Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 360
Filtrar
1.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680102

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is a potent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process has been shown to alleviate hyperlipidemia and protect against cardiovascular diseases. Recently, rosmarinic acid was reported to exhibit lipid-lowering effects. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate whether rosmarinic acid lowers lipids by modulating the RCT process in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice. Our results indicated that rosmarinic acid treatment significantly decreased body weight, blood glucose, and plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HFD-fed mice. Rosmarinic acid increased the expression levels of cholesterol uptake-associated receptors in liver tissues, including scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid treatment notably increased the expression of cholesterol excretion molecules, ATP-binding cassette G5 (ABCG5) and G8 (ABCG8) transporters, and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase A1 (CYP7A1) as well as markedly reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver tissues. In addition, rosmarinic acid facilitated fatty acid oxidation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) induction. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid exhibited a lipid-lowering effect by modulating the expression of RCT-related proteins and lipid metabolism-associated molecules, confirming its potential for the prevention or treatment of hyperlipidemia-derived diseases.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445501

RESUMO

Lipid dysregulation in diabetes mellitus escalates endothelial dysfunction, the initial event in the development and progression of diabetic atherosclerosis. In addition, lipid-laden macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall plays a significant role in the pathology of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhibition of endothelial dysfunction and enhancement of macrophage cholesterol efflux is the important antiatherogenic mechanism. Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses beneficial properties, including its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects. We previously reported that RA effectively inhibits diabetic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting inflammasome activation in endothelial cells. However, its effect on cholesterol efflux remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the effect of RA on cholesterol efflux and its underlying mechanisms in macrophages. RA effectively reduced oxLDL-induced cholesterol contents under high glucose (HG) conditions in macrophages. RA enhanced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) expression, promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux. Mechanistically, RA differentially regulated ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-p38 and ABCG1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-ERK1/2/p38 in macrophages. Moreover, RA primarily stabilized ABCA1 rather than ABCG1 protein levels by impairing protein degradation. These findings suggest RA as a candidate therapeutic to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease complications related to diabetes by regulating cholesterol efflux in macrophages.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/citologia , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1
3.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211039386, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pain is associated with gait instability in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study used data from electronic medical records. Among patients with lumbar back pain caused by LDH between January 2017 and July 2019, patients that underwent gait analysis were included. LDH was diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. An OptoGait photoelectric cell system was used for gait evaluation. Instability was measured using a gait symmetry index. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between lumbar pain and gait instability. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients (12 females [41.4%] and 17 males [58.6%]; mean ± SD age, 40.6 ± 12.0 years) with LDH were enrolled in the study. With each 1-point increase in lumbar pain on the numeric rating scale, the symmetry index of the stance phase (0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04, 0.62), swing phase (0.78; 95% CI 0.14, 1.43) and single support (0.79; 95% CI 0.15, 1.43) increased. CONCLUSIONS: Gait instability in patients with LDH may occur due to an increase in pain.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Vértebras Lombares , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(32): 12857-12866, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369762

RESUMO

The current catalytic reaction mechanism for ammonia synthesis relies on either dissociative or associative routes, in which adsorbed N2 dissociates directly or is hydrogenated step-by-step until it is broken upon the release of NH3 through associative adsorption. Here, we propose a concerted mechanism of associative and dissociative routes for ammonia synthesis over a cobalt-loaded nitride catalyst. Isotope exchange experiments reveal that the adsorbed N2 can be activated on both Co metal and the nitride support, which leads to superior low-temperature catalytic performance. The cooperation of the surface low work function (2.6 eV) feature and the formation of surface nitrogen vacancies on the CeN support gives rise to a dual pathway for N2 activation with much reduced activation energy (45 kJ·mol-1) over that of Co-based catalysts reported so far, which results in efficient ammonia synthesis under mild conditions.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(30): 11345-11348, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288657

RESUMO

Late transition metals (LTMs) do not form hydrides under conventional experimental conditions except for palladium (Pd). The incorporation of a small amount of metal with low electronegativity converts LTMs into hydrogen (H) storage intermetallics (IMs) such as LaNi5. We examined the critical property of the H absorbing ability of LTMs and found that the lattice softness of Pd is a unique parameter for H insertion. This idea is applicable to H storage IMs. Indeed, negatively charged LTM ions, such as Niδ- in LaNi5, play a crucial role in hydrogenation. These ions cause lattice softening, which renders H solution possible. As a result, we propose that lattice softness can be an effective criterion for the development of new H storage IMs.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200817

