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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048773

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to estimated the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographical regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1,174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries. RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other 9 symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographical and economical variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographical and economical distributions of participants can influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 187-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002930

RESUMO

Under the partial influences of paradigm shift form category to dimension, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) was revised to the fifth edition (DSM-5); however, due to the lack of consistent biological makers and processes and the restricted availability of dimensional meta-structure, the revisions for the DSM-5 were based on a combination of categorical and dimensional approaches. Anxiety disorders were more clearly and consistently defined in the DSM-5 with the removal of obsessive compulsive, acute stress, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Differences between the childhood and adulthood categories of anxiety disorders were decreased, and overall, the symmetrical classification of anxiety subtypes was increased, since separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism were considered anxiety disorders, not neurodevelopmental disorders. Additionally, based on growing evidence, agoraphobia is distinct from panic disorder. Next, considering cultural syndromes including taijin kyofusho, khyal cap, trung gio attacks, and ataque de nervios, cultural influences are considered a significant factor for definitions and presentations of anxiety disorders. Controversies in the DSM-5 criteria for anxiety disorders are lowering the diagnostic thresholds of anxiety disorders and limiting the dichotomous view of anxiety and depression when defining generalized anxiety disorder. Further studies of alternative approaches to the restrictions of the DSM-5 criteria of anxiety disorders, including transdiagnostic specifiers and dimensional assessment tools, may be required.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/classificação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/classificação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
4.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855108

RESUMO

Backgroud: Network models suggest that co-occurring symptoms are conceptualized as a syndrome due to interactions, rather than a categorical entity with an underlying common cause.Aim: Our study aimed to examine the network structure and centrality of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, including essential and associated features.Methods: We constructed a network structure of 21 intertwined symptoms, evaluated with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), in 249 PTSD patients who have been exposed to various types of traumatic events (73% being traffic or other accidents) and were beginning psychiatric treatment. In addition, we estimated the centrality of the 21 symptoms through network analysis. Each of the symptoms was defined as ordered-categorical variables.Results: The network, with 21 symptoms, demonstrated a strong correlation among difficulty concentrating, reduced awareness of surroundings, and derealization. In addition, reduced awareness of surroundings was estimated as the most central symptom, whereas inability to recall important aspects of trauma was estimated as the least central symptom in the subjects. A community-detection analysis estimated that the 21 PTSD symptoms were organized into three clinically meaning clusters.Conclusion: Although dissociative features have been defined as associative symptoms rather than essential symptoms for the DSM diagnostic criteria, reduced awareness of surroundings may be regarded as the most central symptom in patients in the early phase of PTSD. Thus, evaluation and intervention for dissociative features may be needed in clinical practice and studies on PTSD.

5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705488

RESUMO

Because of the poor link between psychiatric diagnosis and neurobiological findings, it is difficult to classify mental disorders. The changes made to psychiatric diagnostic systems over the years can be understood in terms of "practical conservatism." The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I and DSM-II were theoretically supported by the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approach. Subsequently, psychiatric diagnoses of this kind were opposed by the anti-psychiatry movement, as well as by the findings of the Rosenhan experiment. Thus, the DSM-III revolution contained more empiricism, aligning psychiatry with biomedicine. Psychiatric diagnoses are classified and defined in terms of Kraepelinian dualism, using a categorical approach. The empirical trend was continued in the DSM-IV. To overcome the limitations of current psychiatric diagnostic systems and integrate fundamental genetic, neurobiological, behavioral, environmental, and experimental components into psychiatry, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) were established. To overcome the limitations of the categorical approach, psychiatrists have considered adopting a dimensional approach. However, their efforts were frustrated in the DSM-5 revision process. Thus, the DSM-5 is characterized by the rearrangement of psychiatric diagnoses, the partial adoption of a dimensional approach, the introduction of new diagnoses, and harmonization with the International Classification of Diseases.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neurobiologia
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 331-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705503

