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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e032426, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the paediatric user and prescription prevalence in inpatient and ambulatory settings in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and Australia by age and gender. A further objective was to list the most commonly used drugs per drug class, per country. DESIGN AND SETTING: Hospital inpatient and insurance paediatric healthcare data from the following databases were used to conduct this descriptive drug utilisation study: (i) the South Korean Ajou University School of Medicine database; (ii) the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System; (iii) the Japan Medical Data Center; (iv) Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and (v) the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Country-specific data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model. PATIENTS: Children (≤18 years) with at least 1 day of observation in any of the respective databases from January 2009 until December 2013 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each drug class, we assessed the per-protocol overall user and prescription prevalence rates (per 1000 persons) per country and setting. RESULTS: Our study population comprised 1 574 524 children (52.9% male). The highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the youngest age category (<2 years) for inpatients (45.1%) with a relatively high user prevalence of analgesics and antibiotics. Adrenergics, antihistamines, mucolytics and corticosteroids were used in 10%-15% of patients. For ambulatory patients, the highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the middle age category (2-11 years, 67.1%) with antibiotics the most dispensed drug overall. CONCLUSIONS: Country-specific paediatric drug utilisation patterns were described, ranked and compared between four East Asian countries and Australia. The widespread use of mucolytics in East Asia warrants further investigation.

2.
Korean Circ J ; 50(1): 52-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: 2018 ESC/ESH Hypertension guideline recommends 2-drug combination as initial anti-hypertensive therapy. However, real-world evidence for effectiveness of recommended regimens remains limited. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of first-line anti-hypertensive treatment combining 2 out of the following classes: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blocker (A), calcium channel blocker (C), and thiazide-type diuretics (D). METHODS: Treatment-naïve hypertensive adults without cardiovascular disease (CVD) who initiated dual anti-hypertensive medications were identified in 5 databases from US and Korea. The patients were matched for each comparison set by large-scale propensity score matching. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events as a composite outcome comprised the secondary measure. RESULTS: A total of 987,983 patients met the eligibility criteria. After matching, 222,686, 32,344, and 38,513 patients were allocated to A+C vs. A+D, C+D vs. A+C, and C+D vs. A+D comparison, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mortality during total of 1,806,077 person-years: A+C vs. A+D (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.20; p=0.127), C+D vs. A+C (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-1.01; p=0.067), and C+D vs. A+D (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.47; p=0.104). A+C was associated with a slightly higher risk of heart failure (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; p=0.040) and stroke (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; p=0.040) than A+D. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in mortality among A+C, A+D, and C+D combination treatment in patients without previous CVD. This finding was consistent across multi-national heterogeneous cohorts in real-world practice.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824354

RESUMO

Background: Depression and anxiety are the most common comorbid psychiatric disorders in the elderly. Psychiatrists have been reporting worsened depression symptoms and prognosis by comorbid anxiety symptoms. However, it is still unclear how anxiety affects the course of depression in the elderly. The aims of this study are (1) to identify the symptom network in late-life depression (LLD), and (2) to examine the role of anxiety in LLD with a network perspective. Methods: The study analyzed 776 community-based participants who were clinically diagnosed with depression and enrolled in Suwon Geriatric Mental Health Center. Network analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the symptoms of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The depression sample was divided into groups of low and high anxiety according to the Beck Anxiety Index. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize the effects of depression severity on the network. Network comparison test (NCT) were carried out to compare the global connectivity, global strength, and specific edge strength between the two subgroups. Results: Reported sadness, pessimistic thinking, and suicidal ideation are the core symptoms of LLD in terms of node strength. The MADRS sum score [mean (SD) 28.10 (9.19) vs 20.08 (7.11); P < .01] was much higher in the high anxiety group. The NCT before PSM showed the high anxiety group had significantly higher global strength (P < .01). However, the NCT after PSM did not reveal any statistical significance both in global structure (P = .46) and global strength (P = .26). A comparison between centrality indices showed a higher node strength of vegetative symptoms in the high anxiety group and this also remained after PSM. Conclusion: Based on the statistical analysis, anxiety worsens the severity of depression in the elderly. However, NCT after PSM revealed comorbid anxiety does not change the global structure and strength of the depression symptom network. Therefore, anxiety may affect LLD in a way of worsening the severity, rather than changing psychopathology. Additionally, the study revealed the centrality of vegetative symptoms was low in LLD but increased substantially in patients with comorbid anxiety.

