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1.
Bone ; : 115524, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of complex bone loss scenarios remains challenging. This study evaluates the efficacy of ex vivo regional gene therapy using transduced human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) overexpressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to treat critical-sized bone defects. METHODS: Critical-sized femoral defects created surgically in immunocompromised rats were treated with ASCs transduced with a lentivirus encoding BMP-2 (Group 1, n = 14), or green fluorescent protein (Group 2, n = 5), nontransduced ASCs (Group 3, n = 5), or rhBMP-2 (Group 4, n = 14). At 12 weeks, femurs were evaluated for quantity and quality of bone formation with plain radiographs, micro-computed tomography, histology/histomorphometry, and biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: Thirteen of 14 samples in Group 1 and all 14 samples in Group 4 showed radiographic healing, while no samples in either Groups 2 or 3 healed. Groups 1 and 4 had significantly higher radiographic scores (p < 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (p < 0.001), and bone area fraction (BA/TA) than Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). Radiographic scores, BV/TV, and BA/TA were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 4. No difference with regards to mean torque, rotation at failure, torsional stiffness, and energy to failure was seen between Groups 1 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: Human ASCs modified to overexpress BMP-2 resulted in abundant bone formation, with the quality of bone comparable to that of rhBMP-2. This strategy represents a promising approach in the treatment of large bone defects in the clinical setting. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Large bone defects may require sustained protein production to induce an appropriate osteoinductive response. Ex vivo regional gene therapy using a lentiviral vector has the potential to be part of a comprehensive tissue engineering strategy for treating osseous defects.

2.
Dent Mater ; 36(7): 945-958, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Titanium and its alloys are widely used for dental and medical biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical and biological advantages. After the introduction of direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) 3D printing technology and its use over conventional machine-cut processes, questions remain regarding whether 3D-printed titanium (alloy) devices have similar biological properties to machine-cut counterparts for dental applications. Thus, this work focuses on comparing the biological activities of machine-cut and 3D-printed specimens after optimizing the DLMS 3D-printing conditions in terms of the mechanophysical characteristics. METHODS: The DLMS 3D-printing (as a function of the laser spacing from 30-100µm) and post-surface treatment (as-given or sand-blasted) conditions were optimized using medical-grade Ti-6Al-4V powders in terms of the inner pore amount, mechanical properties, roughness and hydrophilicity. Then, the initial cell adhesion of the optimized DLMS 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V specimen was compared with that of the machine-cut Ti-6Al-4V specimen against human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) and mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which are representative of direct-contact cell types of orofacial mucosa and bone, respectively. hMSC differentiation on the specimens was conducted for up to 21 days to measure the osteogenic gene expression and biomineralization. RESULTS: Laser spacings of 30-40µm had fewer inner defects and consequently a higher three-point flexural strength and elastic modulus compared to other larger laser spacings. Depending on the span width (0.3-1mm) in the lattice architecture, the elastic modulus of the 3D-printed cuboid specimen can be further controlled (up to ∼30 times). The sand-blasted specimens after 3D printing revealed lower surface roughness and higher hydrophilicity compared to the as-3D printed specimen, which were considered optimal conditions for biological study. Initial hDF and hMSC adhesion for 12 hr and hMSC differentiation on the surface were comparable between the sand-blasted 3D-printed and machine-cut specimens in terms of adherent cell numbers, vinculin intensity, osteogenic gene expression and biomineralization. SIGNIFICANCE: The optimized DLMS 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V specimen had similar biological properties to those of the machine-cut counterpart, suggesting the potential usefulness of 3D printing technology for a wide range of dental applications.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10313, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587285

RESUMO

In this study using national health insurance data, we investigated the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke among prostate cancer (PC) survivors compared with the general population, as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) according to primary treatment. A total of 48,298 PC patients diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 were included and matched to non-cancer controls. Compared to the general population, PC survivors had a slightly lower risk of IHD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.96) or stroke (aHR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.95). Especially, survivors who underwent surgery had lower risks of IHD (aHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.80) or stroke (aHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.81). Compared to survivors in the active surveillance/watchful waiting group, the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) group had a significantly greater risk of stroke (aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32), but the IHD risk was not significantly elevated (aHR 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.29). In conclusion, PC survivors had a slightly lower risk of CVD compared to the general population, which was attributable to self-selection for PSA screening, specifically in the surgery-only group. CVD risk was dependent on treatment received, and attention should be given to patients who receive ADT.