RESUMO

The design of zirconia-based scaffolds using conventional techniques for bone-regeneration applications has been studied extensively. Similar to dental applications, the use of three-dimensional (3D) zirconia-based ceramics for bone tissue engineering (BTE) has recently attracted considerable attention because of their high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. However, techniques to fabricate zirconia-based scaffolds for bone regeneration are in a stage of infancy. Hence, the biological activities of zirconia-based ceramics for bone-regeneration applications have not been fully investigated, in contrast to the well-established calcium phosphate-based ceramics for bone-regeneration applications. This paper outlines recent research developments and challenges concerning numerous three-dimensional (3D) zirconia-based scaffolds and reviews the associated fundamental fabrication techniques, key 3D fabrication developments and practical encounters to identify the optimal 3D fabrication technique for obtaining 3D zirconia-based scaffolds suitable for real-world applications. This review mainly summarized the articles that focused on in vitro and in vivo studies along with the fundamental mechanical characterizations on the 3D zirconia-based scaffolds.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the longevity of spike-specific antibody responses and neutralizing activity in the plasma of recovered Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) patients. METHODS: We traced the antibody responses and neutralizing activity against MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in peripheral blood samples collected from 70 recovered MERS patients for 5 years after the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. We also measured the half-life of neutralizing antibody titres in the longitudinal specimens. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate persisted for up to 4 years (50.7-56.1%), especially in MERS patients who suffered from severe pneumonia, and then decreased (35.9%) in the fifth year. Although the spike-specific antibody responses decreased gradually, the neutralizing antibody titres decreased more rapidly (half-life: 20 months) in 19 participants without showing negative seroconversion during the study period. Only five (26.3%) participants had neutralizing antibody titres greater than 1/1000 of PRNT50, and a high neutralizing antibody titre over 1/5000 was not detected in the participants at five years after infection. DISCUSSION: The seropositivity rate of the recovered MERS patients persisted up to 4 years after infection and significantly dropped in the fifth year, whereas the neutralizing antibody titres against MERS-CoV decreased more rapidly and were significantly reduced at 4 years after infection.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073834

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic metabolic liver disease associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activation of the purinergic receptor P2Y2R has been reported to promote adipogenesis, inflammation and dyslipidemia in adipose tissues in obese mice. However, the role of P2Y2R and its mechanisms in NAFLD remain unknown. We hypothesized that P2Y2R deficiency may play a protective role in NAFLD by modulating lipid metabolism in the liver. In this study, we fed wild type and P2Y2R knockout mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and analyzed metabolic phenotypes. First, P2Y2R deficiency effectively improved insulin resistance with a reduction in body weight and plasma insulin. Second, P2Y2R deficiency attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation and injury with reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Third, P2Y2R deficiency decreased the expression of fatty acid synthesis mediators (cluster of differentiation (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)); and increased the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a lipolytic enzyme. Mechanistically, P2Y2R deficiency increased the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity to improve mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO) by regulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A)-mediated FAO pathway. In addition, P2Y2R deficiency increased peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusively, P2Y2R deficiency ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by enhancing FAO through AMPK signaling and PGC-1α pathway, suggesting P2Y2R as a promising therapeutic target for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(19): e139, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients initially present with early oxygen demand, requiring more medical resources, and some develop severe conditions, while others worsen later in their clinical course. Whether the nature of the two groups is the same but in the spectrum of different diagnostic time points is not certain. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who needed oxygen therapy from February to November 2020 were included in the study. The patients were divided into early and late groups based on the time when the oxygen requirement occurred. Basic and epidemiologic characteristics were compared. Clinical variables were analyzed in both groups. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients needed oxygen therapy, 94 of whom were in the early group and 70 of whom were in the late group. The early and late groups had similar baseline characteristics except age (median age, 73 vs. 67 years), uncertain exposure history (50% vs. 31.4%) and the time from the onset of illness to admission (median, 5 vs. 2 days). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 65 years (OR, 4.65), symptom onset > 5 days (OR, 9.13) and several clinical manifestations, such as febrile sensation (OR, 6.01), dyspnea (OR, 30.0), C-reactive protein > 1 mg/dL (OR, 7.87) and chest X-ray abnormality (OR, 8.15), were predictive factors in the early group. The early group required more intensive care such as mechanical ventilation care, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death (29.8% vs. 14.3%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Older age, especially > 65 years, and a delay of over 5 days from the onset of illness to admission were associated with early oxygen demand in COVID-19 patients. Interventions for earlier diagnosis of elderly people may benefit clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização , Oxigenoterapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispneia/etiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 123: 111950, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812579

