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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 426: 113836, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278481

RESUMO

Current antipsychotics have limited effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia patients, therefore, cognitive remediation has been applied to schizophrenia patients to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive training programs have not been well studied because established animal models are not suitable or because repetitive training has not been introduced in such animal models. In the present study, we employed Toll-like receptor 2 knockout (TLR2 KO) mouse as a schizophrenia mouse model and evaluated the effects of repetitive training as cognitive remediation therapy for schizophrenia. TLR2 KO mice could fully learn the Barnes maze paradigm through repetitive training to improve memory retrieval and reversal learning ability, although the learning speed was slower than that of wild-type (WT) animals. In addition, highly repetitive training activated the neuronal cells in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampal CA3 and hippocampal DG regions of TLR2 KO mice, similar to WT mice. These results indicated that TLR2 KO mouse would be a useful tool for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cognição , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112763, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240526

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by various pathological mechanisms; therefore, it is necessary to develop drugs that simultaneously act on multiple targets. In this study, we investigated the effects of eugenitol, which has anti-amyloid ß (Aß) and anti-neuroinflammatory effects, in an AD mouse model. We found that eugenitol potently inhibited Aß plaque and oligomer formation. Moreover, eugenitol dissociated the preformed Aß plaques and reduced Aß-induced nero2a cell death. An in silico docking simulation study showed that eugenitol may interact with Aß1-42 monomers and fibrils. Eugenitol showed radical scavenging effects and potently reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines from lipopolysaccharide-treated BV2 cells. Systemic administration of eugenitol blocked Aß aggregate-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze test in a dose-dependent manner. In 5XFAD mice, prolonged administration of eugenitol ameliorated memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation impairment. Moreover, eugenitol significantly reduced Aß deposits and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice. These results suggest that eugenitol, which has anti-Aß aggregation, Aß fibril dissociation, and anti-inflammatory effects, potently modulates AD-like pathologies in 5XFAD mice, and could be a promising candidate for AD therapy.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , /patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204117

RESUMO

Stress is an important neurological input for successful life. However, chronic stress and stress hormones could be a cause of various neurological disorders including anxiety disorders. Therefore, there have been many efforts to find effective materials for curing stress-induced neurological disorders. In this study, we examined the effect of Hydrangea macrophylla (HM) on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity, stress-induced anxiety in mice and suggested a possible active ingredient of HM. HM protected cortical neurons against neurotoxicity of corticosterone (CORT), a stress hormone. HM also blocked CORT-induced hippocampal synaptic deficit via regulating Akt signaling. Oral administration of HM improved chronic restraint stress-induced anxiety in Elevated Plus maze test along with reduction of plasma corticosterone and TNF-α levels. Moreover, HM reduced stress-induced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Thunberginol C, an active ingredient of HM, also prevented CORT-induced neuronal cell death and restraint stress-induced anxiety. Moreover, thunberginol C reduced plasma TNF-α level and neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Collectively, HM could be a good candidate for preventing stress-induced neurological disorders and thunberginol C may be an active ingredient of HM for this purpose.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(6): e45, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of self-injurious behavior (SIB) among persons who were directly impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially those with pre-existing mental disorders. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service-COVID-19 database cohort, the monthly SIB rate was calculated by COVID-19 subgroups (i.e., positive for COVID-19 test, negative for COVID-19 test, and non-COVID-19 test [control]). In addition, moderated regression analysis was utilized to examine the statistical difference of SIB (suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury using ICD-10 code) trend between COVID-19 subgroups and with and without pre-existing mental disorder. RESULTS: A total of 328,373 persons were included in the cohort study. Of these, 212,678 had been tested for COVID-19, and 7,713 of them were confirmed positive. During the pandemic peak, the "negative for COVID-19" group showed a large increase (P = 0.003) in SIB rates compared to the control group, the "positive for COVID-19" group showed a decreasing trend, but not significant (P = 0.314). Among those who were tested for COVID-19, those with pre-existing mental disorders showed an increasing trend of SIB compared to those without pre-existing mental disorders, however statistically insignificant (P = 0.137). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people who are tested for COVID-19 are at a high risk of SIB during the peak COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, screening for suicide risk and psychological interventions is needed for these high-risk groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112663, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093759