4.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 15(6): 931-941, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Precise localization of cystic bone lesions is crucial for osteolytic bone tumor surgery. Recently, there is a move toward ultrasound imaging over plain radiographs (X-rays) for intra-operative navigation due to the radiation-free and cost-effectiveness of the modality. In this process, the intra-operative bone model reconstructed from the segmented ultrasound image is registered with the pre-operative bone model. Deep learning approaches have recently shown remarkable success in bone surface segmentation from ultrasound images. However, to train deep learning models effectively with limited dataset size, data augmentation is essential. This study investigates the applicability of the generative approach for data augmentation as well as identifies standard data augmentation approaches for bone surface segmentation from ultrasound images. METHODS: The generative approach we used in our work is based on Pix2Pix image-to-image translation network. We have proposed a multiple-snapshot approach, which mitigates the uni-modal deterministic output issue in the Pix2Pix network without using any complex architecture and training process. We also identified standard data augmentation approaches necessary for ultrasound bone surface segmentation through experiments. RESULTS: We have evaluated our networks using 800 ultrasound images from trained regions (humerus bone) and 1200 ultrasound images from untrained regions (tibia and femur bones) using four different augmentation approaches. The results show that the generative augmentation approach has a positive impact on accuracy in both trained (+ 4.88%) and untrained regions (+ 25.84%) compared to using only standard augmentations. Moreover, compared to standard augmentation approaches, the addition of the generative augmentation approach also showed a similar trend in both trained (+ 8.74%) and untrained (+ 11.55%) regions. CONCLUSION: Generative approaches are very beneficial for data augmentation, where limited dataset size is prevalent, such as ultrasound bone segmentation. The proposed multiple-snapshot Pix2Pix approach has the potential to generate multimodal images, which enlarges the dataset considerably.

5.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100578, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of prostate cancer (PC) and various treatment modalities for PC, specifically androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), on the risk of dementia and dementia subtypes in PC survivors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 51,252 patients newly diagnosed with PC from 2007 to 2013, who had no prior diagnosis of cancer or dementia, were included and matched with 209,659 non-cancer control. The screening subset was comprised of subjects who participated in a health screening program. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the relative risk of dementia and dementia subtypes according to the primary treatment for the PC. RESULTS: Compared to non-PC matched controls, PC survivors showed slightly higher risk for dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) only in the screening cohort. While PC survivors who underwent ADT were higher risk for dementia and AD, patients who underwent surgery were lower risk for dementia and AD, compared to the non-cancer population. Compared to surgery, ADT, surgery + ADT, and active surveillance/watchful waiting showed a significantly elevated risk for dementia. CONCLUSION: PC survivors had slightly higher risk for dementia compared to non-PC controls, which might be related to the screening effects of PC. The risk for dementia was most prominent among PC patients who underwent ADT, followed by patients who underwent AS/WW, and those who underwent surgery + ADT. This finding suggests that individualized ADT strategies that consider the survival benefit and underlying dementia risk in PC survivors are necessary.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4615-4622, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether 3-dimensional (3D) fractal dimension (FD) and lacunarity features from MRI can predict the meningioma grade. METHODS: This retrospective study included 131 patients with meningiomas (98 low-grade, 33 high-grade) who underwent preoperative MRI with post-contrast T1-weighted imaging. The 3D FD and lacunarity parameters from the enhancing portion of the tumor were extracted by box-counting algorithms. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, conventional imaging features such as location, heterogeneous enhancement, capsular enhancement, and necrosis were assessed. Independent clinical and imaging risk factors for meningioma grade were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. The discriminative value of the prediction model with and without fractal features was evaluated. The relationship of fractal parameters with the mitosis count and Ki-67 labeling index was also assessed. RESULTS: The inter-reader reliability was excellent, with ICCs of 0.99 for FD and 0.97 for lacunarity. High-grade meningiomas had higher FD (p < 0.001) and higher lacunarity (p = 0.007) than low-grade meningiomas. In the multivariable logistic regression, the diagnostic performance of the model with clinical and conventional imaging features increased with 3D fractal features for predicting the meningioma grade, with AUCs of 0.78 and 0.84, respectively. The 3D FD showed significant correlations with both mitosis count and Ki-67 labeling index, and lacunarity showed a significant correlation with the Ki-67 labeling index (all p values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The 3D FD and lacunarity are higher in high-grade meningiomas and fractal analysis may be a useful imaging biomarker for predicting the meningioma grade. KEY POINTS: • Fractal dimension (FD) and lacunarity are the two parameters used in fractal analysis to describe the complexity of a subject and may aid in predicting meningioma grade. • High-grade meningiomas had a higher fractal dimension and higher lacunarity than low-grade meningiomas, suggesting higher complexity and higher rotational variance. • The discriminative value of the predictive model using clinical and conventional imaging features improved when combined with 3D fractal features for predicting the meningioma grade.