RESUMO

For the formation of new bone in critical-sized bone defects, bioactive scaffolds with an interconnected porous network are necessary. Herein, we fabricated three-dimensional (3D) porous hybrid zirconia scaffolds to promote hybrid functionality, i.e., excellent mechanical properties and bioactive performance. Specifically, the 3D printed scaffolds were subjected to Zn-HA/glass composite coating on glass-infiltrated zirconia (ZC). In addition, to pertain the extracellular matrix of bone, biopolymer (alginate/gelatine) was embedded in a developed 3D construct (ZB and ZCB). A zirconia-printed scaffold (Z) group served as a control. The structural and mechanical properties of the constructed scaffolds were studied using essential characterization techniques. Furthermore, the biological performance of the designed scaffolds was tested by a sequence of in vitro cell tests, including the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). The ZC and ZCB scaffolds exhibited 20% higher compression strength than the zirconia (Z) scaffolds. More importantly, the ZC constructs exhibited superior cell-adhesion, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation ability due to the synergistic effects of the composite coating. In addition, the biopolymer-embedded scaffolds (ZB, ZCB) showed an excellent biological and mechanical performance. Thus, our results suggest that the Zn-HA/glass composite-coated glass-infiltrated zirconia (ZC, ZCB) scaffolds are a dynamic approach to designing bioactive 3D scaffolds for the load-bearing bone regeneration applications.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Engenharia Tecidual , Regeneração Óssea , Porosidade , Tecidos Suporte , Zircônio
12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(7): 3683-3688, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715674

RESUMO

During the design of membranes for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) to treat periodontal diseases, infection of the exposed membranes and postoperative complications can be prevented by increasing bacterial resistance. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of PCL/ZnO membranes and their effect on cell viability via addition of antibacterial zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles to a biocompatible and biodegradable material such as polycaprolactone (PCL). Neat PCL membranes and PCL/ZnO membranes containing 0.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% ZnO were produced, and divided into PCL (0% ZnO), LZ (0.5 wt.% ZnO), and HZ (5 wt.% ZnO) groups, respectively. The surface characteristics of the membranes including morphological features and changes in composition were analyzed. Adhesion of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingi-valis, was analyzed using a crystal violet assay. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts was evaluated using a WST-8 assay. Significant differences were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). The results of groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.017). ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in the PCL matrix of PCL/ZnO membranes. Compared with neat PCL membranes, their ability to form crystals decreased and their amorphous structure increased. The adhesion of S. mutans and P. gingivalis in the LZ and HZ groups containing ZnO was significantly decreased compared with that of the neat PCL membranes (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells between the PCL/ZnO membranes and the neat PCL membranes both on days 2 and 5 of culture (P > 0.05). This study has demonstrated that the PCL membranes carrying the ZnO nanoparticles inhibited bacterial adhesion without affecting the viability of osteoblasts, suggesting the potential application of ZnO in GTR to increase antibacterial activity of membranes.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Poliésteres , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
13.
Clin Hypertens ; 27(1): 9, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BENEFIT-KOREA (BEnefits after 24 weeks of NEbivolol administration For essential hypertensIon patients wiTh various comorbidities and treatment environments in Korea) study, an observational study in South Korea, demonstrated the efficacy and safety of nebivolol in Asian patients with essential hypertension with and without comorbidities in real-world settings. We present a subanalysis of the efficacy and safety of nebivolol across age and sex in the BENEFIT-KOREA cohort. METHODS: Adult South Korean patients with essential hypertension participated in the prospective, single-arm, open, observational BENEFIT-KOREA study; 3011 patients received nebivolol as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate at 12 and 24 weeks were evaluated. Participants were divided into three age groups-young males and females: < 50 years; middle-aged males and females: ≥50 years to < 70 years; and older males and females: ≥70 years. RESULTS: The mean age of study participants was 63.5 ± 12.9 years; majority were between 50 and 69 years of age and 40.4% were females. A significant decrease was observed in mean SBP, DBP, and pulse rate from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks in males and females across all age groups analyzed (all P < 0.001 vs. baseline), with no significant difference in mean reduction in SBP and DBP from baseline between sex within the age groups. Majority of reported adverse events were mild. The incidence of adverse events was lower in young participants versus middle-aged and older participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our subanalysis from the real-world BENEFIT-KOREA study in Asian patients with essential hypertension demonstrated the efficacy and safety of once-daily nebivolol across age groups with no between-sex differences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name of the registry: clinicaltrials.gov. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03847350 . Date of registration: February 20, 2019 retrospectively registered.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562139

