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1.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between the increased number of sensitized allergens and nasal symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis who were sensitized to house dust mites (HDMs). METHODS: Among the patients who were enrolled in the Allergic Rhinitis Cohort Study for Kids, 174 children with rhinitis symptoms who were sensitized to HDMs were included in the analysis. Skin prick tests, serum total immunoglobulin E, eosinophil count, and bronchial provocation tests were carried out during the initial and 3-year follow-up visits. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the change in the number of sensitized allergens: increased number of sensitized allergens (group I) and maintained or reduced number of sensitized allergens (group II). RESULTS: In the analysis of allergen sensitization from baseline to the 3-year follow-up, no significant correlation was observed between the changes in the number of allergens and the total nasal visual analog scale score (R2 < 0.001, P = .813). Furthermore, the comparison of demographic data and immunological factors between groups I and II did not show any significant differences. The changes in bronchial hyper-responsiveness were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: New sensitization may not be correlated with nasal symptoms in patients in Asian countries where HDMs play a major role as a dominant allergen. Although further investigation must be conducted, the importance of new sensitization as an indicator of treatment outcome should be reconsidered in individuals in Asia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 2019.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002893, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. However, the causal nature of the risk factors reported, and thus their suitability as effective intervention targets, is unclear given the susceptibility of conventional observational designs to residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as proxies for risk factors to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We used MR to evaluate the association of 12 previously reported risk factors (reproductive, anthropometric, clinical, lifestyle, and molecular factors) with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes, and low malignant potential tumours. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic instruments to proxy 12 risk factors were constructed by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were robustly (P < 5 × 10-8) and independently associated with each respective risk factor in previously reported genome-wide association studies. These risk factors included genetic liability to 3 factors (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes) scaled to reflect a 50% higher odds liability to disease. We obtained summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with risk of overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (22,406 cases; 40,941 controls) and low malignant potential tumours (3,103 cases; 40,941 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The OCAC dataset comprises 63 genotyping project/case-control sets with participants of European ancestry recruited from 14 countries (US, Australia, Belarus, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Canada, Poland, UK, Spain, Netherlands, and Sweden). SNPs were combined into multi-allelic inverse-variance-weighted fixed or random effects models to generate effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three complementary sensitivity analyses were performed to examine violations of MR assumptions: MR-Egger regression and weighted median and mode estimators. A Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold was used to establish strong evidence (P < 0.0042) and suggestive evidence (0.0042 < P < 0.05) for associations. In MR analyses, there was strong or suggestive evidence that 2 of the 12 risk factors were associated with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 8 of the 12 were associated with 1 or more invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes. There was strong evidence that genetic liability to endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR] per 50% higher odds liability: 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P = 6.94 × 10-7) and suggestive evidence that lifetime smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OR per unit increase in smoking score: 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.78; P = 0.02). In analyses examining histotypes and low malignant potential tumours, the strongest associations found were between height and clear cell carcinoma (OR per SD increase: 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.61; P = 0.0003); age at natural menopause and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per year later onset: 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16; P = 0.007); and genetic liability to polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per 50% higher odds liability: 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96; P = 0.002). There was little evidence for an association of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes, parity, or circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin with ovarian cancer or its subtypes. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of risk factors in relation to some less common ovarian cancer histotypes (low grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas), the inability to directly examine the association of some ovarian cancer risk factors that did not have robust genetic variants available to serve as proxies (e.g., oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy), and the assumption of linear relationships between risk factors and ovarian cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive examination of possible aetiological drivers of ovarian carcinogenesis using germline genetic variants to proxy risk factors supports a role for few of these factors in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer overall and suggests distinct aetiologies across histotypes. The identification of novel risk factors remains an important priority for the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer.