7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 309: 110196, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135410

RESUMO

One of the most important factors for calculating the accumulated degree days (ADD), which is used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is the accurate estimation of the scene temperature after death. As the estimation method used up to now, they applied to the linear regression analysis using the temperature of the nearest weather station, but the prediction error becomes larger in the case that the ambient temperature do not follow the temperature of the station. In the present study applied we have more accurate methods such as the quadratic regression model and support vector machine (SVM) and have included weather factors such as wind capacity, wind speed and humidity, and regression method. Also, we investigate the optimal statistical method for estimating the ambient temperature in indoor and outdoor locations in Korea.

8.
Appl Ergon ; 85: 103069, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174357

RESUMO

The prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms in radiographers is high, similar to other healthcare occupations that involve high levels of physical exertion (e.g. patient handling; grasping and moving equipment). Reports of interventions to reduce MSK discomfort in radiographers are limited. A participatory approach was used to investigate daily challenges, needs, and opportunities for developing interventions to address exposures to many of the risk factors that contribute to MSK symptoms in radiographers. In this paper, we present the expressed needs of experienced radiographers (including assistance with patient handling, security, supportive design of equipment and work spaces), along with their evaluations of several intervention concepts intended to address some of those needs. We also report results from tests of three prototype interventions stemming from this participatory process that demonstrate the potential for new engineering control concepts to reduce the physical effort associated with some of the most common tasks radiographers perform.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18441, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000357

RESUMO

Various methods of assessing the depth of anesthesia (DoA) and reducing intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia have been extensively studied in anesthesiology. However, most of the DoA monitors do not include brain activity signal modeling. Here, we propose a new algorithm termed the cortical activity index (CAI) based on the brain activity signals. In this study, we enrolled 32 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Raw electroencephalography (EEG) signals were acquired at a sampling rate of 128 Hz using BIS-VISTA with standard bispectral index (BIS) sensors. All data were stored on a computer for further analysis. The similarities and difference among spectral entropy, the BIS, and CAI were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the BIS and CAI was 0.825. The result of fitting the semiparametric regression models is the method CAI estimate (-0.00995; P = .0341). It is the estimated difference in the mean of the dependent variable between method BIS and CAI. The CAI algorithm, a simple and intuitive algorithm based on brain activity signal modeling, suggests an intrinsic relationship between the DoA and the EEG waveform. We suggest that the CAI algorithm might be used to quantify the DoA.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anestesia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia , Adulto , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Antiviral Res ; 175: 104709, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940474

RESUMO

Currently, therapies to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection are based on the use of interferon-α or nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) to prevent viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase activity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase (Pol). However, these therapies are not curative; thus, the development of novel anti-HBV agents is needed. In accordance with this unmet medical need, we devised a new target- and cell-based, high-throughput screening assay to identify novel small molecules that block the initial interaction of the HBV Pol with its replication template the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). We screened approximately 110,000 small molecules for the ability to prevent HBV Pol recognition of the pgRNA 5' epsilon (ε) stem-loop structure, identifying (Z)-2-(allylamino)-4-amino-N'-cyanothiazole-5-carboximidamide (AACC). Viral nucleocapsid-captured quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that AACC significantly decreased encapsidated pgRNA levels and blocked capsid assembly without affecting core protein expression in stable HBV-replicating cells. As a result, both intra- and extracellular accumulation of viral DNA was strongly reduced. AACC treatment of HepG2-sodium taurocholate transporting polypeptide (NTCP) cells and primary human hepatocytes infected with cell culture- or patient-derived HBV isolates showed both time- and dose-dependent inhibition of infectious viral progeny and rcDNA production. Furthermore, AACC showed cross-genotypic activity against genotypes B, C, and D. Of note, AACC inhibited the viral replication of lamivudine and a capsid inhibitor-resistant HBV, and showed synergistic effects with NAs and a capsid inhibitor. In conclusion, we identified a novel class of compounds specifically targeting the ε-Pol interaction and thereby preventing the encapsidation of pgRNAs into viral capsids. This promising new HBV inhibitor class potently inhibits HBV amplification with distinct characteristics from existing NAs and other drugs currently under development, promising to add value to existing therapies for CHB.

