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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684382

RESUMO

To investigate the association of body weight variability (BWV) with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patient with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), a total of 1867 participants with pre-dialysis CKD from Korean Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) were analyzed. BWV was defined as the average absolute difference between successive values. The primary outcome was a composite of non-fatal CV events and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were fatal and non-fatal CV events and all-cause mortality. High BWV was associated with increased risk of the composite outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.745, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.065 to 2.847) as well as fatal and non-fatal CV events (adjusted HR 1.845, 95% CI 1.136 to 2.996) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.861, 95% CI 1.101 to 3.145). High BWV was associated with increased risk of fatal and non-fatal CV events, even in subjects without significant body weight gain or loss during follow-up periods (adjusted HR 2.755, 95% CI 1.114 to 6.813). In conclusion, high BWV is associated with adverse CV outcomes in patients with pre-dialysis CKD.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122837, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477853

RESUMO

Importance: The association between long sleep duration and mortality appears stronger in East Asian populations than in North American or European populations. Objectives: To assess the sex-specific association between sleep duration and all-cause and major-cause mortality in a pooled longitudinal cohort and to stratify the association by age and body mass index. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of individual-level data from 9 cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2002. The final population included participants from Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. Mean (SD) follow-up time was 14.0 (5.0) years for men and 13.4 (5.3) years for women. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021. Exposures: Self-reported sleep duration, with 7 hours as the reference category. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, including deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with shared frailty models adjusted for age and the key self-reported covariates of marital status, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of diabetes and hypertension, and menopausal status (for women). Results: For 322 721 participants (mean [SD] age, 54.5 [9.2] years; 178 542 [55.3%] female), 19 419 deaths occurred among men (mean [SD] age of men, 53.6 [9.0] years) and 13 768 deaths among women (mean [SD] age of women, 55.3 [9.2] years). A sleep duration of 7 hours was the nadir for associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and other-cause mortality in both men and women, whereas 8 hours was the mode sleep duration among men and the second most common sleep duration among women. The association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was J-shaped for both men and women. The greatest association for all-cause mortality was with sleep durations of 10 hours or longer for both men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.44) and women (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.36-1.61). Sex was a significant modifier of the association between sleep duration and mortality from cardiovascular disease (χ25 = 13.47, P = .02), cancer (χ25 = 16.04, P = .007), and other causes (χ25 = 12.79, P = .03). Age was a significant modifier of the associations among men only (all-cause mortality: χ25 = 41.49, P < .001; cancer: χ25 = 27.94, P < .001; other-cause mortality: χ25 = 24.51, P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that sleep duration is a behavioral risk factor for mortality in both men and women. Age was a modifier of the association between sleep duration in men but not in women. Sleep duration recommendations in these populations may need to be considered in the context of sex and age.

3.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 725-736, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474512

RESUMO

Economic evaluation is a type of comparative analysis between interventions in terms of both their resource use and health outcomes. Due to the good prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC), the socioeconomic burden of TC patients post-diagnosis is increasing. Therefore, economic evaluation studies focusing on TC are recommended. This study aimed to describe the concept and methods of economic evaluation and reviewed previous TC studies. Several previous studies compared the costs of interventions or evaluated recurrence, complications, or quality of life as measures of their effectiveness. Regarding costs, most studies focused on direct costs and applied hypothetical models. Cost-minimization analysis should be distinguished from simple cost analysis. Furthermore, due to the universality of the term "cost-effectiveness analysis" (CEA), several studies have not distinguished CEA from cost-utility analysis; this point needs to be considered in future research. Cost-benefit analyses have not been conducted in previous TC research. Since TC has a high survival rate and good prognosis, the need for economic evaluations has recently been pointed out. Therefore, correct concepts and methods are needed to obtain clear economic evaluation results. On this basis, it will be possible to provide appropriate guidelines for TC treatment and management in the future.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations. METHODS: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal BP control is a major therapeutic strategy to reduce adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with CKD. We studied the association of BP with adverse cardiovascular outcome and all-cause death in patients with CKD. METHODS: Among 2,238 participants from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With CKD, 2,226 patients with baseline BP measurements were enrolled. Main predictor was SBP categorized by 5 levels: <110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, and ≥140 mmHg. Primary endpoint was a composite outcome of all-cause death or incident cardiovascular events. We primarily used marginal structural models using averaged and the most recent time-updated SBPs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10233.79 person-years (median 4.60 years), the primary composite outcome occurred in 240 (10.8%) participants, with a corresponding incidence rate of 23.5 (95% CI, 20.7-26.6) per 1,000 patient-years. Marginal structural models with averaged SBP showed a U-shaped relationship with the primary outcome. Compared to time-updated SBP of 110-119 mmHg, hazard ratios (95% CI) for <110, 120-129, 130-139, and ≥140 mmHg were 2.47 (1.48-4.11), 1.29 (0.80-2.08), 2.15 (1.26-3.69), and 2.19 (1.19-4.01), respectively. Marginal structural models with the most recent SBP also showed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: In Korean patients with CKD, there was a U-shaped association of SBP with the risk of adverse clinical outcome. Our findings highlight the importance of BP control and suggest a potential hazard of SBP <110 mmHg.