RESUMO

The biopsychosocial approach is a model of eclecticism, which consists of multidisciplinary academic fields, reacting against the "neuroscientification" of psychiatry. The biopsychosocial approach was proposed by George Engel following Adolf Meyer's psychobiological and Roy R. Ginker's eclectic approach to psychiatry. Although the use of the biopsychosocial approach is increasing, it has several limitations: First, specific practices cannot be guided by the biopsychosocial approach because it is considered to be "boundless psychiatry." Second, unlike an initial intention, the symptomatic use of psychotropic medications may be justified by the biopsychosocial approach. Third, the economic forces to enhance biological psychiatry cannot be hindered by the biopsychosocial approach. Hence, to overcome the limitations of the current biopsychosocial approach, potential new paradigms including evolutionary psychiatry, pragmatism, integrationism, and pluralism have been proposed. Above all, Eric Kandel presented the link between neuroscience and psychiatry from the perspective of integrationism. In accordance with integrationism and/or pluralism, based on the paradigm shift of the theoretical construct from chemical imbalance to dysfunctional circuit, next-generation treatments for mental disorders have been proposed by Thomas Insel. Thus, a more integrated biopsychosocial approach to managing psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and panic disorder may be proposed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neurociências , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Fenômenos Físicos , Esquizofrenia
7.
Korean J Intern Med ; 34(6): 1272-1278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality in the world. There are no population-based studies on longterm mortality in COPD patients in Korea. METHODS: Using the large, population-based, National Health Insurance Service- National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), we identified COPD patients using the International Classification of Disease-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and prescription details in the NHIS-NSC during 2003 to 2013. We analyzed the survival curves of COPD patients by sex, age, and cause of death. RESULTS: A total of 14,127 individuals older than 40 years were diagnosed with COPD. There were a total of 3,695 deaths (26.2%) in COPD patients during the study period. The 5-year mortality of COPD patients was 25.4% (29.9% in males and 19.1% in females). The mortality rate increased rapidly with age. The most common cause of death in COPD was chronic lower respiratory disease. CONCLUSION: This study described long-term mortality in COPD patients in Korea. Higher mortality was observed in males, and it was closely related to age.

8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(9): 633-635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550873
9.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(9): 636-644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550874

RESUMO

Because the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) was mainly influenced by the neo-Kraepelinian approach, its categorical approach to defining mental disorders has been criticized from the viewpoint of etiological neutrality. In the context of bridging the gap between "presumed etiologies-based symptomatology" and "identifiable pathophysiological etiologies," the content in 5th edition, the DSM-5, has been revised to incorporate a combination of categorical and dimensional approaches. The most remarkable change of note regarding the diagnostic classification of depressive disorders in the DSM-5 is the splitting of mood disorders into bipolar disorders and depressive disorders, which is in accordance with the deconstruction of the Kraepelinian dualism for psychoses. The transdiagnostic specifiers "with mixed features," "with psychotic features," and "with anxious distress" are introduced to describe the relationships of depressive disorders with bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively, in a dimensional manner. The lowering of the diagnostic threshold for major depressive disorder (MDD) may be caused by the addition of "hopelessness" to the subjective descriptors of depressive mood and the elimination of "bereavement exclusion" from the definition of MDD. Since the heterogeneity of MDD is equivalent to the Wittgensteinian "games" analogy, the different types of MDD are related not by a single essential feature but rather by "family resemblance." Network analyses of MDD symptoms may therefore need further review to elucidate the connections among interrelated symptoms and other clinical elements.