11.
Investig Clin Urol ; 61(1): 67-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942465

RESUMO

Purpose: Preoperative use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) may cause fibrosis of the prostate tissue and reduce the efficiency of thulium laser surgery for treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, we investigated the effects of preoperative 5ARI use in this setting. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study examined 184 patients who underwent thulium laser surgery for BPH during 2012-2017. Patients were grouped according to their 5ARI use in order to compare their preoperative and intraoperative characteristics and subsequent outcomes. Surgical efficiency was assessed using vaporesection efficiency. The total operation time, vaporesection time and prostate volume change were measured. Results: The 5ARI+ group included 83 patients (45.1%) and the 5ARI- group included 101 patients (54.9%). There were no significant differences in the two groups' preoperative characteristics, postoperative prostate size, thulium laser energy use, or prostate volume reduction rate. However, relative to the 5ARI- group, the 5ARI+ group had a significant shorter total operative time (65.0 min vs. 70.0 min, p=0.013) and a significantly shorter vaporesection time (48.0 min vs. 54.0 min, p=0.014), which resulted in significantly higher vaporesection efficiency in the 5ARI+ group (0.66 mL/min vs. 0.51 mL/min, p<0.001). Both groups exhibit significant improvements in their quality of life score and International Prostate Symptom Score during the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: In contrast with our expectations, the preoperative use of 5ARI increased the efficiency of thulium laser surgery for BPH. Thus, it may not be necessary to stop 5ARI treatment before performing thulium laser surgery in this setting.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serrated polyp detection rate (SDR) is a potential quality indicator for preventing colorectal cancer associated with the serrated pathway. Using clinically significant SDR (CSSDR) has been suggested based on clinically significant serrated polyp's ability to be colorectal cancer precursors. Correlations between CSSDR and simpler SDRs, other than proximal SDR, have not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate which simpler SDR indicator is most relevant to CSSDR or adenoma detection rate (ADR) and provide benchmark data. METHODS: We analyzed 26 627 colonoscopies performed by 30 endoscopists. Clinically significant serrated polyps were defined as any sessile serrated adenoma/polyp or traditional serrated adenoma, hyperplastic polyps ≥ 5 mm in the proximal colon, or hyperplastic polyps ≥ 10 mm anywhere in the colon. Correlation of CSSDR and ADR with other simple SDRs, SDR-pathology (sessile serrated adenoma/polyp or traditional serrated adenoma), SDR-size (≥ 10 mm), and SDR-location (proximal location) was analyzed using Pearson's correlation test and Steiger's z-test. RESULTS: The CSSDR was 1.7% to 13.2% (mean = 6.1%). The correlation coefficient of CSSDR/SDR-size was 0.91 (P < 0.01), which was higher than that of CSSDR/SDR-location (0.64, P < 0.01) (0.91 vs 0.61, P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient of ADR/CSSDR and ADR/SDR-location was 0.41 (P < 0.01) and 0.81 (P < 0.01), respectively. For ADR ≥ 25%, endoscopists' median screening CSSDR was 5.4%, while SDR-location and SDR-size were 10.9% and 2.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Large SDR could be a simple proxy for CSSDR, in addition to proximal SDR. Large SDR and proximal SDR benchmarks of 2.2% and 10.9% may guide adequate serrated polyp detection with uniform definitions and simpler calculations.