RESUMO

Memory-enhancing agents have long been required for various reasons such as for obtaining a good score in a test in the young and for retaining memory in the aged. Although many studies have found that several natural products may be good candidates for memory enhancement, there is still a need for better agents. The present study investigated whether rubrofusarin, an active ingredient in Cassiae semen, enhances learning and memory in normal mice. Passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were performed to determine the memory-enhancing ability of rubrofusarin. To investigate synaptic function, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was measured. Western blotting was performed to determine protein levels. To investigate neurite outgrowth, DCX immunohistochemistry and cell culture were utilised. Rubrofusarin (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) enhanced memory in passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Moreover, rubrofusarin ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. In the rubrofusarin-treated group, high-frequency stimulation induced higher LTP in the hippocampal Schaffer-collateral pathway compared to the control group. The rubrofusarin-treated group showed a higher number of DCX-positive immature neurons with an increase in the length of dendrites compared to the control group in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In vitro experiments showed that rubrofusarin facilitated neurite outgrowth in neuro2a cells through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Finally, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for rubrofusarin-induced enhancement of neurite outgrowth, learning and memory. These results demonstrate that rubrofusarin enhances learning and memory and neurite outgrowth, and these might need activation of ERK pathway.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pironas/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Pironas/administração & dosagem
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e7, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2014, we implemented an online video to inform patients of the entire process from admission to rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of online video instruction in THA patients. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 184 patients undergoing THA in 2014 (pre-video group) and 182 patients in 2015 (post-video group) were reviewed. We compared 1) the time to start wheelchair ambulation, 2) walker or crutch ambulation, 3) the length of hospital stay, 4) postoperative satisfaction using visual analogue scale (0-10 points), and 5) modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) at postoperative 6 weeks. RESULTS: In the post-video group, the time to start wheelchair ambulation (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 2.4 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.021) and walker/crutch ambulation were faster (2.9 ± 1.2 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0 days, P = 0.016), and the hospital stay was shorter (8.2 ± 4.7 vs. 9.9 ± 7.8 days, P = 0.001) compared to the pre-video group. The visual analogue scale for satisfaction (7.84 ± 1.62 vs. 7.68 ± 1.85 points) and mHHS (89.59 ± 9.47 vs. 89.58 ± 8.59) were similar. CONCLUSION: Online video instruction is an effective tool to expedite ambulation and reduce the hospital stay without compromising the clinical outcome and postoperative complications after THA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Deambulação Precoce , Educação à Distância , Tempo de Internação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Hortic Res ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039851

RESUMO

Acylsugars are a class of plant defense compounds produced across many distantly related families. Members of the horticulturally important morning glory (Convolvulaceae) family produce a diverse sub-class of acylsugars called resin glycosides (RGs), which comprise oligosaccharide cores, hydroxyacyl chain(s), and decorating aliphatic and aromatic acyl chains. While many RG structures are characterized, the extent of structural diversity of this class in different genera and species is not known. In this study, we asked whether there has been lineage-specific diversification of RG structures in different Convolvulaceae species that may suggest diversification of the underlying biosynthetic pathways. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed from root and leaf extracts of 26 species sampled in a phylogeny-guided manner. LC-MS/MS revealed thousands of peaks with signature RG fragmentation patterns with one species producing over 300 signals, mirroring the diversity in Solanaceae-type acylsugars. A novel RG from Dichondra argentea was characterized using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, supporting previous observations of RGs with open hydroxyacyl chains instead of closed macrolactone ring structures. Substantial lineage-specific differentiation in utilization of sugars, hydroxyacyl chains, and decorating acyl chains was discovered, especially among Ipomoea and Convolvulus - the two largest genera in Convolvulaceae. Adopting a computational, knowledge-based strategy, we further developed a high-recall workflow that successfully explained ~72% of the MS/MS fragments, predicted the structural components of 11/13 previously characterized RGs, and partially annotated ~45% of the RGs. Overall, this study improves our understanding of phytochemical diversity and lays a foundation for characterizing the evolutionary mechanisms underlying RG diversification.

8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105128, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752930