10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 140, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate incidence, prevalence, and mortality of NTM infection in a large nationwide population-based cohort in Korea. METHODS: Data of the National Health Insurance Service database, an extensive health-related database including most Korean residents, were used. Adults with a primary diagnosis of NTM as determined by International Classification of Disease-Tenth Revision coding (A31) were identified between 2003 and 2016. Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of NTM infection were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 46,194 individuals had a primary diagnosis of NTM infection. Their mean age was 55.8 years. Of these subjects, 61.1% were females. Annual age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of NTM infection tended to increase rapidly from 2003 to 2016. Age-adjusted incidence and prevalence was 17.9 and 33.3 per 100,000 population in 2016. The incidence and prevalence were higher in females and the elderly. The 5-year mortality rate in the population with NTM infection was 17.8%. The standardized mortality ratio of patients with NTM infection to the general population was 2.16 (95% confidence interval: 2.10 to 2.22). CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based study showed that the incidence and prevalence of NTM infection in Korea increased rapidly from 2003 to 2016. They were higher in women and the elderly. The mortality rate in the population with NTM infection was higher than that in the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Tissue Res ; 377(1): 95-106, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165247

RESUMO

A theoretical framework is proposed to gain insight into the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite being a relatively weak argument, the neurogenesis theory is suggested to compensate for the limitations of the monoamine theory. In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis is functionally related to regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammatory processes, cognitive functions and other aspects that contribute to etiological factors that lead to MDD and promote recovery from MDD. Despite a lack of investigation into neurogenesis and antidepressant action, it is proposed that chronic administration of antidepressant(s) can induce the recruitment and integration of newborn neurons into the dentate gyrus and, ultimately, lead to the remission of MDD. The extant body of literature indicates that the suppression of neurogenesis per se may be associated with an impaired response to antidepressant treatment rather than with the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, recent studies have shown that increasing the survival rate and incorporation of new neurons can alleviate depressive-like behaviors and promote stress resilience. According to the neurogenic reserve hypothesis, hippocampal neurogenesis supports specific cortical functions, including executive functions, pattern separation and contextual information processing, control over the HPA axis and behavioral coping mechanisms in response to stressful situations. Therefore, hippocampal neurogenesis may be a promising biological indicator of stress resilience and antidepressant response in patients with MDD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/embriologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/embriologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/embriologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Ratos
12.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 323-330, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240984

RESUMO

Background: Although cannabis use has been linked with schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, to our knowledge, the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia has rarely been reported in Asian population. Aim: We compared the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns between cannabis users and non-users among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, we aimed to identify the independent correlates of cannabis use in these subjects. Methods: We performed the analysis of the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP), a collaborative consortium survey used to collate the prescription patterns for antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications in patients with schizophrenia in Asia. We included 132 schizophrenia patients in the group of lifetime cannabis use and 1756 in the group that had never used cannabis. A binary logistic model was fitted to detect the clinical correlates of lifetime cannabis use. Results: Adjusting for the effects of age, sex, geographical region, income group, duration of untreated psychosis, and Charlson comordity index level, a binary logistic regression model revealed that lifetime cannabis use was independently associated with aggressive behavior [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.582, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.006-2.490, p = .047] and with long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment (aOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.444-2.820, p = .001). Conclusion: Our findings indicate a close link between lifetime cannabis use and aggressive behavior. The use of long-acting, injectable antipsychotics preferentially treats the aggressive behavior cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia in Asia, especially, the South or Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agressão , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(6): 459-463, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247705

RESUMO

Our study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns of a history of suicide attempts in South Koreans with bipolar disorder (BD), by using only Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar disorder. The patterns of clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug use were compared among 53 patients with a history of suicide attempts and 297 without this history; the potential effects of confounding variables were adjusted with binary logistic analyses for discrete variables and analyses of covariance for continuous variables. After adjusting the effects of age, sex, duration of illness, and enrollment as an outpatient, patients with a history of suicide attempts were characterized by a significantly more prevalent depressive episode, lower prevalent remission state, lower levels of hemoglobin, and more use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics compared to those without lifetime suicide attempt. The inability to plan goal-directed behavior may be an intervening factor in the relationship between suicide attempts and depression in BD. Relatively low hemoglobin levels can be associated with manic episodes in patients with a history of suicide attempts and the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics can be associated with suicide attempts in BD patients.

