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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(2): 163-167, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317894

RESUMO

Background: Penicillin is the most common reported drug allergy. Previous literature suggests that there is increased prevalence of penicillin drug allergy in female patients in the outpatient setting. However, this is poorly described in the inpatient setting. Objective: This study was performed to determine whether female sex is an independent risk factor for penicillin allergy in the inpatient setting. Methods: A retrospective review of electronic medical records (January 1, 2001-December 31, 2017) was performed for patients with a history of penicillin allergy who underwent penicillin skin testing (PST). Each chart review included the age at initial skin testing, sex, medications, and medical co-morbidities. The study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: 30,883 patients underwent PST with 29,354 and 1,529 occurring in the outpatient and inpatient setting respectively. 170 patients tested positive with a ≥ 5x5 wheal. Of the 170 positive patients, 122 were female (72%) and 48 were male (28%). 15 patients tested positive in the inpatient setting. Of the 1506 adult patients tested in the inpatient setting, 809 were female and 697 were male. 12 females (92.3%) and 1 one male (7.7%) tested positive with a ≥ 5x5 wheal (OR-10.5; 95% CI-1.4-80.8; p-value=0.02). 23 pediatric patients were tested in the inpatient setting. Two pediatric male patients were positive and no female pediatric patients tested positive (OR-1.7; 95% CI-0.5-5.9; p-value=0.5). Conclusion: In the inpatient setting, adult females are 10 times more likely to have a positive PST compared to males. Female sex may be a potential risk factor for objective penicillin drug allergy in the inpatient setting.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Penicilinas , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Testes Cutâneos/efeitos adversos
4.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 128(2): 153-160, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hypersensitivity reactions is unknown. COVID-19 vaccine excipient skin testing has been used in evaluation of these reactions, but its utility in predicting subsequent COVID-19 vaccine tolerance is also unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine excipient skin testing in both patients with an allergic reaction to their first messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine dose and patients with a history of polyethylene glycol allergy who have not yet received a COVID-19 vaccine dose. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective review, COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine excipient skin testing was performed in patients referred to 1 of 3 large tertiary academic institutions. Patient medical records were reviewed after skin testing to determine subsequent COVID-19 vaccine tolerance. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients underwent skin testing, in whom 12 patients (9.3%) had positive results. There were 101 patients who received a COVID-19 vaccine after the skin testing, which was tolerated in 90 patients (89.1%) with no allergic symptoms, including 5 of 6 patients with positive skin testing results who received a COVID-19 vaccine after the skin testing. The remaining 11 patients experienced minor allergic symptoms after COVID-19 vaccination, none of whom required treatment beyond antihistamines. CONCLUSION: The low positivity rate of COVID-19 vaccine excipient skin testing and high rate of subsequent COVID-19 vaccine tolerance suggest a low utility of this method in evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine hypersensitivity reactions. Focus should shift to the use of existing vaccine allergy practice parameters, with consideration of graded dosing when necessary. On the basis of these results, strict avoidance of subsequent COVID-19 vaccination should be discouraged.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19 , Hipersensibilidade , Testes Cutâneos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Futilidade Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Excipientes de Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , /efeitos adversos
10.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2850-2856, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896666

RESUMO

Antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are frequently used as a diagnostic tool for humoral immunodeficiencies, part of the larger collection of inborn errors of immunity. Currently, arbitrary criteria, such as a serotype specific titer of >/= 1.3 µg/mL is most often used as a cut-off for interpretation of pneumococcal antibody responses. The magnitude of the antibody response to each of the 23 serotypes in Pneumovax®, and serotype-specific cut-offs in healthy pneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults has not been previously characterized. IgG antibody concentrations were measured prospectively for 23 pneumococcal serotypes pre and 4-6 weeks post-Pneumovax® vaccination in 100 healthy adults, using a multiplex bead-based assay. Antibodies to 19 of 23 serotypes were informative for distinguishing subjects who responded to vaccination, and the serotype threshold was determined to be 9 of 19 serotypes, which characterized an antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. While this study may facilitate classification of IgG serotype-specific antibody responses post-pneumococcal vaccination in adult patients undergoing diagnostic immunological evaluation for antibody immunodeficiencies or other relevant contexts, additional studies in healthy children and S. pneumoniae protein-conjugate-vaccinated healthy adults will need to be undertaken in the future.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Criança , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Polissacarídeos , Sorogrupo , Vacinação
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371009