RESUMO

The scientific community has been releasing whole genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the investigation of molecular features and evolutionary history. We retrieved 36 genomes of 18 prevalent countries of Asia, Europe and America for genomic diversity and mutational analysis. Besides, we studied mutations in the RBD regions of Spike (S) proteins to analyze the drug efficiency against these mutations. In this research, phylogenenetic analysis, evolutionary modeling, substitution pattern analysis, molecular docking, dynamics simulation, etc. were performed. The genomic sequences showed >99% similarity with the reference sequence of China.TN93 + G was predicted as a best nucleotide substitution model. It was revealed that effective transition from the co-existing SARS genome to the SARS-CoV-2 and a noticeable positive selection in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes occurred. Moreover, three mutations in RBD domain, Val/ Phe367, Val/ Leu 382 and Ala/ Val522, were discovered in the genomes from Netherland, Bangladesh and the USA, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics study showed RBD with mutation Val/Leu382 had the lowest binding affinity with remdesivir. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 genomes are similar, but multiple degrees of transitions and transversions occurred. The mutations cause a significant conformational change, which are needed to be investigated during drug and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Int Orthop ; 46(4): 725-732, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inadequate stem version might lead to impingement and instability after cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). We evaluated (1) the distribution of short-stem anteversion, (2) the proportion of stems with an anteversion less than 5° or larger than 25°, (3) combined cup and stem anteversion, and (4) dislocation rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the native femoral anteversion and stem anteversion in 340 patients (340 THAs): 144 men and 196 women. Their mean age was 56.2 (22-87) years and mean body mass index was 25.1 (15.2-40.7) kg/m2. The femoral neck anteversion was measured on pre-operative CT scan and the stem anteversion was obtained during the operation. The safe zone of the stem anteversion was defined as 5 to 25°. RESULTS: The femoral neck anteversion ranged from -15 to 61° (mean, 15.0°; SD, ±10.6°). The stem anteversion ranged -7 to 50° (mean, 15.7°; SD, ±9.5°). It was optimal (5-25°) in 71.2% (242/340), insufficient (<5°) in 13.3% (45/340), and excessive (>25°) in 15.6% (53/340). The stem anteversion had a medium correlation with the femoral neck anteversion (correlation coefficient = 0.449). The combined anteversion was 42.0° (range, 35.2-52.3°; SD, ±2.8°). During two to four year follow-up, no hip dislocated. CONCLUSIONS: Short-length stem had a great variability in the anteversion and considerable portion (28.9%, 98/340) of stems had an anteversion outside the safe zone. Surgeons should be aware of this variability of stem anteversion to compensate for abnormal stem anteversion, which might lead to impingement and instability after THA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Luxações Articulares , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131599, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315084

RESUMO

In this study, 11 low/uncontaminated (including Lufa 2.2) and 9 contaminated field soils with varying geophysical and physicochemical characteristics were evaluated for toxicities based on oxygen consumption of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Oxygen consumption of the low/uncontaminated soils ranged between 7.9 mL and 9.5 mL, while contaminated soils ranged between 0.4 mL and 5.4 mL. Inherent test variability (CVi), variation due to soil natural properties (CVns) and minimal detectable difference (MDD) values ranged 1.2%-3.9%, 3.5%-16.9%, and 2.1%-4.3%, respectively. The toxicity threshold of 20% was established for soil toxicity based maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI). All the contaminated soils were found to be toxic and showed inhibition between 42% and 100% above the 20% threshold value. Increased proportions of clay and slit enhanced the of inhibitory effect of contaminants on SOB by reducing the oxygen consumption. Current study provides a suitable method for the rapid toxicity assessment of contaminated field soils with the advantages of ease of handling and rapidity without employing elutriates and sophisticated equipments and tools.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Bactérias , Bioensaio , Oxirredução , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Enxofre/toxicidade
11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943044

RESUMO

The mechanism of atopic dermatitis (AD) is modulated by the release of cytokines and chemokines through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Topical steroids are used to treat AD, but some people need safer anti-inflammatory drugs to avoid side effects. Mentha arvensis has been used as a herbal plant with medicinal properties, but its anti-inflammatory effects have not been elucidated in an AD model. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of M. arvensis essential oil (MAEO) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and HaCaT cells (human epidermal keratinocyte). Additionally, we examined the ameliorating effects of the MAEO in a dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced murine model of AD. We found, in both RAW 264.7 cells and HaCaT cells, MAEO inhibited LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 and proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß and IL-6, due to the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS expression. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, we also observed that MAEO inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and P65. Furthermore, MAEO treatment attenuated AD symptoms, including the dermatitis score, ear thickness, epidermal thickness and infiltration of mast cells, in a DNCB-induced animal model of AD. Overall, our findings suggest that MAEO exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic dermatitis effects via inhibition of the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960054

RESUMO

The excessive synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is related to cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, blocking IL-6 has been suggested as a treatment strategy for inflammatory diseases such as sepsis. Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-septic effects and the underlying mechanisms of Dracocephalum moldavica ethanol extract (DMEE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory stimulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages along with septic mouse models. We found that DMEE suppressed the release of inflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 and inhibited both the mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2, respectively. In addition, DMEE reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-6 and IL-1ß, in RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p65. Furthermore, treatment with DMEE increased the survival rate and decreased the level of IL-6 in plasma in LPS-induced septic shock mice. Our findings suggest that DMEE elicits an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and an anti-septic effect on septic mouse model through the inhibition of the ERK/JNK/NF-κB signaling cascades and production of IL-6.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Etanol/química , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770304