4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1017-1020, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438078

RESUMO

Recently the two most influential clinical guideline were published for diagnosing and treating hypertension in US and Europe: 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) Guideline. Though both of them have most in common, the differences in details between guidelines have confused many clinicians in the world. Because guidelines were evidence- based literature, through the analysis of articles cited in guidelines, these similarities and differences could be explained. Bibliometric analysis is a method of quantifying the contents of literature to analyze literature. So using the bibliometric analysis including co-citation network analysis, articles cited in guideline were analyzed. As a result, we figured out that bibliometrics can analyze the influence of the countries, authors and studies on the guidelines, which might affect on the similarities and the differences between both guidelines.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , American Heart Association , Bibliometria , Cardiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1488-1489, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438195

RESUMO

Large healthcare datasets of Electronic Health Record data became indispensable in clinical research. Data quality in such datasets recently became a focus of many distributed research networks. Despite the fact that data quality is specific to a given research question, many existing data quality platform prove that general data quality assessment on dataset level (given a spectrum of research questions) is possible and highly requested by researchers. We present comparison of 12 datasets and extension of Achilles Heel data quality software tool with new rules and data characterization measures.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Software
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1843-1844, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438371

RESUMO

A common data model for clinical NGS panel data that is used in a distributed research network to achieve large scale to make evidence for improving patient care should be developed. This study developed OMOP-CDM extension for NGS panel data and confirmed the feasibility of the model by finding the differences between a database generated by research-purpose and clinical practice. We believe this data model can be used in distributed research model and will facilitate the usage of the clinical NGS data in patient care.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(3): e13249, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical sequencing data should be shared in order to achieve the sufficient scale and diversity required to provide strong evidence for improving patient care. A distributed research network allows researchers to share this evidence rather than the patient-level data across centers, thereby avoiding privacy issues. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) common data model (CDM) used in distributed research networks has low coverage of sequencing data and does not reflect the latest trends of precision medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a genomic CDM (G-CDM), as an extension of the OMOP-CDM, for application of genomic data in clinical practice. METHODS: Existing genomic data models and sequencing reports were reviewed to extend the OMOP-CDM to cover genomic data. The Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee and Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature were adopted to standardize the terminology in the model. Sequencing data of 114 and 1060 patients with lung cancer were obtained from the Ajou University School of Medicine database of Ajou University Hospital and The Cancer Genome Atlas, respectively, which were transformed to a format appropriate for the G-CDM. The data were compared with respect to gene name, variant type, and actionable mutations. RESULTS: The G-CDM was extended into four tables linked to tables of the OMOP-CDM. Upon comparison with The Cancer Genome Atlas data, a clinically actionable mutation, p.Leu858Arg, in the EGFR gene was 6.64 times more frequent in the Ajou University School of Medicine database, while the p.Gly12Xaa mutation in the KRAS gene was 2.02 times more frequent in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. The data-exploring tool GeneProfiler was further developed to conduct descriptive analyses automatically using the G-CDM, which provides the proportions of genes, variant types, and actionable mutations. GeneProfiler also allows for querying the specific gene name and Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature to calculate the proportion of patients with a given mutation. CONCLUSIONS: We developed the G-CDM for effective integration of genomic data with standardized clinical data, allowing for data sharing across institutes. The feasibility of the G-CDM was validated by assessing the differences in data characteristics between two different genomic databases through the proposed data-exploring tool GeneProfiler. The G-CDM may facilitate analyses of interoperating clinical and genomic datasets across multiple institutions, minimizing privacy issues and enabling researchers to better understand the characteristics of patients and promote personalized medicine in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Genômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Drug Saf ; 42(5): 657-670, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Integration of controlled vocabulary-based electronic health record (EHR) observational data is essential for real-time large-scale pharmacovigilance studies. OBJECTIVE: To provide a semantically enriched adverse drug reaction (ADR) dictionary for post-market drug safety research and enable multicenter EHR-based extensive ADR signal detection and evaluation, we developed a comprehensive controlled vocabulary-based ADR signal dictionary (CVAD) for pharmacovigilance. METHODS: A CVAD consists of (1) administrative disease classifications of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes mapped to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms (MedDRA® PTs); (2) two teaching hospitals' codes for laboratory test results mapped to the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) terms and MedDRA® PTs; and (3) clinical narratives and ADRs encoded by standard nursing statements (encoded by the International Classification for Nursing Practice [ICNP]) mapped to the World Health Organization-Adverse Reaction Terminology (WHO-ART) terms and MedDRA® PTs. RESULTS: Of the standard 4514 MedDRA® PTs from Side Effect Resources (SIDER) 4.1, 1130 (25.03%), 942 (20.86%), and 83 (1.83%) terms were systematically mapped to clinical narratives, laboratory test results, and disease classifications, respectively. For the evaluation, we loaded multi-source EHR data. We first performed a clinical expert review of the CVAD clinical relevance and a three-drug ADR case analyses consisting of linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia, warfarin-induced bleeding tendency, and vancomycin-induced acute kidney injury. CONCLUSION: CVAD had a high coverage of ADRs and integrated standard controlled vocabularies to the EHR data sources, and researchers can take advantage of these features for EHR observational data-based extensive pharmacovigilance studies to improve sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Farmacovigilância , Vocabulário Controlado , Humanos
10.