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The lack of effective, consistent, reproducible and efficient asthma ascertainment methods results in inconsistent asthma cohorts and study results for clinical trials or other studies. We aimed to assess whether application of expert artificial intelligence (AI)-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithms for two existing asthma criteria to electronic health records of a paediatric population systematically identifies childhood asthma and its subgroups with distinctive characteristics. METHODS: Using the 1997-2007 Olmsted County Birth Cohort, we applied validated NLP algorithms for Predetermined Asthma Criteria (NLP-PAC) as well as Asthma Predictive Index (NLP-API). We categorised subjects into four groups (both criteria positive (NLP-PAC+/NLP-API+); PAC positive only (NLP-PAC+ only); API positive only (NLP-API+ only); and both criteria negative (NLP-PAC-/NLP-API-)) and characterised them. Results were replicated in unsupervised cluster analysis for asthmatics and a random sample of 300 children using laboratory and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). RESULTS: Of the 8196 subjects (51% male, 80% white), we identified 1614 (20%), NLP-PAC+/NLP-API+; 954 (12%), NLP-PAC+ only; 105 (1%), NLP-API+ only; and 5523 (67%), NLP-PAC-/NLP-API-. Asthmatic children classified as NLP-PAC+/NLP-API+ showed earlier onset asthma, more Th2-high profile, poorer lung function, higher asthma exacerbation and higher risk of asthma-associated comorbidities compared with other groups. These results were consistent with those based on unsupervised cluster analysis and lab and PFT data of a random sample of study subjects. CONCLUSION: Expert AI-based NLP algorithms for two asthma criteria systematically identify childhood asthma with distinctive characteristics. This approach may improve precision, reproducibility, consistency and efficiency of large-scale clinical studies for asthma and enable population management.


Assuntos
Asma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Inteligência Artificial , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Endocr Pract ; 26(7): 761-767, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) and predictable ADRs, to thyroid replacement therapy (TRT). TRT is the treatment of choice for hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine (LT4) is among the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States, with over 70 million prescriptions annually. Documented immediate DHRs to TRT are rare, with only a few case reports. METHODS: An 11-year (2008-2018) retrospective medical chart review of identified patients with self-reported allergy to TRT. ADRs to TRT were divided into immediate DHRs and predictable ADRs. RESULTS: A total of 466 patients were included in our study. We found an overall incidence of ADRs to TRT of 0.3%. Median age was 61.2 years; 85.8% were women, and 94.4% were Caucasian. The principal indication for TRT was autoimmune hypothyroidism (73.6%), followed by postsurgical hypothyroidism (17.4%) and subclinical hypothyroidism (6.7%). Predictable ADR manifestations to TRT were reported more commonly than DHR manifestations (57.5% vs. 42.5%, respectively). The most frequently reported of the former were palpitations (16.4%), nausea/vomiting (9.3%), and tremor (6.3%), while rash (23.8%), hives (9.5%), and pruritus (7.1%) were the most common regarding the latter. Fifty-six percent of the patients with an ADR to TRT tolerated an alternative TRT presentation. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, the majority of self-reported allergies to TRT were due to predictable ADRs rather than an immediate DHR. ABBREVIATIONS: ADR = adverse drug reaction; DHR = drug hypersensitivity reaction; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; LT3 = liothyronine; LT4 = levothyroxine; SCAR = severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction; TRT = thyroid replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Hipersensibilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos
14.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001500

RESUMO

Emerging literature suggests that delayed identification of childhood asthma results in an increased risk of long-term and various morbidities compared to those with timely diagnosis and intervention, and yet this risk is still overlooked. Even when children and adolescents have a history of recurrent asthma-like symptoms and risk factors embedded in their medical records, this information is sometimes overlooked by clinicians at the point of care. Given the rapid adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems, early identification of childhood asthma can be achieved utilizing (1) asthma ascertainment criteria leveraging relevant clinical information embedded in EHR and (2) innovative informatics approaches such as natural language processing (NLP) algorithms for asthma ascertainment criteria to enable such a strategy. In this review, we discuss literature relevant to this topic and introduce recently published informatics algorithms (criteria-based NLP) as a potential solution to address the current challenge of early identification of childhood asthma.

