh-Li; Ferreira, Isabela Argollo; Gois, Jeison de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Joao Manoel Da; Reusing Junior, Jose Otto; Ribeiro, Julia Fray; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Galleti, Karine Vusberg; Silva, Katia Regina; Isensee, Larissa Padrao; Oliveira, Larissa dos Santos; Taniguchi, Leandro Utino; Letaif, Leila Suemi; Lima, Lígia Trombetta; Park, Lucas Yongsoo; Chaves Netto, Lucas; Nobrega, Luciana Cassimiro; Haddad, Luciana; Hajjar, Ludhmila; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo; Pandolfi, Manuela Cristina Adsuara; Park, Marcelo; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Andrade, Maria Castilho Prandini H De; Santos, Mariana Moreira; Bateloche, Matheus Pereira; Suiama, Mayra Akimi; Oliveira, Mayron Faria de; Sousa, Mayson Laercio; Louvaes, Michelle; Huemer, Natassja; Mendes, Pedro; Lins, Paulo Ricardo Gessolo; Santos, Pedro Gaspar Dos; Moreira, Pedro Ferreira Paiva; Guazzelli, Renata Mello; Reis, Renato Batista Dos; Oliveira, Renato Daltro De; Roepke, Roberta Muriel Longo; Pedro, Rodolpho Augusto De Moura; Kondo, Rodrigo; Rached, Samia Zahi; Fonseca, Sergio Roberto Silveira Da; Borges, Thais Sousa; Ferreira, Thalissa; Cobello Junior, Vilson; Sales, Vivian Vieira Tenório; Ferreira, Willaby Serafim Cassa; EPICCoV Study Group.
Clinics ; 75: e2294, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We designed a cohort study to describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in the largest public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, as Latin America becomes the epicenter of the pandemic. METHODS: This is the protocol for a study being conducted at an academic hospital in Brazil with 300 adult ICU beds dedicated to COVID-19 patients. We will include adult patients admitted to the ICU with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. The main outcome is ICU survival at 28 days. Data will be collected prospectively and retrospectively by trained investigators from the hospital's electronic medical records, using an electronic data capture tool. We will collect data on demographics, comorbidities, severity of disease, and laboratorial test results at admission. Information on the need for advanced life support and ventilator parameters will be collected during ICU stay. Patients will be followed up for 28 days in the ICU and 60 days in the hospital. We will plot Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate ICU and hospital survival and perform survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify the main risk factors for mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04378582. RESULTS: We expect to include a large sample of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and to be able to provide data on admission characteristics, use of advanced life support, ICU survival at 28 days, and hospital survival at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide epidemiological data about critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Brazil, which could inform health policy and resource allocation in low- and middle-income countries.

8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 548-554, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058051

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: A evidência de melhora da sobrevivência com uso de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ainda permanece incerta. Métodos: Esta revisão sistemática e metanálise foi registrada na base de dados PROSPERO com o número CRD-42018098618. Conduzimos uma busca estruturada nas bases Medline, LILACS e ScienceDirect visando a ensaios randomizados e controlados que tivessem avaliado o uso de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea associada com ventilação mecânica (ultra)protetora em pacientes adultos com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo grave. Utilizamos a ferramenta de riscos de viés da Cochrane para avaliar a qualidade da evidência. O desfecho primário consistiu em avaliar o efeito do uso oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea no último relato de mortalidade. Os desfechos secundários foram: falha terapêutica, tempo de permanência no hospital e necessidade de terapia de substituição renal em ambos os grupos. Resultados: Incluíram-se na metanálise dois ensaios randomizados e controlados, compreendendo 429 pacientes, dos quais 214 receberam suporte respiratório extracorpóreo. A razão mais comum para a insuficiência respiratória foi pneumonia (60% - 65%). O suporte respiratório com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea foi associado a uma redução na mortalidade e redução em falha terapêutica com taxas de risco (RR: 0,76; IC95% 0,61 - 0,95; RR: 0,68; IC95% 0,55 - 0,85, respectivamente). O uso de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea reduziu a necessidade de terapia de substituição renal com uma RR de 0,88 (IC95% 0,77 - 0,99). O tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital foram maiores no grupo de pacientes que recebeu suporte com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea, com acréscimo de 14,84 (P25°-P75°: 12,49 - 17,18) e 29,80 (P25°- P75°: 26,04 - 33,56) dias, respectivamente. Conclusão: O suporte com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo grave está associado a uma redução da taxa de mortalidade e da necessidade de terapia de substituição renal, porém apresenta aumento substancial no tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital. Nossos resultados podem ajudar no processo decisório junto ao leito quanto ao início do suporte com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo grave.