3.
Helicobacter ; 24(5): e12646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Helicobacter pylori eradication rate has decreased with increasing antibiotic resistance. We conducted a prospective, nationwide, multicenter registry study to monitor the real status of H. pylori eradication therapy and to investigate the association between eradication success and antibiotic use density in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 9318 patients undergoing H. pylori eradication therapy from 37 hospitals through "on-line database registry" from October 2010 to July 2015. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indications, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results were collected. The use of all commercially available eradication antibiotics was analyzed through the Korean National Health Insurance data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The defined daily dose of antibiotics was used to standardize drug use comparisons. RESULTS: Finally, 6738 patients were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of first-line therapy was 71.8%. The eradication success rates were 71.7%, 86.9%, and 74.0% for standard triple therapy for 7 days, quadruple therapy, and concomitant therapy, respectively. The eradication success rate in naive patients was higher than that in those who previously underwent H. pylori eradication. Eradication success was significantly associated with younger age, female sex, and high compliance. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The yearly use density of clarithromycin increased statistically in seven regions across the country from 2010 to 2015. The yearly use density of amoxicillin in the Gyeongsang and Chungcheong areas was significantly increased (P < .01), whereas that of other macrolides was significantly lower in the Gyeonggi area than in other areas (P = .01). The overall use of eradication antibiotics has increased while the eradication rate steadily decreased for 5 years. However, there was no significant correlation between antibiotic use density and eradication. CONCLUSION: There was no relationship between the eradication rate and antibiotic use density in Korea.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to elucidate lifestyle-related risk factors for multiple myeloma in Asia. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality through a pooled analysis of more than 800,000 participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: The analysis included 805,309 participants contributing 10,221,623 person-years of accumulated follow-up across Asia Cohort Consortium cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between BMI, smoking, and alcohol at baseline and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with shared frailty. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant dose-dependent association between BMI categories and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality (<18.5 kg/m2: HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52-1.24; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: reference; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2: HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.47; ≥30 kg/m2: HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.64, P trend = 0.014). By sex, this association was more apparent in women than in men (P for heterogeneity between sexes = 0.150). We observed no significant associations between smoking or alcohol consumption and risk of multiple myeloma mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that excess body mass is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma mortality among Asian populations. In contrast, our results do not support an association between smoking or alcohol consumption and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations. IMPACT: This study provides important evidence on the association of BMI, smoking, and alcohol with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations.

5.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(10): 667-674, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350279

RESUMO

Smoking is an established risk factor for gastric cancer development. In this study, we aimed to assess prospectively the association of smoking with gastric cancer risk in 1,446 non-cardia gastric cancer cases and 1,796 controls from China, Japan, and Korea with consideration of Helicobacter pylori infection as a potential effect modifier. Applying logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and sex we found that current, but not former, smoking was significantly associated with gastric cancer risk [OR = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.65]. However, the association was significant only in H. pylori sero-positive individuals determined by 3 different sero-markers: overall sero-positivity, sero-positivity to the onco-protein CagA, and sero-positivity to the gastric cancer associated sero-marker HP0305 and HP1564. Specifically, a significant interaction was found when stratifying by HP0305/HP1564 (P interaction = 0.01) with a 46% increased risk of gastric cancer among HP0305/HP1564 sero-positive current smokers (95% CI, 1.10-1.93) as opposed to no increased gastric cancer risk among HP0305/HP1564 sero-negative current smokers (OR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.33). We confirmed that current smoking is associated with an increased gastric cancer risk, however, only among individuals that are simultaneously sero-positive for the leading causal factor for gastric cancer, H. pylori.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e707, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies consistently indicate that alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for female breast cancer (BC). Although the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism (rs671: Glu>Lys) has a strong effect on acetaldehyde metabolism, the association of rs671 with BC risk and its interaction with alcohol intake have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case-control studies, with individual data on Asian ancestry women participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: We included 12,595 invasive BC cases and 12,884 controls for the analysis of rs671 and BC risk, and 2,849 invasive BC cases and 3,680 controls for the analysis of the gene-environment interaction between rs671 and alcohol intake for BC risk. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with rs671 and its interaction with alcohol intake for BC risk were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The Lys/Lys genotype of rs671 was associated with increased BC risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.014). According to tumor characteristics, the Lys/Lys genotype was associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.008), progesterone receptor (PR)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, p = 0.015), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48, p = 0.012). No evidence of a gene-environment interaction was observed between rs671 and alcohol intake (p = 0.537). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Lys/Lys genotype confers susceptibility to BC risk among women of Asian ancestry, particularly for ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative tumor types.