Korean J Intern Med ; 34(1): 90-98, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Olmesartan, a widely used angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has been linked to sprue-like enteropathy. No cases of olmesartan-associated enteropathy have been reported in Northeast Asia. We investigated the associations between olmesartan and other ARBs and the incidence of enteropathy in Korea. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to identify 108,559 patients (58,186 females) who were initiated on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis), olmesartan, or other ARBs between January 2005 and December 2012. The incidences of enteropathy were compared among drug groups. Changes in body weight were compared after propensity score matching of patients in the ACEis and olmesartan groups. RESULTS: Among 108,559 patients, 31 patients were diagnosed with enteropathy. The incidences were 0.73, 0.24, and 0.37 per 1,000 persons, in the ACEis, olmesartan, and other ARBs groups, respectively. Adjusted rate ratios for enteropathy were: olmesartan, 0.33 (95% confidential interval [CI], 0.10 to 1.09; p = 0.070) and other ARBs, 0.34 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.83; p = 0.017) compared to the ACEis group after adjustment for age, sex, income level, and various comorbidities. The post hoc analysis with matched cohorts revealed that the proportion of patients with significant weight loss did not differ between the ACEis and olmesartan groups. CONCLUSION: Olmesartan was not associated with intestinal malabsorption or significant body weight loss in the general Korean population. Additional large-scale prospective studies of the relationship between olmesartan and the incidence of enteropathy in the Asian population are needed.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Enteropatias/etiologia , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Heart Rhythm ; 15(12): 1825-1832, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rate-control medications are considered first-line treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, obstructive lung disease (OLD), a condition prevalent in those with AF, often makes it difficult to use those medications because of the lack of studies on new-onset AF in patients with OLD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes after administration of each class of rate-control medication in patients with concomitant AF and OLD (AF-OLD). METHODS: This study used the entire database provided by the National Health Insurance Service from 2002 to 2015. Risk of all-cause mortality was compared between use of calcium channel blocker (CCB) and use of other drug classes in AF-OLD patients using Cox regression analyses after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Among the 13,111 patients, the number of AF-OLD patients treated with a CCB, cardioselective ß-blocker (BB), nonselective BB, and digoxin was 2482, 2379, 2255, and 5995, respectively. The risk of mortality was lower with use of selective BB (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.94; P = .002) and nonselective BB (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77-0.95; P = .003) compared to use of CCBs. Digoxin use was related with worse survival, with marginal statistical significance (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.18; P = .053). CONCLUSION: Among patients with AF-OLD, rate-control treatment using selective and nonselective BB was associated with a significant reduction in mortality compared with CCB use. Further prospective randomized trials are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/complicações , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/mortalidade , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207749, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of identifying and evaluating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has been widely recognized. Many studies have developed algorithms for ADR signal detection using electronic health record (EHR) data. In this study, we propose a machine learning (ML) model that enables accurate ADR signal detection by integrating features from existing algorithms based on inpatient EHR laboratory results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To construct an ADR reference dataset, we extracted known drug-laboratory event pairs represented by a laboratory test from the EU-SPC and SIDER databases. All possible drug-laboratory event pairs, except known ones, are considered unknown. To detect a known drug-laboratory event pair, three existing algorithms-CERT, CLEAR, and PACE-were applied to 21-year inpatient EHR data. We also constructed ML models (based on random forest, L1 regularized logistic regression, support vector machine, and a neural network) that use the intermediate products of the CERT, CLEAR, and PACE algorithms as inputs and determine whether a drug-laboratory event pair is associated. For performance comparison, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), F1-measure, and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). RESULTS: All measures of ML models outperformed those of existing algorithms with sensitivity of 0.593-0.793, specificity of 0.619-0.796, NPV of 0.645-0.727, PPV of 0.680-0.777, F1-measure of 0.629-0.709, and AUROC of 0.737-0.816. Features related to change or distribution of shape were considered important for detecting ADR signals. CONCLUSIONS: Improved performance of ML models indicated that applying our model to EHR data is feasible and promising for detecting more accurate and comprehensive ADR signals.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Laboratórios , Aprendizado de Máquina , Software
13.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204586, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression for predicting the probability and time to progression from various CKD stages to renal replacement therapy (RRT), using 6 months of clinical data variables routinely measured at healthcare centers. METHODS: Data were derived from the electronic medical records of Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, South Korea from October 1997 to September 2012. We included patients who were diagnosed with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 for ≥ 3 months) and followed up for at least 6 months. The study population was randomly divided into training and test sets. RESULTS: We identified 4,509 patients who met reasonable diagnostic criteria. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, and after excluding patients with missing data, the training and test sets included 1,625 and 1,618 patients, respectively. The integral mean was the most powerful explanatory (R2 = 0.404) variable among the 8 modified values. Ten variables (age, sex, diabetes mellitus[DM], polycystic kidney disease[PKD], serum albumin, serum hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, serum potassium, eGFR (calculated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]), and urinary protein) were included in the final risk prediction model for CKD stage 3 (R2 = 0.330). Ten variables (age, sex, DM, GN, PKD, serum hemoglobin, serum blood urea nitrogen[BUN], serum calcium, eGFR(calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease[MDRD]), and urinary protein) were included in the final risk prediction model for CKD stage 4 (R2 = 0.386). Four variables (serum hemoglobin, serum BUN, eGFR(calculated by MDRD) and urinary protein) were included in the final risk prediction model for CKD stage 5 (R2 = 0.321). CONCLUSION: We created a prediction model according to CKD stages by using integral means. Based on the results of the Brier score (BS) and Harrel's C statistics, we consider that our model has significant explanatory power to predict the probability and interval time to the initiation of RRT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , Distribuição Aleatória , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 875-885, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100761