ABSTRACT Objective: The evidence of improved survival with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in acute respiratory distress syndrome is still uncertain. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in the PROSPERO database with the number CRD-42018098618. We performed a structured search of Medline, Lilacs, and ScienceDirect for randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of ECMO associated with (ultra)protective mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory failure in adult patients. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to evaluate the quality of the evidence. Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of ECMO on the last reported mortality. Secondary outcomes were treatment failure, hospital length of stay and the need for renal replacement therapy in both groups. Results: Two randomized controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 429 patients, of whom 214 were supported with ECMO. The most common reason for acute respiratory failure was pneumonia (60% - 65%). Respiratory ECMO support was associated with a reduction in last reported mortality and treatment failure with risk ratios (RR: 0.76; 95%CI 0.61 - 0.95 and RR: 0.68; 95%CI 0.55 - 0.85, respectively). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation reduced the need for renal replacement therapy, with a RR of 0.88 (95%CI 0.77 - 0.99). Intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay were longer in ECMO-supported patients, with an additional P50th 14.84 (P25th - P75th: 12.49 - 17.18) and P50th 29.80 (P25th - P75th: 26.04 - 33.56] days, respectively. Conclusion: Respiratory ECMO support in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is associated with a reduced mortality rate and a reduced need for renal replacement therapy but a substantial increase in the lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. Our results may help bedside decision-making regarding ECMO initiation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação
9.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo, Antonio Fernando Barros de Filho; Pazin, Antonio Filho; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano, Carlos Vicente Junior; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa, Gilson Soares Filho; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares, Jaime Paula Pessoa Filho; Moraes, Junior João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1038561
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 113-121, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013758

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a transferência de energia do ventilador mecânico para os pulmões; o acoplamento entre a transferência de oxigênio por oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venovenosa (ECMO-VV) e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente; a remoção de dióxido de carbono com ECMO; e o efeito potencial da oxigenação venosa sistêmica na pressão arterial pulmonar. Métodos: Modelo matemático com cenários hipotéticos e utilização de simulações matemáticas por computador. Resultados: A transição de ventilação protetora para ventilação ultraprotetora em um paciente com síndrome da angústia respiratória aguda grave e complacência respiratória estática de 20mL/cmH2O reduziu a transferência de energia do ventilador para os pulmões de 35,3 para 2,6 joules por minuto. Em um paciente hipotético, hiperdinâmico e ligeiramente anêmico com consumo de oxigênio de 200mL/minuto, é possível atingir saturação arterial de oxigênio de 80%, ao mesmo tempo em que se mantém o equilíbrio entre a transferência de oxigênio pela ECMO e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente. O dióxido de carbono é facilmente removido e a pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono normal é facilmente obtida. A oxigenação do sangue venoso, por meio do circuito da ECMO, pode direcionar o estímulo da pressão parcial de oxigênio na vasoconstrição pulmonar por hipóxia para valores normais. Conclusão: A ventilação ultraprotetora reduz amplamente a transferência de energia do ventilador para os pulmões. A hipoxemia grave no suporte com ECMO-VV pode ocorrer, a despeito do acoplamento entre a transferência de oxigênio, por meio da ECMO, e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente. A faixa normal de pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono é fácil de atingir. O suporte com ECMO-VV potencialmente alivia a vasoconstrição pulmonar hipóxica.