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common pathological feature in patients with diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Although several pharmacological agents have been developed, the management of DN remains challenging. Geniposide, a natural compound has been reported for anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects; however, its role in DN remains poorly understood. This study investigated the protective effects of geniposide on DN and its underlying mechanisms. We used a C57BL/6 mouse model of DN in combination with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin after unilateral nephrectomy and treated with geniposide by oral gavage for 5 weeks. Geniposide effectively improves DN-induced renal structural and functional abnormalities by reducing albuminuria, podocyte loss, glomerular and tubular injury, renal inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. These changes induced by geniposide were associated with an increase of AMPK activity to enhance ULK1-mediated autophagy response and a decrease of AKT activity to block oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney. In addition, geniposide increased the activities of PKA and GSK3ß, possibly modulating AMPK and AKT pathways, efficiently improving renal dysfunction and ameliorating the progression of DN. Conclusively, geniposide enhances ULK1-mediated autophagy and reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting geniposide as a promising treatment for DN.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Int J Med Inform ; 149: 104403, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A vancomycin loading dose is recommended for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, clinicians often do not adhere to these recommendations, mainly due to nephrotoxicity risk, unfamiliarity with the guideline, or complexity of calculating an individual dose. Therefore, we introduced a computerised clinical decision support system (CDSS) for vancomycin loading (hereafter Vancomycin CDSS) to promote the use of vancomycin loading dose. METHODS: We describe a quasi-experimental study spanning 6 months before and 18 months after the deployment of a Vancomycin CDSS. The Vancomycin CDSS was integrated into the hospital's electronic medical record system in the form of a vancomycin order set. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of nephrotoxicity; the secondary endpoint was mean initial vancomycin trough levels. We also conducted a survey to evaluate the reasons why clinicians opted not to utilise a vancomycin loading dose. RESULTS: After implementation of Vancomycin CDSS, 363 out of 746 patients (49 %) who were first administered vancomycin received a loading dose. We did not find significant differences in nephrotoxicity between the pre- and post-intervention groups, nor between the loading- and non-loading groups. In the pre-intervention group, the mean initial vancomycin trough level was 7.10 mg/L, which was significantly lower than that in the post-intervention group of 11.11 mg/L. In the vancomycin loading group, the mean initial trough level was 11.95 mg/L, compared to 7.55 mg/L in the non-loading group. The main reason stated for not prescribing a vancomycin loading dose was concern about nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Introduction of the Vancomycin CDSS did not increase nephrotoxicity and increased the mean initial dose and trough level of vancomycin.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513159

RESUMO

This study provides a review of methods used in the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ginseng and compares the effectiveness of three extraction methods (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS), a modified QuEChERS and a Fast Pesticide Extraction (FaPEx)) in the analyses of 20 OCPs in ginseng root samples. For each method, sample mass, solvent volume and sorbent mass were varied to identify the optimum combination to effectively isolate analytes of interest from the complex sample matrix. Extracts were analyzed using the gas chromatography-µ-electron capture detector (GC-µ-ECD), and confirmatory analyses performed by gas chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Eighteen out of 20 OCPs spiked onto in-house prepared ginseng samples produced acceptable recoveries (51-156%) when extracted using QuEChERS and FaPEx. All 20 analytes, including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'- DDD) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o, p'-DDT), produced acceptable recoveries (51-129%) with the use of a modified QuEChERS method. The applicability of the modified QuEChERS method was demonstrated through the analysis of ginseng samples grown in endosulfan-treated soil. The samples were analyzed by both GC-µ-ECD and GC-MS/MS with no significant difference identified in the results of each analytical method. This study highlights the applicability of the modified QuEChERS method, in combination with GC- µ-ECD, to determine organochlorine pesticides in ginseng. This may be especially useful for laboratories in developing countries and less advanced institutions without access to MS/MS instrumentation.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Panax/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção
17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 347-360, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949006