13.
Injury ; 51(3): 694-698, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We designed a comparative study using elderly hip fracture patients with and without heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to assess 1) prevalence of HF, compare 2) early and late mortality after elderly hip fracture between HF and non-HF patients and to assess 3) risk factors of mortality after hip fractures in elderly patients with HF. In addition, we also investigated 4) whether there is a difference in mortality according to the severity of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction classified by LV ejection fraction (EF) in HF patients through subgroup analysis. METHODS: This study included 1992 patients (1992 hips) who were diagnosed as having unilateral femoral neck or intertrochanteric fractures and who underwent surgery at two hospitals between January 2004 and June 2018. The patients were categorized into a non-HF group (1782 patients) and a HF group (210 patients; mild [119 patients] and moderate-to- severe HF subgroups [91 patients]). The cumulative crude mortality rate was calculated, and 30-day, 60-day, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year mortality rates were compared between the non-HF and HF. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Of 1992 patients, 210 (10.5%) patients were diagnosed with HF. The 30-day, 60-day, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year postoperative cumulative mortality rates were respectively 1.6%, 3.6%, 5.1%, 8.4%, and 12.9% in the non-HF group, and 5.7%, 9.5%, 12.4%, 17.1%, and 25.2% in the HF group (p ≤ 0.001). The factors that affected 1-year mortality were sex (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.62-2.72; p < 0.001) and age (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; p < 0.001) and presence of HF (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.45-1.86; p = 0.005). In subgroup analysis, the factors that affected 30-day mortality were only moderate-to-severe HF (OR, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.10-8.78; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with hip fracture, the comparison between the HF and non-HF patients revealed that HF was an independent factor of mortality at a minimum of 1-year follow-up, and severity of LV systolic dysfunction classified by LVEF in patients with hip fracture was also a risk factor of 30-day mortality.

14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(5): 1001-1012, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960754

RESUMO

Crude extracts and phytochemical compounds derived from Annona muricata leaves have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of Annona muricata leaves-derived polysaccharide extracts (ALPs) have not been investigated. ALP treatment was shown to induce concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in HT22 cells, and to increase cell viability in H2O2-treated HT22 cells. These effects were correlated with a decrease in major components of oxidation, including: Ca2+, ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Mediators of the intracellular response to oxidation, including Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspases-3, -8, -9, MAPKs, and NF-κB, were positively influenced by ALP treatment under conditions of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, ALP restored the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and associated signaling pathways (PARP, PI3K/AKT and Nrf2-mediated HO-1/NQO-1) following H2O2 treatment. These results provide new pharmacological evidence that ALP facilitates neuroprotection via prevention of neuronal oxidative stress and promotion of cell survival signaling pathways.Abbreviations: ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid); AD: Alzheimer's disease; ALP: polysaccharide extracts isolated from Annona muricata leaves; ARE: antioxidant response element; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl; DCFH-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate; ECL: electrochemiluminescence; ERK: extracellular regulated kinase; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; FRAP: ferric reducing antioxidant power; HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1; JNK: c-jun N-terminal kinase; MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases; MDA: malondialdehyde; MMP: mitochondrial membrane potential; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide; NQO1: NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1, Nrf2: nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2; PD: parkinson's disease; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol-3kinase; PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: Superoxidedismutase; TPTZ: tripydyltriazine.

15.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(12): 804-812, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923125

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective magnetic resonance imaging grading with comparison between experts and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify the feasibility of a computer-assisted spine stenosis grading system by comparing the diagnostic agreement between two experts and the agreement between the experts and trained artificial CNN classifiers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal stenosis grading is important; however, it is tedious job to check the MR images slide by slide to classify patient grades often having different opinions regarding the final diagnosis. METHODS: For 542 L4-5 axial MR images, two experts independently localized the center position of the spine canal and graded the status. Two CNN classifiers each trained with the grading label made by the two experts were validated using 10-fold cross-validation. Each classifier consisted of a CNN detection model responsible for the localization of patches near the canal and a classification CNN model to predict the spinal stenosis status in the localized patches. Faster R-CNN was used for the detection model whereas VGG network was used for the classification model. A comparison in grading agreement was carried out between the two experts as well as that of the experts and the prediction results generated by the CNN models. RESULTS: Grading agreement between the experts was 77.5% and 75% in terms of accuracy and F1 scores. The agreement between the first expert and the model trained with the labels of the first expert was 83% and 75.4%, respectively. The agreement between the second expert and the model trained with the labels of the second expert was 77.9% and 74.9%. The differences between the two experts were significant, whereas the differences between each expert and the trained models were not significant. CONCLUSION: We indeed confirmed that automatic diagnosis using deep learning may be feasible for spinal stenosis grading. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