RESUMO

Objective: The goal of the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network is to study the effectiveness and safety of medications commonly used in Asia using databases from individual Asian countries. An efficient infrastructure to support multinational pharmacoepidemiologic studies is critical to this effort. Study design and setting: We converted data from the Japan Medical Data Center database, Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, Hong Kong's Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System, South Korea's Ajou University School of Medicine database, and the US Medicare 5% sample to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model (CDM). Results: We completed and documented the process for the CDM conversion. The coordinating center and participating sites reviewed the documents and refined the conversions based on the comments. The time required to convert data to the CDM varied widely across sites and included conversion to standard terminology codes and refinements of the conversion based on reviews. We mapped 97.2%, 86.7%, 92.6%, and 80.1% of domestic drug codes from the USA, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Korea to RxNorm, respectively. The mapping rate from Japanese domestic drug codes to RxNorm (70.7%) was lower than from other countries, and we mapped remaining unmapped drugs to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System codes. Because the native databases used international procedure coding systems for which mapping tables have been established, we were able to map >90% of diagnosis and procedure codes to standard terminology codes. Conclusion: The CDM established the foundation and reinforced collaboration for multinational pharmacoepidemiologic studies in Asia. Mapping of terminology codes was the greatest challenge, because of differences in health systems, cultures, and coding systems.