7.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(3): 426-434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Both arterial stiffness and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are important predictors of cardiovascular disease in the general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Recent studies on arterial stiffness and CAC in subjects with preserved renal function have verified the association between the two. However, the relationship is not well evaluated in CKD patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 1,385 predialysis CKD patients from the KNOW-CKD cohort. Participants were divided into four groups according to brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) quartile. Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) were assessed using cardiac computed tomography and CAC was defined as a CACS >100. RESULTS: CAC prevalence was higher in the higher baPWV groups (6.4, 9.8, 23.7, and 43.8% for the 1st to 4th quartiles of baPWV, respectively, p < 0.001). In Tobit regression analyses that were fully adjusted for traditional and renal cardiovascular risk factors, the CACS ratio comparing the highest and lowest baPWV quartiles was 3.03 (95% CI, 1.59-6.87). Similarly, the OR for CAC in the highest baPWV quartile compared to the lowest quartile was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.09-3.60) in a fully adjusted multivariate logistic model. Results were consistent across analyses with different cutoffs for CAC or with different clinically relevant subgroups. CONCLUSION: Increased arterial stiffness measured by high baPWV was associated with CAC in a predialysis CKD cohort. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effect of arterial stiffness on the development or progression of CAC in CKD.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192696, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002328

RESUMO

Importance: Asia is home to the largest diabetic populations in the world. However, limited studies have quantified the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asian populations. Objectives: To evaluate the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia and to investigate potential effect modifications of the diabetes-mortality associations by participants' age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis incorporated individual participant data from 22 prospective cohort studies of the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2006. A total of 1 002 551 Asian individuals (from mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh) were followed up for more than 3 years. Cohort-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox regression models and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted between January 10, 2018, and August 31, 2018. Exposures: Doctor-diagnosed diabetes, age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 1 002 551 participants (518 537 [51.7%] female; median [range] age, 54.0 [30.0-98.0] years), 148 868 deaths were ascertained during a median (range) follow-up of 12.6 (3.0-38.9) years. The overall prevalence of diabetes reported at baseline was 4.8% for men and 3.6% for women. Patients with diabetes had a 1.89-fold risk of all-cause death compared with patients without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.74-2.04), with the highest relative risk of death due to diabetes itself (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 18.5-28.1), followed by renal disease (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.50-3.78), coronary heart disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-3.02), and ischemic stroke (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.85-2.51). The adverse diabetes-mortality associations were more evident among women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.89-2.32) than among men (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.88) (P for interaction < .001) and more evident among adults aged 30 to 49 years (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.84) than among adults aged 70 years and older (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.62) (P for interaction < .001). A similar pattern of association was found between diabetes and cause-specific mortality, with significant variations noted by sex and age. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of death from several diseases among Asian populations. Development and implementation of diabetes management programs are urgently needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Asia.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992421

RESUMO

Objectives: There is a great deal of interest in the possibility that environmental factors may influence the risk of developing allergic rhinitis (AR) in early life. We investigated the simultaneous effects of mode of delivery and duration of breastfeeding on the development of AR in children. Methods: Data from 1,374 children participating in the Allergic Rhinitis Cohort Study for kids (ARCO-kids study) was analyzed. All subjects were divided into AR or non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) groups. Data on environmental factors, mode of delivery and duration of breastfeeding were collected using a questionnaire. Results: Compared with short-term breastfeeding (<6 months), long-term breastfeeding (≥12 months) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.88). Children in the AR group also had a higher cesarean delivery rate than those in the NAR group (39.1% vs. 32.8%, P=0.05). Regarding the combined effects of mode of delivery and duration of breastfeeding, long-term breastfeeding with a vaginal delivery strongly suppressed the development of AR, compared to short-term breastfeeding with a cesarean delivery (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.73). Conclusion: Long-term breastfeeding (≥12 months) and a vaginal delivery are associated with a lower risk of developing childhood AR.