15.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(5): 397-402, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132844

RESUMO

Based on Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar Disorder, this study tried to present prescription patterns in biopolar disorder (BD) and its associated clinical features. Based on the information obtained from the study with structured questions, the tendency of prescription pattern was studied and analyzed. Polypharmacy was predominant, including simple polypharmacy in 51.1% and complex polypharmacy in 34.2% of patients. Subjects associated with simple or complex polypharmacy were significantly younger, had higher inpatient settings, a larger portion of onset with manic episode, a shorter duration of untreated illness, a shorter duration of current episode, were more overweight, used less antidepressants and used more anxiolytics. These findings can suggest higher polypharmacy rate in more severe BD and highlight the necessity of monitoring the weight of subjects with polypharmacy.

16.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(2): 99-108, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808115

RESUMO

Karl Jaspers is a psychiatrist, philosopher, and humanist. In 1913, he published the General Psychopathology (GP; Allgemeine Psychopathologie), the first edition. Despite the passage of one hundred years after the GP was published, GP still has a potential value to present a phenomenological and comprehensive viewpoint for psychiatry to overcome Kraepelinian-biological absolutism. The philosophical backgrounds of a Jaspersian phenomenological sense have been related to both the transcendence and the immanence roots. Partly under the influence of a Husserlian distinction between the natural and phenomenological attitudes, a rigid distinction between explanation and understanding has been proposed as the proper epistemological method in Jaspers' GP. Further, the fact that a distinction between process and development has been presented as the psychical phenomenon is understandable. The integrated and comprehensive viewpoint establishment for the state of "Babylonian confusion of tongues" in German psychiatry as well as the newly initiating phenomenological trend in psychiatry have been the legacies of Jaspers' GP. Moreover, the common theoretical backgrounds may be shared by the Jaspersian sense and humanitarian approaches in Korean psychiatry. Also, the Jaspersian sense may help the current molecular psychiatry to have a chance to overcome its solipsism and limitations.

18.
Saudi Pharm J ; 27(2): 246-253, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766437

RESUMO

Background: Although disorganized speech is seen as one of the nuclear features of schizophrenia, there have been few reports of disorganized speech-associated psychotropic drug-prescribing patterns in large samples of schizophrenia patients. Objective: We aimed to examine the prevalence of disorganized speech and its correlates in terms of psychotropic drug prescribing, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study. Method: A total of 3744 patients with the ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled from 71 survey centers in 15 Asian countries/areas. An essential criterion of disorganized speech was that it was "severe enough to impair substantially effective communication" as defined in the DSM-5. A binary logistic model was fitted to identify the psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech. Results: After adjusting for the potential effects of confounding variables, the binary logistic regression model showed that the presence of disorganized speech was directly associated with adjunctive use of mood stabilizers (P < 0.001) and cumulative diazepam equivalent dose (P < 0.0001), and inversely associated with adjunctive use of anti-Parkinson drugs (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The association between disorganized speech and adjunctive use of mood stabilizers could perhaps be understood in the context of a relationship with impulsiveness/aggressiveness, or in terms of deconstructing the Kraepelinian dualism.

20.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(1): 4-15, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301303

RESUMO

To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet. Thus, glutamatergic receptor modulators, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonists, and other novel mechanism-based anti-panic therapeutics have been proposed. Research on the neural correlates of PD is focused on the dysfunctional "cross-talk" between emotional drive (limbic structure) and cognitive inhibition (prefrontal cortex) and the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal axis. The neural perspective regarding PD supports the idea that cognitive-behavioral therapy normalizes alterations in top-down cognitive processing, including increased threat expectancy and attention to threat. Consistent with the concept of "personalized medicine," it is speculated that Research Domain Criteria can enlighten further treatments targeting dysfunctions underlying PD more precisely and provide us with better definitions of moderators used to identify subgroups according to different responses to treatment. Structuring of the "negative valence systems" domain, which includes fear/anxiety, is required to define PD. Therefore, targeting glutamate- and orexin-related molecular mechanisms associated with the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal cortex axis, is required to define a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of PD.

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