15.
Healthc Inform Res ; 24(3): 242-246, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109157

RESUMO

Objectives: Electrocardiogram (ECG) data are important for the study of cardiovascular disease and adverse drug reactions. Although the development of analytical techniques such as machine learning has improved our ability to extract useful information from ECGs, there is a lack of easily available ECG data for research purposes. We previously published an article on a database of ECG parameters and related clinical data (ECG-ViEW), which we have now updated with additional 12-lead waveform information. Methods: All ECGs stored in portable document format (PDF) were collected from a tertiary teaching hospital in Korea over a 23-year study period. We developed software which can extract all ECG parameters and waveform information from the ECG reports in PDF format and stored it in a database (meta data) and a text file (raw waveform). Results: Our database includes all parameters (ventricular rate, PR interval, QRS duration, QT/QTc interval, P-R-T axes, and interpretations) and 12-lead waveforms (for leads I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, and V6) from 1,039,550 ECGs (from 447,445 patients). Demographics, drug exposure data, diagnosis history, and laboratory test results (serum calcium, magnesium, and potassium levels) were also extracted from electronic medical records and linked to the ECG information. Conclusions: Electrocardiogram information that includes 12 lead waveforms was extracted and transformed into a form that can be analyzed. The description and programming codes in this case report could be a reference for other researchers to build ECG databases using their own local ECG repository.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(24): e11087, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901622

RESUMO

We evaluated whether nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) influences the risk of non-hepatocellular carcinoma (non-HCC) malignancies in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 9867 patients with CHB were followed up for ≥12 months for the occurrence of any type of malignancy between 1998 and 2013. Patients who received NA for ≥180 days were defined as the NA group. Propensity score matching produced the control (n = 2220) and NA groups (n = 2220) after adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis. The National Health Insurance Service sample cohort dataset was used for external validation. Regarding non-HCC malignancies, only old age was an independent risk factor (>50 years; hazard ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.71-5.88, P < .001) in multivariate analysis. With regard to specific cancers such as thyroid, breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreatobiliary, and hematologic malignancy, there was no difference of the incidence of each malignancy between the NA and control groups in both the hospital-based and external validation cohorts. NA treatment neither raises nor lowers the incidence of non-HCC malignancies in patients with CHB. Patients >50 years old are encouraged to undergo surveillance for malignancies similar to the general population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
17.
Radiother Oncol ; 129(1): 61-67, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postoperative radiation therapy may have a detrimental effect on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We investigated the association of the lung radiation dose with the risk of death in patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy. METHODS: We analyzed 178 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received postoperative radiation therapy. The mean lung dose was calculated from dose-volume data, and we categorized patients into the high and low lung dose groups using 2 different methods; (1) simple grouping using the median lung dose of all patients, and (2) stratified grouping using the median lung dose of each subgroup sharing the same confounders. We compared clinical variables, and survival between the high and low lung dose groups. RESULTS: In the simple grouping, there were no significant differences in survivals between the high and low lung dose groups. After stratification, the overall survival of low lung dose group was significantly longer than that of high lung dose group (5-year survival, 60.1% vs. 35.3%, p = 0.039). On multivariable analyses, the lung dose remained a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio, HR = 2.08, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: The lung dose was associated with the risk of death in patients with non-small cell lung cancer having the same confounders. Further studies evaluating the risk of death according to the lung dose will be helpful to administer more precise and individualized postoperative radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1556, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367614