10.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13101, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The independent association between eGFR and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is complex and not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between eGFR calculated from different equations and CAC in predialysis CKD patients in Korea. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 1,533 patients from the KNOW-CKD cohort. eGFR was calculated by a four-variable MDRD equation (eGFRMDRD ), CKD-EPI creatinine equations (eGFRC r ), CKD-EPI Cystatin C equation (eGFRC ys ), and CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin equation (eGFRC rC ys ). Participants were divided into eGFR categories (< 30, 30-59, 60-89, ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 ). CACS (coronary artery calcium score) was measured using cardiac computed tomography. CAC was defined as CACS > 100. RESULTS: CAC was found in 334 (21.8%) patients, and was more prevalent in the lower eGFR groups (p < 0.001). In multivariate Tobit regression, CACS increased gradually as eGFRC rC ys decreased (p for trend = 0.034). In multivariate logistic regression, there were gradual associations between lower eGFR and CAC when an eGFRC ys or eGFRC rC ys was used. The adjusted OR for CAC in the group with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 compared to the group with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2 was 2.64 (95% CI, 1.09-3.60) when eGFRC rC ys was used. Of the four eGFR formulas, only adding eGFRC rC ys significantly improved CAC prediction models without eGFR (p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: There was a gradual and independent association between low eGFR and CAC in a predialysis CKD cohort in Korea. eGFRC rC ys predicted CAC better than other equations in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191474, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924901

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding birth cohort-specific tobacco smoking patterns and their association with total and cause-specific mortality is important for projecting future deaths due to tobacco smoking across Asian populations. Objectives: To assess secular trends of tobacco smoking by countries or regions and birth cohorts and evaluate the consequent mortality in Asian populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled meta-analysis was based on individual participant data from 20 prospective cohort studies participating in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Between September 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, a total of 1 002 258 Asian individuals 35 years or older were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. The pooled results were presented for mainland China; Japan; Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; and India. Exposures: Tobacco use status, age at starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Country or region and birth cohort-specific mortality and the population attributable risk for deaths from all causes and from lung cancer. Results: Of 1 002 258 participants (51.1% women and 48.9% men; mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.6 [10.4] years), 144 366 deaths (9158 deaths from lung cancer) were ascertained during a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.7 (5.3) years. Smoking prevalence for men steadily increased in China and India, whereas it plateaued in Japan and Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. Among Asian male smokers, the mean age at starting smoking decreased in successive birth cohorts, while the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. These changes were associated with an increasing relative risk of death in association with current smoking in successive birth cohorts of pre-1920, 1920s, and 1930 or later, with hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.17-1.37) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.57-1.84) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 3.38 (95% CI, 2.25-5.07) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 4.74 (95% CI, 3.56-6.32) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 4.80 (95% CI, 3.71-6.19) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking accounted for 12.5% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.3%) of all-cause mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 21.1% (95% CI, 17.3%-24.9%) of all-cause mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.3%) of all-cause mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking among men accounted for 56.6% (95% CI, 44.7%-66.3%) of lung cancer mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 66.6% (95% CI, 58.3%-73.5%) of lung cancer mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 68.4% (95% CI, 61.3%-74.4%) of lung cancer mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. For women, tobacco smoking patterns and lung cancer mortality varied substantially by countries and regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mortality associated with tobacco smoking continued to increase among Asian men in recent birth cohorts, indicating that tobacco smoking will remain a major public health problem in most Asian countries in the coming decades. Implementing comprehensive tobacco-control programs is warranted to end the tobacco epidemic.

12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(8): e65, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833882

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the current overall preventable trauma death rate (PTDR) in Korea and identify factors associated with preventable trauma death (PTD). Methods: The target sample size for review was designed to be 1,131 deaths in 60 emergency medical institutions nationwide. The panels for the review comprised trauma specialists working at the regional trauma centers (RTCs); a total of 10 teams were formed. The PTDR and factors associated with PTD were analyzed statistically. Results: Of the target cases, 943 were able to undergo panel review and be analyzed statistically. The PTDR was 30.5% (6.1% preventable and 24.4% possibly preventable). Those treated at a RTC showed a significantly lower PTDR than did those who were not (21.9% vs. 33.9%; P = 0.002). The PTDR was higher when patients were transferred from other hospitals than when they directly visited the last hospital (58.9% vs. 28.4%; P = 0.058; borderline significant). The PTDR increased gradually as the time from accident to death increased; a time of more than one day had a PTDR 14.99 times higher than when transferred within one hour (95% confidence interval, 4.68 to 47.98). Conclusion: Although the PTDR in Korea is still high compared to that in developed countries, it was lower when the time spent from the accident to the death was shorter and the final destined institution was the RTC. To reduce PTDR, it is necessary to make an effort to transfer trauma patients to RTCs directly within an appropriate time.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(1): 14-20, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742757