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe (1) the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs, (2) the match between venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) oxygen transfer and patient oxygen consumption (VO2), (3) carbon dioxide removal with ECMO, and (4) the potential effect of systemic venous oxygenation on pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Mathematical modeling approach with hypothetical scenarios using computer simulation. Results: The transition from protective ventilation to ultraprotective ventilation in a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and a static respiratory compliance of 20mL/cm H2O reduced the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs from 35.3 to 2.6 joules/minute. A hypothetical patient, hyperdynamic and slightly anemic with VO2 = 200mL/minute, can reach an arterial oxygen saturation of 80%, while maintaining the match between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. Carbon dioxide is easily removed, and normal PaCO2 is easily reached. Venous blood oxygenation through the ECMO circuit may drive the PO2 stimulus of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction to normal values. Conclusion: Ultraprotective ventilation largely reduces the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs. Severe hypoxemia on venous-venous-ECMO support may occur despite the matching between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. The normal range of PaCO2 is easy to reach. Venous-venous-ECMO support potentially relieves hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Simulação por Computador , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Transferência de Energia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia
11.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(2): 113-121, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe (1) the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs, (2) the match between venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) oxygen transfer and patient oxygen consumption (VO2), (3) carbon dioxide removal with ECMO, and (4) the potential effect of systemic venous oxygenation on pulmonary artery pressure. METHODS: Mathematical modeling approach with hypothetical scenarios using computer simulation. RESULTS: The transition from protective ventilation to ultraprotective ventilation in a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and a static respiratory compliance of 20mL/cm H2O reduced the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs from 35.3 to 2.6 joules/minute. A hypothetical patient, hyperdynamic and slightly anemic with VO2 = 200mL/minute, can reach an arterial oxygen saturation of 80%, while maintaining the match between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. Carbon dioxide is easily removed, and normal PaCO2 is easily reached. Venous blood oxygenation through the ECMO circuit may drive the PO2 stimulus of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction to normal values. CONCLUSION: Ultraprotective ventilation largely reduces the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs. Severe hypoxemia on venous-venous-ECMO support may occur despite the matching between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. The normal range of PaCO2 is easy to reach. Venous-venous-ECMO support potentially relieves hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , /terapia , Adulto , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Transferência de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 23, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The renal Doppler resistive index (renal RI) is a noninvasive tool that has been used to assess renal perfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, many parameters have been described as influential on the values of renal RI. Therefore, we proposed this study to evaluate the variables that could impact renal RI in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in a 14-bed medical-surgical adult ICU. All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were evaluated for eligibility. Renal RI was performed daily until the third day after ICU admission, death, or renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement. Clinical and blood test data were collected throughout this period. Acute kidney injury (AKI) reversibility was categorized as transient (normalization of renal function within 3 days of AKI onset) or persistent (non-resolution of AKI within 3 days of onset or need for RRT). A linear mixed model was applied to evaluate the factors that could influence renal RI. RESULTS: Eighty-three consecutive patients were included. Of these, 65% were male and 50.6% were medical admissions. Mean SAPS 3 was 47 ± 16. Renal RI was significantly different between no-AKI (0.64 ± 0.06), transient AKI (0.64 ± 0.07), and persistent AKI groups (0.70 ± 0.08, p < 0.01). Variables associated with renal RI variations were mean arterial pressure, lactate, age, and persistent AKI (p < 0.05). No association between serum chloride and renal RI was observed (p = 0.868). CONCLUSIONS: Mean arterial pressure, lactate, age, and type of AKI might influence renal RI in critically ill patients.