RESUMO

Central and cerebral haemodynamic parameters can vary under similar brachial blood pressure (BP). We aimed to investigate the effects of antihypertensive agents on central and cerebral haemodynamic parameters in hypertensive patients with ischaemic stroke. The Fimasartan, Atenolol, and Valsartan On haemodynamic paRameters (FAVOR) study was conducted in a prospective, double-blinded manner. One hundred five patients were randomly administered atenolol, valsartan, or fimasartan during 12 weeks. We measured brachial, central, cerebral haemodynamic parameters and plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at baseline and after 12-week. Baseline haemodynamic parameters were balanced among the three groups. Even with similar brachial BP reduction, significantly lower central systolic BP (atenolol; 146.5 ± 18.8 vs. valsartan; 133.5 ± 20.7 vs. fimasartan; 133.6 ± 19.8 mmHg, p = 0.017) and augmentation index values (89.8 ± 13.2 vs. 80.6 ± 9.2 vs. 79.2 ± 11.6%; p = 0.001) were seen in the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) groups. The pulsatility index on transcranial Doppler was significantly reduced in valsartan (p = 0.002) and fimasartan group (p = 0.008). Plasma NT-proBNP level was also significantly decreased in ARB groups, especially for the fimasartan group (37.8 ± 50.6 vs. 29.2 ± 36.9 vs.19.2 ± 27.8 pg/mL; p = 0.006). These findings suggest that short-term ARB administration would be favourable for ischaemic stroke patients with hypertension, permitting effective reduction of central pressure and dampening of cerebral pulsatility.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valsartana/uso terapêutico
19.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 25(3): 275-288, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Birth month and climate impact lifetime disease risk, while the underlying exposures remain largely elusive. We seek to uncover distal risk factors underlying these relationships by probing the relationship between global exposure variance and disease risk variance by birth season. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study utilizes electronic health record data from 6 sites representing 10.5 million individuals in 3 countries (United States, South Korea, and Taiwan). We obtained birth month-disease risk curves from each site in a case-control manner. Next, we correlated each birth month-disease risk curve with each exposure. A meta-analysis was then performed of correlations across sites. This allowed us to identify the most significant birth month-exposure relationships supported by all 6 sites while adjusting for multiplicity. We also successfully distinguish relative age effects (a cultural effect) from environmental exposures. RESULTS: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was the only identified relative age association. Our methods identified several culprit exposures that correspond well with the literature in the field. These include a link between first-trimester exposure to carbon monoxide and increased risk of depressive disorder (R = 0.725, confidence interval [95% CI], 0.529-0.847), first-trimester exposure to fine air particulates and increased risk of atrial fibrillation (R = 0.564, 95% CI, 0.363-0.715), and decreased exposure to sunlight during the third trimester and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (R = -0.816, 95% CI, -0.5767, -0.929). CONCLUSION: A global study of birth month-disease relationships reveals distal risk factors involved in causal biological pathways that underlie them.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(4): e181755, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646124

RESUMO

Importance: Consensus around an efficient second-line treatment option for type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains ambiguous. The availability of electronic medical records and insurance claims data, which capture routine medical practice, accessed via the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics network presents an opportunity to generate evidence for the effectiveness of second-line treatments. Objective: To identify which drug classes among sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones are associated with reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and lower risk of myocardial infarction, kidney disorders, and eye disorders in patients with T2D treated with metformin as a first-line therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three retrospective, propensity-matched, new-user cohort studies with replication across 8 sites were performed from 1975 to 2017. Medical data of 246 558 805 patients from multiple countries from the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) initiative were included and medical data sets were transformed into a unified common data model, with analysis done using open-source analytical tools. Participants included patients with T2D receiving metformin with at least 1 prior HbA1c laboratory test who were then prescribed either sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, or thiazolidinediones. Data analysis was conducted from 2015 to 2018. Exposures: Treatment with sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, or thiazolidinediones starting at least 90 days after the initial prescription of metformin. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome is the first observation of the reduction of HbA1c level to 7% of total hemoglobin or less after prescription of a second-line drug. Secondary outcomes are myocardial infarction, kidney disorder, and eye disorder after prescription of a second-line drug. Results: A total of 246 558 805 patients (126 977 785 women [51.5%]) were analyzed. Effectiveness of sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones prescribed after metformin to lower HbA1c level to 7% or less of total hemoglobin remained indistinguishable in patients with T2D. Patients treated with sulfonylureas compared with DPP-4 inhibitors had a small increased consensus hazard ratio of myocardial infarction (1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24) and eye disorders (1.15; 95% CI, 1.11-1.19) in the meta-analysis. Hazard of observing kidney disorders after treatment with sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, or thiazolidinediones was equally likely. Conclusions and Relevance: The examined drug classes did not differ in lowering HbA1c and in hazards of kidney disorders in patients with T2D treated with metformin as a first-line therapy. Sulfonylureas had a small, higher observed hazard of myocardial infarction and eye disorders compared with DPP-4 inhibitors in the meta-analysis. The OHDSI collaborative network can be used to conduct a large international study examining the effectiveness of second-line treatment choices made in clinical management of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos
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