RESUMO

One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population's health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Reprodução/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786705

RESUMO

Purpose: The association between tobacco smoking and thyroid cancer remains uncertain. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smoking with the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer, and with the BRAFV600E mutation, the most common oncogenic mutation in PTC related to poor prognosis. Materials and Methods: We conducted this study with newly diagnosed PTC patients (n=2,142) and community controls (n=21,420) individually matched to cases for age and sex. Information on active and passive smoking and potential confounders were obtained from structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and medical records. BRAFV600E mutation status was assessed in PTC patients. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smoking with PTC and BRAFV600E mutation risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively. Results: We did not find associations between exposure indices of active and passive smoking and PTC risk in both men and women, except for the association between current smoking and lower PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAFV600E mutation risk in male PTC patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 1.00). The CI for the association was wider in female PTC patients (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.02 to 2.62), possibly owing to a smaller sample size in this stratum. Conclusion: We did not find consistent associations between active and passive smoking and PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAFV600E mutation risk in male PTC patients.

15.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626166

RESUMO

Studies on the effect of dietary protein intake (DPI) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, along with the potential hazard of protein-energy wasting (PEW), are scarce. We evaluated the association between DPI and kidney function both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, particularly emphasizing the role of PEW, in a large-scale, observational, multicenter, prospective study. We enrolled 1572 patients with non-dialysis CKD between 2011 and 2016. CKD progression was defined by a >50% estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease, serum creatinine doubling, or dialysis initiation. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted. During the mean follow-up period of 41.6 months, CKD progression was observed in 296 patients. Cross-sectionally, increased DPI was significantly associated with increased eGFR. Similarly, increased DPI tertile was significantly associated with increased renal survival in a Kaplan⁻Meier curve analysis. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, the statistical significance of the DPI tertile group in CKD progression was lost when PEW-related variables were added as covariates. In penalized spline curve analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of PEW significantly increased as DPI decreased. DPI, per se was not a major determinant of CKD progression. An intimate association between reduced DPI and PEW may be a more important predictor of CKD progression than DPI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Rim/patologia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/complicações , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Rim/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of myopia in adult Korean population. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional data of 3,398 subjects aged 19 to 49 years was obtained using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 (KNHANES VI). Data, including refractive errors and potential risk factors were analyzed. The prevalence and risk factors of myopia, low myopia, and high myopia-defined as a spherical equivalent (SEQ) ≤ -0.5 diopters (D), -6.0 D < SEQ <-0.5 D, and SEQ ≤ -6.0 D, respectively-were evaluated. RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia and high myopia were 70.6 (standard error (SE), ±1.1)% and 8.0 (SE, ±0.6)%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, younger age, higher education (≥12 years), parental myopia, lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration (<9 ng/mL), longer time spent on near work (≥3 hours/day), and higher white blood cell (WBC) count (5-8.9 x 103) were associated with increased prevalence of both myopia and high myopia. Serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥ 9 ng/ml was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of high myopia in participants with near work of ≥3 hours/day, although the effect was not significant in myopia and low myopia. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myopia and high myopia in Korean adults was substantially high, which increased with decreasing age. In addition to parental myopia, the serum 25(OH)D concentration, near work and inflammation reflected by WBC counts may be associated with myopia.

17.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 51(6): 298-309, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and the risk of death from specific causes other than cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We calculated the risk of specific death by SBP and DBP categories for 506 508 health examinees in 2002-2003 using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Compared to normal levels (SBP <120 or DBP <90 mmHg), stage I systolic and diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159, DBP 85- 89 mmHg, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of death from diabetes mellitus, alcoholic liver disease, and renal failure (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.22; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46; HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.64 to 3.21; HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.20; HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.81; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.73, respectively), but a decreased risk of death from intestinal pneumonia (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.98; HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.91). Only stage II systolic hypertension (SBP ≥160 mmHg) was associated with an increased risk of death from pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, and intestinal ischemia (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.98; HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.15; HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.24 to 11.40, respectively), and stage I and II diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159 and ≥160 mmHg) were associated with an increased risk of death from intestinal ischemia (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.38; HR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.62 to 11.88, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in blood pressure levels may alter the risk of death from certain causes other than cardiovascular diseases, a well-known outcome of hypertension, although the mechanism of these associations is not well documented.