RESUMO

Physiological signals are immediate and sensitive to neurological changes resulting from the mental workload induced by various driving environments and are considered a quantifying tool for understanding the association between neurological outcomes and driving cognitive workloads. Neurological assessment, outside of a highly-equipped clinical setting, requires an ambulatory electroencephalography (EEG) headset. This study aimed to quantify neurological biomarkers during a resting state and two different scenarios of driving states in a virtual driving environment. We investigated the neurological responses of seventeen healthy male drivers. EEG data were measured in an initial resting state, city-roadways driving state, and expressway driving state using a portable EEG headset in a driving simulator. During the experiment, the participants drove while experiencing cognitive workloads due to various driving environments, such as road traffic conditions, lane changes of surrounding vehicles, the speed limit, etc. The power of the beta and gamma bands decreased, and the power of the delta waves, theta, and frontal theta asymmetry increased in the driving state relative to the resting state. Delta-alpha ratio (DAR) and delta-theta ratio (DTR) showed a strong correlation with a resting state, city-roadways driving state, and expressway driving state. Binary machine-learning (ML) classification models showed a near-perfect accuracy between the resting state and driving state. Moderate classification performances were observed between the resting state, city-roadways state, and expressway state in multi-class classification. An EEG-based neurological state prediction approach may be utilized in an advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS).


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Carga de Trabalho
14.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685885

RESUMO

Bryophytes contain a variety of bioactive metabolites, but studies about the anti-inflammatory effect of bryophytes are meager. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract of Marchantia polymorpha L. (liverwort) and Racomitrium canescens (Racomitrium moss) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HaCaT cells. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of liverwort and Racomitrium moss, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) production and the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ß in LPS-induced HaCaT cells were measured. The methanol extract of liverwort and Racomitrium moss significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production in HaCaT cells. When compared with Racomitrium moss extract, pre-treatment with methanol extract of liverwort markedly inhibited the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-1ß at the concentration of 100 µg/mL with the exception of TNF-α. Further, liverwort extract markedly attenuated the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in the culture medium. In addition, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions obtained from the methanol extract of liverwort showed remarkable inhibitory activity against the production of NO in LPS-stimulated HaCaT cells. The LC-MS data revealed the presence of bisbibenzyl types of bioactive components in the methanol extract of liverwort. These data demonstrate that liverwort extract exhibits effective inhibitory activity against the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HaCaT cells and may be useful for the treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases.

16.
Blood Res ; 56(3): 141-149, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is lack of data on admitted hemophilia patients in Korea. For this reason, this study was intended to analyze the hospitalization data of hemophilia patients in a regional Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) for the first time in Korea. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we surveyed hospitalized patients with Hemophilia A (HA) in a HTC for 14 years. Medical records of these hemophiliacs were reviewed and data regarding demographic characteristics, cause of admissions and their outcomes in each patient were obtained. In addition, the data of admitted days, type and amount of Coagulation factor concentrate (CFC) used, treatments other than CFC infusion during the admission days were also obtained from the medical record of each patient. RESULTS: A total 107 patients with hemophilia A were admitted during 14 years. Annual rate of admission of patients with HA was 8%. Mean age on admission was 29.63±19.51 years old and mean admission days were 11.28±5.46 days. Most admissions were occurred in severe and moderate hemophilia patients. The most common cause of admission was bleed control followed by surgery and other reasons. With modified WFH CFC supplementation guideline, all the bleeds were successfully controlled and all surgeries were also successfully conducted with less total CFC consumption compared to the consumed dose of other reports. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that it is necessary to develop more specified regimens different from WFH.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450776

RESUMO

Electromyography (EMG) is sensitive to neuromuscular changes resulting from ischemic stroke and is considered a potential predictive tool of post-stroke gait and rehabilitation management. This study aimed to evaluate the potential myoelectric biomarkers for the classification of stroke-impaired muscular activity of the stroke patient group and the muscular activity of the control healthy adult group. We also proposed an EMG-based gait monitoring system consisting of a portable EMG device, cloud-based data processing, data analytics, and a health advisor service. This system was investigated with 48 stroke patients (mean age 70.6 years, 65% male) admitted into the emergency unit of a hospital and 75 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age 76.3 years, 32% male). EMG was recorded during walking using the portable device at two muscle positions: the bicep femoris muscle and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle of both lower limbs. The statistical result showed that the mean power frequency (MNF), median power frequency (MDF), peak power frequency (PKF), and mean power (MNP) of the stroke group differed significantly from those of the healthy control group. In the machine learning analysis, the neural network model showed the highest classification performance (precision: 88%, specificity: 89%, accuracy: 80%) using the training dataset and highest classification performance (precision: 72%, specificity: 74%, accuracy: 65%) using the testing dataset. This study will be helpful to understand stroke-impaired gait changes and decide post-stroke rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Caminhada
18.
Brain Sci ; 11(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356134