16.
Chembiochem ; 21(1-2): 59-63, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206981

RESUMO

To gain insight into factors that lead to dissociation of Bax from a complex with Hsp70 during apoptosis, we recently constructed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system composed of the Hsp70-YFP (YFP=yellow fluorescent protein) fusion protein and fluorescent amino acid (ANAP=6-acetyl(naphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid)-containing Bax (Bax-ANAP), which was produced by using the genetic code expansion technique. In the current study, the FRET system was employed to elucidate how brefeldin A (an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer), chlorpromazine and apoptozole (lysosomal membrane destabilizers), bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification) as well as raptinal and Az-TPP-O3 (mitochondria-targeted apoptosis inducers) affect the interaction between Bax and Hsp70. Analyses of single live cell images together with results of co-immunoprecipitation assays reveal that brefeldin A, chlorpromazine, and apoptozole promote dissociation of the Bax/Hsp70 complex through activation of the activator BH3-only protein. However, the results show that bafilomycin A1, raptinal, and Az-TPP-O3 have no influence on the interaction of Bax with Hsp70. The combined observations made in the current and previous studies demonstrate that the FRET system consisting of Bax-ANAP and Hsp70-YFP is highly useful to understand apoptotic processes associated with the Bax-Hsp70 interaction.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(3): 415-418, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821393

RESUMO

We report a novel 1,2-catechol based radioiodinated precursor for radioiodination of bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN) installed biologically active molecules using a strain-promoted oxidation-controlled cyclooctyne-1,2-quinone cycloaddition reaction (SPOCQ) under ambient conditions. Compared to the reported methodologies, the new strategy demonstrates some clear advantages, including high in vitro and in vivo stability, high radiochemical yield, and exceptionally fast reaction kinetics at micro-molar concentration.


Assuntos
Reação de Cicloadição , Quinonas/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Catecóis/química , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oxirredução , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
18.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 13-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804873

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus spore contamination on food contact surfaces is of great concern in the food industry. Thus, in the present study, superheated steam (SHS) was used alone or combined with UV-C irradiation for inactivation of B. cereus spores inoculated on stainless steel coupons. Temperatures higher than 250°C were needed to effectively inactivate B. cereus spores by SHS treatment alone, while a synergistic bactericidal effect resulted from the sequential treatment of SHS before or after UV-C irradiation. The increased dipicolinic acid ratio obtained by the combined treatment had a significant role in the synergistic bactericidal effect. Therefore, the combined treatment of SHS and UV-C could be used effectively to inactivate B. cereus on stainless steel. It is recommended to use hurdle technology with reduced energy consumption to ensure microbiological safety on food contact surfaces.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(1): 143-179, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750471

RESUMO

Metal cations and anions are essential for versatile physiological processes. Dysregulation of specific ion levels in living organisms is known to have an adverse effect on normal biological events. Owing to the pathophysiological significance of ions, sensitive and selective methods to detect these species in biological systems are in high demand. Because they can be used in methods for precise and quantitative analysis of ions, organic dye-based ratiometric fluorescent probes have been extensively explored in recent years. In this review, recent advances (2015-2019) made in the development and biological applications of synthetic ratiometric fluorescent probes are described. Particular emphasis is given to organic dye-based ratiometric fluorescent probes that are designed to detect biologically important and relevant ions in cells and living organisms. Also, the fundamental principles associated with the design of ratiometric fluorescent probes and perspectives about how to expand their biological applications are discussed.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Zinco/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Íons/análise , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(1): 353-360, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737925

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate if compliance with frequency volume charts can be improved if a physician explains its importance and to identify factors affecting compliance and accurate responses to frequency volume chart (FVC). METHODS: We identified patients ≥18 years of age with voiding dysfunction reported from July 2013 to February 2014. Patients were explained the importance of frequency volume charts by a doctor and then a nurse explained how to fill it (group A). Others were only explained how to fill it (group B). RESULTS: A total of 137 patients were enrolled. The response rate to frequency volume charts was higher in group A than in group B (94.3% vs 82.9%, P = .038). Patients ≥70 years of age, without a private health insurance, with high school education or higher, and without past medical history had a higher response rate in group A than in group B. In the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, group A (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-22.89; P = .045) and QoL (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.16-4.46; P = .017) were factors associated with the response rate. In addition, group A (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.03-11.70; P = .045) and being 60's years old (vs 50's years, OR, 7.01; 95% CI, 1.36-36.23; P = .020) were related to FVC complete response rate. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency volume chart compliance can be improved if physicians explain its importance for lower urinary tract symptoms diagnosis and management. The explanation and severe lower urinary tract symptoms are factors affecting compliance and the explanation and being 60's years old are related to accurate response.

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