18.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458609

RESUMO

Purpose: Few studies investigated roles of body mass index (BMI) on gastric cancer (GC) risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection status. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between BMI and GC risk with consideration of H. pylori infection information. Materials and Methods: We performed a case-cohort study (n=2,458) that consists of a subcohort, (n=2,193 including 67 GC incident cases) randomly selected from the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and 265 incident GC cases outside of the subcohort. H. pylori infection was assessed using an immunoblot assay. GC risk according to BMI was evaluated by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using weighted Cox hazard regression model. Results: Increased GC risk in lower BMI group (< 23 kg/m2) with marginal significance, (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.77) compared to the reference group (BMI of 23-24.9 kg/m2) was observed. In the H. pylori non-infection, both lower (< 23 kg/m2) and higher BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2) showed non-significantly increased GC risk (HR,10.82; 95% CI, 1.25 to 93.60 and HR, 11.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 113.66, respectively). However, these U-shaped associations between BMI and GC risk were not observed in the group who had ever been infected by H. pylori. Conclusion: This study suggests the U-shaped associations between BMI and GC risk, especially in subjects who had never been infected by H. pylori.

19.
J Clin Med ; 7(10)2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340408

RESUMO

Current guidelines recommend that inotropes should not be used in patients with normal systolic blood pressure (SBP). However, this is not supported with concrete evidence. We aimed to evaluate the effect of inotropes in acute heart failure (HF) patients from a nationwide HF registry. A total of 5625 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry were analyzed. The primary outcomes were in-hospital adverse events and 1-month mortality. Among the total population, 1703 (31.1%) received inotropes during admission. Inotrope users had a higher event rate than non-users (in-hospital adverse events: 13.3% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.001; 1-month mortality: 5.5% vs. 2.5%, p < 0.001), while inotrope use was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes (in-hospital adverse events: ORadjusted 5.459, 95% CI 3.622⁻8.227, p < 0.001; 1-month mortality: HRadjusted 1.839, 95% CI 1.227⁻2.757, p = 0.003). Subgroup analysis showed that inotrope use was an independent predictor for detrimental outcomes only in patients with normal initial SBP (≥90 mmHg) (in-hospital adverse events: ORadjusted 5.931, 95% CI 3.864⁻9.104, p < 0.001; 1-month mortality: HRadjusted 3.584, 95% CI 1.280⁻10.037, p = 0.015), and a propensity score-matched population showed consistent results. Clinicians should be cautious with the usage of inotropes in acute heart failure patients, especially in those with a normal SBP.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15263, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323354

RESUMO

"BRCAX" refers breast cancers occurring in women with a family history predictive of being a BRCA1/2 mutation carrier, but BRCA1/2 genetic screening has failed to find causal mutations. In this study, we report the findings of the genetic architecture of BRCAX with novel and redefined candidate loci and their potential impacts on preventive strategy. We performed a genome-wide association study involving 1,469 BRCAX cases from the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study, and high-risk breast cancer cases (1,482 Asians and 9,902 Europeans) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We also evaluated the previously reported susceptibility loci for their roles in the high-risk breast cancers. We have identified three novel loci (PDE7B, UBL3, and a new independent marker in CDKN2B-AS1) associated with BRCAX, and replicated previously reported SNPs (24 of 92) and moderate/high-penetrance (seven of 23) genes for Korean BRCAX. For the novel candidate loci, evidence supported their roles in regulatory function. We estimated that the common low-penetrance loci might explain a substantial part of high-risk breast cancer (39.4% for Koreans and 24.0% for Europeans). Our study findings suggest that common genetic markers with lower penetrance constitute a part of susceptibility to high-risk breast cancers, with potential implications for a more comprehensive genetic screening test.

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