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) can access ischemic stroke-derived cortical impairment and is believed to be a prospective predictive method for acute stroke prognostics, neurological outcome, and post-stroke rehabilitation management. This study aims to quantify EEG features to understand task-induced neurological declines due to stroke and evaluate the biomarkers to distinguish the ischemic stroke group and the healthy adult group. We investigated forty-eight stroke patients (average age 72.2 years, 62% male) admitted to the rehabilitation center and seventy-five healthy adults (average age 77 years, 31% male) with no history of known neurological diseases. EEG was recorded through frontal, central, temporal, and occipital cortical electrodes (Fz, C1, C2, T7, T8, Oz) using wireless EEG devices and a newly developed data acquisition platform within three months after the appearance of symptoms of ischemic stroke (clinically confirmed). Continuous EEG data were recorded during the consecutive resting, motor (walking and working activities), and cognitive reading tasks. The statistical results showed that alpha, theta, and delta activities are biomarkers classifying the stroke patients and the healthy adults in the motor and cognitive states. DAR and DTR of the stroke group differed significantly from those of the healthy control group during the resting, motor, and cognitive tasks. Using the machine-learning approach, the C5.0 model showed 78% accuracy for the resting state, 89% accuracy in the functional motor walking condition, 84% accuracy in the working condition, and 85% accuracy in the cognitive reading state for classification the stroke group and the control group. This study is expected to be helpful for post-stroke treatment and post-stroke recovery.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206540

RESUMO

The emergence of an aging society is inevitable due to the continued increases in life expectancy and decreases in birth rate. These social changes require new smart healthcare services for use in daily life, and COVID-19 has also led to a contactless trend necessitating more non-face-to-face health services. Due to the improvements that have been achieved in healthcare technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to predict and analyze certain diseases in advance. Research on stroke diseases is actively underway, particularly with the aging population. Stroke, which is fatal to the elderly, is a disease that requires continuous medical observation and monitoring, as its recurrence rate and mortality rate are very high. Most studies examining stroke disease to date have used MRI or CT images for simple classification. This clinical approach (imaging) is expensive and time-consuming while requiring bulky equipment. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using non-invasive measurable EEGs to compensate for these shortcomings. However, the prediction algorithms and processing procedures are both time-consuming because the raw data needs to be separated before the specific attributes can be obtained. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new methodology that allows for the immediate application of deep learning models on raw EEG data without using the frequency properties of EEG. This proposed deep learning-based stroke disease prediction model was developed and trained with data collected from real-time EEG sensors. We implemented and compared different deep-learning models (LSTM, Bidirectional LSTM, CNN-LSTM, and CNN-Bidirectional LSTM) that are specialized in time series data classification and prediction. The experimental results confirmed that the raw EEG data, when wielded by the CNN-bidirectional LSTM model, can predict stroke with 94.0% accuracy with low FPR (6.0%) and FNR (5.7%), thus showing high confidence in our system. These experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of non-invasive methods that can easily measure brain waves alone to predict and monitor stroke diseases in real time during daily life. These findings are expected to lead to significant improvements for early stroke detection with reduced cost and discomfort compared to other measuring techniques.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Exp Emerg Med ; 8(2): 120-127, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that deep-learning models can satisfactorily assist in fracture diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the performance of two of such models in wrist fracture detection. METHODS: We collected image data of patients who visited with wrist trauma at the emergency department. A dataset extracted from January 2018 to May 2020 was split into training (90%) and test (10%) datasets, and two types of convolutional neural networks (i.e., DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152) were trained to detect wrist fractures. Gradient-weighted class activation mapping was used to highlight the regions of radiograph scans that contributed to the decision of the model. Performance of the convolutional neural network models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: For model training, we used 4,551 radiographs from 798 patients and 4,443 radiographs from 1,481 patients with and without fractures, respectively. The remaining 10% (300 radiographs from 100 patients with fractures and 690 radiographs from 230 patients without fractures) was used as a test dataset. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 in the test dataset were 90.3%, 90.3%, 80.3%, 95.6%, and 90.3% and 88.6%, 88.4%, 76.9%, 94.7%, and 88.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 for wrist fracture detection were 0.962 and 0.947, respectively. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 models could help detect wrist fractures in the emergency room with satisfactory performance.

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