15.
Vaccine ; 37(10): 1350-1355, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of the responses to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax®23, PPV) has proven challenging. In addition, there are few studies documenting the longevity of these responses. METHODS: The age-specific PPV IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG2 concentrations were determined pre, 4-6 weeks and 6 years post-vaccination in the serum of Prevnar®-naïve adults using VaccZyme™ pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide ELISAs. RESULTS: The median pre-vaccination concentrations were; PPV IgM 53 U/mL (5-95% CI: 16-169 U/mL), IgA 23 U/mL (6-103 U/mL), IgG 41 mg/L (10-184 U/mL) and IgG2 18 mg/L (3-95 U/mL). 4-6 weeks post-vaccination there was a median 6-fold (5-95% CI: 2-24) increase in PPV IgM (median 315 U/mL (5-95% CI: 60-1133 U/mL), 18-fold (4-74) increase in IgA (369 U/mL (78-1802 U/mL)), 9-fold (2-19) increase in IgG (375 mg/L (77-1238 mg/L)) and 8-fold (1-20) increase in IgG2 (141 mg/L (25-573 mg/L)). This was significant for all isotypes in all age ranges (p < 0.0001). Six years post-vaccination median PPV concentrations were; IgM 54 U/mL (17-128), IgA 85 U/mL (19-279), IgG 148 mg/L (30-997) and IgG2 57 mg/L (9-437). The median concentrations for all ages 6 years post-vaccination were significantly elevated compared to the pre-vaccination titres for PPV IgA, IgG and IgG2 isotypes only. The PPV IgM and IgA responses were influenced by age. At 6 years post vaccination, in individuals with normal PPV IgG, 34 individuals had PPV IgM and/or IgA concentrations below the lower limit of the healthy adult ranges. We also used the healthy adult reference ranges developed in this study to assess a cohort of primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients. CONCLUSION: These ranges will help to provide a framework for assessment and definition of normal response to PPV, which will facilitate clinical interpretation of a deficient polysaccharide response in those suspected of antibody deficiency.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 56-65, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573343

RESUMO

Despite their low frequency, drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) can be serious and result in lifelong sequelae. The diagnosis is critical to avert future reactions and should identify the culprit drug or drugs and safe alternatives. However, making the diagnosis can be complex and challenging. Reliable in vitro tests can offer the potential to improve a diagnosis of DHR and influence medical decision making. Importantly, in vitro testing is frequently not performed as a test in isolation but rather as a component of a diagnostic algorithm along with additional tests. There are several in vitro approaches for the different endotypes of DHRs. However, only few are available for routine diagnosis, and many are restricted to research laboratories. In vitro tests exhibit varying sensitivity and specificity depending on the drug involved and the clinical phenotype. In vitro tests can complement skin tests, especially in patients with negative or equivocal skin test responses inconsistent with the clinical presentation and in severe reactions in which drug provocation tests are contraindicated. The main unmet need for many in vitro tests for the diagnosis of DHRs is validation in larger studies with standardized controls that could harmonize diagnostic management between the United States, European Union, and other regions of the world.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/patologia , Humanos , Testes Cutâneos
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(10): 1423-1430, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and temporal trends of food allergies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study to describe the epidemiology of food allergies among residents of all ages in Olmsted County, Minnesota, during a 10-year period from January 2, 2002, through December 31, 2011, using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database. Overall incidence and trends in biannual incidence rates over time were evaluated. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, 578 new cases of food allergies were diagnosed. The average annual incidence rate was significantly higher among males compared with females (4.1 [95% CI, 3.6-4.5] vs 3.0 [95% CI, 2.7-3.4]; P<.001; per 10,000 person-years; 3.6 per 10,000 person-years overall). The pediatric incidence rate of food allergy increased from 7.0 (95% CI, 6.2-8.9) to 13.3 (95% CI, 10.9-15.7) per 10,000 person-years between the 2002-2003 and 2006-2007 calendar periods and then stabilized at 12.5 and 12.1 per 10,000 person-years in the last 2 calendar periods. Milk, peanut, and seafood were the most common allergen in infancy, in children between ages 1 and 4 years, and in the adult population, respectively. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first population-based studies to examine the temporal trends of food allergies. The incidence of food allergies increased markedly between 2002 and 2009, with stabilization afterward. Additional longitudinal studies are warranted to assess for epidemiological evidence of changes in food allergy incidence with changing recommendations for allergenic food introduction.