RESUMO

This study performed the first environmental and dietary exposure assessment to explore plant uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) from agricultural soil and irrigation water in the Nakdong River delta, South Korea. Annual average concentrations of total PFOA and PFOS ranged from 0.026 to 0.112 µg L-1 (irrigation water), and from 0.818 to 1.364 µg kg-1 (soil), respectively. PFOA and PFOS hotspots were identified downstream of the Nakdong River and were influenced by seasonal climatic variations. The observed average biennial concentration of the sum of PFOA and PFOS decreased in irrigation water, from 0.112 µg L-1 in 2013 to 0.026 µg L-1 in 2015, suggests that the 2013 Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act may have helped to reduce levels of PFAS at this location. This study calculated some of the highest plant uptake factors reported to date, with values ranging from 0.962 in green onions to < 0.004 in plums. Leafy vegetables and rice are important components of the Korean diet; these groups had the largest contribution to the estimated dietary intake of PFOA and PFOS, which was calculated at 0.449 and 0.140 ng kg bw -1 day-1, respectively. This corresponded to 66.4% for PFOA and 7.9% for PFOS of the EFSA reference dose (RfD). The dietary intake of PFOA and PFOS from crops alone did not exceed the RfD. However, when the estimated daily intake (EDI) from other sources such as tap water, meat, fish, dairy, and beverages was included in the exposure risk assessment, both of the EDIs to PFOA and PFOS exceeded the RfDs, indicating that there may be a risk to human health. This study concludes that consumption of crops might, therefore, be a significant and underappreciated pathway for human exposure to PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , República da Coreia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050983

RESUMO

We investigated the kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibodies in 7 asymptomatic persons and 11 patients with pneumonia. The geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies declined from 219.4 at 2 months to 143.7 at 5 months after infection, indicating a waning antibody response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos
19.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(2): 280-285, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The increase in the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has delayed real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), requiring proper shipping and storage conditions, especially in hot weather. This study aims to assess how some conditions, such as storage period, temperature, media or buffer, and sample types, affect the results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-qPCR. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens were collected from Boramae Medical Center for 2 months (from May to June 2020) and stored in different media or buffers at different temperatures. RESULTS: As a result of examining confirmed patient samples, RT-qPCR results were not significantly affected by 2°C to 8°C storage until after 7 days. When stored at 20°C to 22°C or above 35°C, the results were affected negatively even after 1 day. Higher storage temperatures resulted in a lower probability of detecting viral nucleic acids because of degradation. Samples stored in pH-controlled media or buffer were more stable than those stored in nonbuffer states. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the importance of storage temperature and media or buffer and performing RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection as soon as possible after sample collection.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Manejo de Espécimes , Tampões (Química) , Humanos , Temperatura
20.
BMB Rep ; 54(2): 118-123, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298241

RESUMO

The bacterial effector protein RavZ from a pathogen can impair autophagy in the host by delipidating the mammalian autophagy- related gene 8 (mATG8)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on autophagic membranes. In RavZ, the membrane-targeting (MT) domain is an essential function. However, the molecular mechanism of this domain in regulating the intracellular localization of RavZ in cells is unclear. In this study, we found that the fusion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the MT domain of RavZ (GFP-MT) resulted in localization primarily to the cytosol and nucleus, whereas the GFP-fused duplicated-MT domain (GFP-2xMT) localized to Rab5- or Rab7-positive endosomes. Similarly, GFP fusion to the catalytic domain (CA) of RavZ (GFP-CA) resulted in localization primarily to the cytosol and nucleus, even in autophagy-induced cells. However, by adding the MT domain to GFP-CA (GFP-CA-MT), the cooperation of MT and CA led to localization on the Rab5-positive endosomal membranes in a wortmannin-sensitive manner under nutrient-rich conditions, and to autophagic membranes in autophagy-induced cells. In autophagic membranes, GFP-CA-MT delipidated overexpressed or endogenous mATG8-PE. Furthermore, GFP-CAΔα3-MT, an α3 helix deletion within the CA domain, failed to localize to the endosomal or autophagic membranes and could not delipidate overexpressed mATG8-PE. Thus, the CA or MT domain alone is insufficient for stable membrane localization in cells, but the cooperation of MT and CA leads to localization to the endosomal and autophagic membranes. In autophagic membranes, the CA domain can delipidate mATG8-PE without requiring substrate recognition mediated by LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(2): 118-123].

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...