13.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(4): 548-554, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence of improved survival with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in acute respiratory distress syndrome is still uncertain. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in the PROSPERO database with the number CRD-42018098618. We performed a structured search of Medline, Lilacs, and ScienceDirect for randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of ECMO associated with (ultra)protective mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory failure in adult patients. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to evaluate the quality of the evidence. Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of ECMO on the last reported mortality. Secondary outcomes were treatment failure, hospital length of stay and the need for renal replacement therapy in both groups. RESULTS: Two randomized controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 429 patients, of whom 214 were supported with ECMO. The most common reason for acute respiratory failure was pneumonia (60% - 65%). Respiratory ECMO support was associated with a reduction in last reported mortality and treatment failure with risk ratios (RR: 0.76; 95%CI 0.61 - 0.95 and RR: 0.68; 95%CI 0.55 - 0.85, respectively). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation reduced the need for renal replacement therapy, with a RR of 0.88 (95%CI 0.77 - 0.99). Intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay were longer in ECMO-supported patients, with an additional P50th 14.84 (P25th - P75th: 12.49 - 17.18) and P50th 29.80 (P25th - P75th: 26.04 - 33.56] days, respectively. CONCLUSION: Respiratory ECMO support in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is associated with a reduced mortality rate and a reduced need for renal replacement therapy but a substantial increase in the lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. Our results may help bedside decision-making regarding ECMO initiation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , /terapia , Adulto , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , /mortalidade
14.
J Intensive Care Med ; 34(9): 714-722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) effect on survival and renal recovery of critically ill patients is still uncertain. We aimed to systematically review current evidence comparing outcomes of early versus late initiation of RRT in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched the Medline (via Pubmed), LILACS, Science Direct, and CENTRAL databases from inception until November 2016 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or observational studies comparing early versus late initiation of RRT in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was mortality. Duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and renal function recovery were secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) were used for the primary outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-two studies were retrieved and analyzed, including 11 RCTs. There was no difference in mortality between early and late initiation of RRT among RCTs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-1.19; I2 = 63.1%). Trial sequential analysis of mortality across all RCTs achieved futility boundaries at both 1% and 5% type I error rates, although a subgroup analysis of studies including only acute kidney injury patients was not conclusive. There was also no difference in time on mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital LOS, or renal recovery among studies. Early initiation of RRT was associated with reduced mortality among prospective (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96; I2 = 85.9%) and retrospective (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41-0.92; I2 = 90.9%) observational studies, both with substantial heterogeneity. However, subgroup analysis excluding low-quality observational studies did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Pooled analysis of randomized trials indicates early initiation of RRT is not associated with lower mortality rates. The potential benefit of reduced mortality associated with early initiation of RRT was limited to low-quality observational studies.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Humanos , Mortalidade
16.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(3): 317-326, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the transport of severely ill patients with extracorporeal respiratory or cardiovascular support. METHODS: A series of 18 patients in the state of São Paulo, Brazil is described. All patients were consecutively evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at the hospital of origin. The patients were rescued, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was provided on site. The patients were then transported to referral hospitals for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Data were retrieved from a prospectively collected database. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2017, 18 patients aged 29 (25 - 31) years with a SAPS 3 of 84 (68 - 92) and main primary diagnosis of leptospirosis and influenza A (H1N1) virus were transported to three referral hospitals in São Paulo. A median distance of 39 (15 - 82) km was traveled on each rescue mission during a period of 360 (308 - 431) min. A median of one (0 - 2) nurse, three (2 - 3) physicians, and one (0 - 1) physical therapist was present per rescue. Seventeen rescues were made by ambulance, and one rescue was made by helicopter. The observed complications were interruption in the energy supply to the pump in two cases (11%) and oxygen saturation < 70% in two cases. Thirteen patients (72%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Among the nonsurvivors, there were two cases of brain death, two cases of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and one case of irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Transportation with extracorporeal support occurred without serious complications, and the hospital survival rate was high.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Ambulâncias , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/terapia , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(3): 317-326, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-977978