Assuntos
Arachis/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Leite/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Minnesota/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 34, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thus far, no algorithms have been developed to automatically extract patients who meet Asthma Predictive Index (API) criteria from the Electronic health records (EHR) yet. Our objective is to develop and validate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to identify patients that meet API criteria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. Asthma status ascertained by manual chart review based on API criteria served as gold standard. NLP-API was developed on a training cohort (n = 87) and validated on a test cohort (n = 427). Criterion validity was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the NLP algorithm against manual chart review for asthma status. Construct validity was determined by associations of asthma status defined by NLP-API with known risk factors for asthma. RESULTS: Among the eligible 427 subjects of the test cohort, 48% were males and 74% were White. Median age was 5.3 years (interquartile range 3.6-6.8). 35 (8%) had a history of asthma by NLP-API vs. 36 (8%) by abstractor with 31 by both approaches. NLP-API predicted asthma status with sensitivity 86%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 98%. Asthma status by both NLP and manual chart review were significantly associated with the known asthma risk factors, such as history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, family history of asthma, and maternal history of smoking during pregnancy (p value < 0.05). Maternal smoking [odds ratio: 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.8-10.7] was associated with asthma status determined by NLP-API and abstractor, and the effect sizes were similar between the reviews with 4.4 vs 4.2 respectively. CONCLUSION: NLP-API was able to ascertain asthma status in children mining from EHR and has a potential to enhance asthma care and research through population management and large-scale studies when identifying children who meet API criteria.


Assuntos
Asma , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Algoritmos , Automação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 37(4): 751-760, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965638

RESUMO

Successful desensitization to mild to moderate delayed cutaneous adverse reaction to antibiotics has been described in a limited number of antibiotics and found to be safe. However, there are ample opportunities to standardize protocols for delayed cutaneous adverse reactions to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/terapia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/terapia , Pele/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 196(4): 430-437, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375665

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Difficulty of asthma ascertainment and its associated methodologic heterogeneity have created significant barriers to asthma care and research. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the validity of an existing natural language processing (NLP) algorithm for asthma criteria to enable an automated chart review using electronic medical records (EMRs). METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective birth cohort study using a random sample of 500 subjects from the 1997-2007 Mayo Birth Cohort who were born at Mayo Clinic and enrolled in primary pediatric care at Mayo Clinic Rochester. Performance of NLP-based asthma ascertainment using predetermined asthma criteria was assessed by determining both criterion validity (chart review of EMRs by abstractor as a gold standard) and construct validity (association with known risk factors for asthma, such as allergic rhinitis). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After excluding three subjects whose respiratory symptoms could be attributed to other conditions (e.g., tracheomalacia), among the remaining eligible 497 subjects, 51% were male, 77% white persons, and the median age at last follow-up date was 11.5 years. The asthma prevalence was 31% in the study cohort. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for NLP algorithm in predicting asthma status were 97%, 95%, 90%, and 98%, respectively. The risk factors for asthma (e.g., allergic rhinitis) that were identified either by NLP or the abstractor were the same. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma ascertainment through NLP should be considered in the era of EMRs because it can enable large-scale clinical studies in a more time-efficient manner and improve the recognition and care of childhood asthma in practice.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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