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar pacientes graves transportados em suporte respiratório ou cardiovascular extracorpóreo. Métodos: Descrição de uma série de 18 casos registrados no Estado de São Paulo. Todos os pacientes foram consecutivamente avaliados por uma equipe multidisciplinar no hospital de origem. Os pacientes foram resgatados, sendo a oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea instalada in loco. Os pacientes foram, então, transportados para os hospitais referenciados já em oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea. Os dados foram recuperados de um banco de dados prospectivamente coletado. Resultados: De 2011 até 2017, 18 pacientes com 29 (25 - 31) anos, SAPS3 de 84 (68 - 92), com principais diagnósticos de leptospirose e influenza A (H1N1) foram transportados no Estado de São Paulo para três hospitais referenciados. Uma distância mediana de 39 (15 - 82) km foi percorrida em cada missão, em um tempo de 360 (308 - 431) minutos. As medianas de um (0 - 2) enfermeiro, três (2 - 3) médicos e um (0 - 1) fisioterapeuta foram necessárias por missão. Dezessete transportes foram realizados por ambulância e um por helicóptero. Existiram intercorrências: em duas ocasiões (11%), houve falha de fornecimento de energia para a bomba e, em duas ocasiões, queda da saturação de oxigênio < 70%. Treze pacientes (72%) sobreviveram para a alta hospitalar. Dos pacientes não sobreviventes, dois tiveram morte encefálica; dois, disfunção de múltiplos órgãos; e um, fibrose pulmonar considerada irreversível. Conclusões: O transporte com suporte extracorpóreo ocorreu sem intercorrências maiores, com uma sobrevida hospitalar alta dos pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the transport of severely ill patients with extracorporeal respiratory or cardiovascular support. Methods: A series of 18 patients in the state of São Paulo, Brazil is described. All patients were consecutively evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at the hospital of origin. The patients were rescued, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was provided on site. The patients were then transported to referral hospitals for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Data were retrieved from a prospectively collected database. Results: From 2011 to 2017, 18 patients aged 29 (25 - 31) years with a SAPS 3 of 84 (68 - 92) and main primary diagnosis of leptospirosis and influenza A (H1N1) virus were transported to three referral hospitals in São Paulo. A median distance of 39 (15 - 82) km was traveled on each rescue mission during a period of 360 (308 - 431) min. A median of one (0 - 2) nurse, three (2 - 3) physicians, and one (0 - 1) physical therapist was present per rescue. Seventeen rescues were made by ambulance, and one rescue was made by helicopter. The observed complications were interruption in the energy supply to the pump in two cases (11%) and oxygen saturation < 70% in two cases. Thirteen patients (72%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Among the nonsurvivors, there were two cases of brain death, two cases of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and one case of irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions: Transportation with extracorporeal support occurred without serious complications, and the hospital survival rate was high.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Ambulâncias , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Resgate Aéreo , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Brasil , Estudos Prospectivos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Influenza Humana/terapia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/terapia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia
18.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 24(5): 339-346, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028740

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current knowledge about clinical and microbiological diagnosis of nonventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP). RECENT FINDINGS: NV-HAP is emerging as a new challenge for clinicians, particularly because VAP incidence has been decreasing. The clinical diagnosis of NV-HAP uses the classical clinical symptoms and signs. However standard evaluation of their accuracy and the evaluation of new criterion (e.g. lung ultrasound) must be conducted particularly in NV-HAP patients. The use of sputum must be encouraged in patients with NV-HAP, assuring its lower respiratory tract representativeness and quality. It is not clear that invasive approaches (e.g. BAL) are associated with improvements in patient-centred outcomes, and further research is needed to assure their correct indication, guaranteeing safety. Rapid diagnosis methods are promising in NV-HAP, particularly for the quick results and information about antibiotic resistance. SUMMARY: NV-HAP poses several barriers for diagnosis compared with VAP, and the available knowledge is limited. A call for further research in diagnosis of nonventilated HAP is urgent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/diagnóstico , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
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