6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 180, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of heart failure (HF) than those without it. Approximately 40 % of HF patients have DM and they tend to have poorer outcomes than those without DM. This study evaluated the impact of insulin therapy on mortality among acute HF patients. METHODS: A total of 1740 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry with DM were included in this study. The risk of all-cause mortality according to insulin therapy was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard models with inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance the clinical characteristics (pretreatment covariates) between the groups. RESULTS: DM patients had been treated with either oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) alone (n = 620), insulin alone (n = 682), or insulin combined with OHAs (n = 438). The insulin alone group was associated with an increased mortality risk compared with the OHA alone group (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.21-1.66]). Insulin therapy combined with OHAs also showed an increased mortality risk (HR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.14-1.46) compared with the OHA alone group. Insulin therapy was consistently associated with increased mortality risk, regardless of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or HF etiology. A significant increase in mortality was observed in patients with good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0 %) receiving insulin, whereas there was no significant association in patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Insulin therapy was found to be associated with increased mortality compared to OHAs. The insulin therapy was harmful especially in patients with low HbA1c levels which may suggest the necessity of specific management strategies and blood sugar targets when using insulin in patients with HF.

7.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(8): 3921-3934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522458

RESUMO

The causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer prognosis is still ambiguous. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic effect of BMI and T2D on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) among Asian individuals. In this two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, the instrumental variables (IVs) were identified using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among 24,000 participants in the Taiwan Biobank. Importantly, the validity of these IVs was confirmed with a previous large-scale GWAS (Biobank Japan Project, BBJ). In this study, we found that a genetic predisposition toward higher BMI (as indicated by BMI IVs, F = 86.88) was associated with poor breast cancer DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.11; P < 0.001). Furthermore, higher level of genetically predicted T2D (as indicated by T2D IVs) was associated with an increased risk of recurrence of and mortality from breast cancer (HR = 1.43; P < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses, including the weighted-median approach, MR-Egger regression, Radial regression and Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) supported the consistency of our findings. Finally, the causal relationship between BMI and poor breast cancer prognosis was confirmed in a prospective cohort study. Our MR analyses demonstrated the causal relationship between the genetic prediction of elevated BMI and a greater risk of T2D with poor breast cancer prognosis. BMI and T2D have important clinical implications and may be used as prognostic indicators of breast cancer.

8.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 790-799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 µg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 µg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. CONCLUSION: Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

9.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1115-1125, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. METHODS: The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. RESULTS: This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(4): 460-468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The renal hazard of polypharmacy has never been evaluated in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the renal hazard of polypharmacy in predialysis CKD patients with stage 1-5. METHOD: The data of 2,238 patients from a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study (2011-2016), excluding 325 patients with various missing data, were reviewed. Polypharmacy was defined as taking 6 or more medications at the time of enrollment; renal events were defined as a ≥50% decrease in kidney function from baseline values, doubling of the serum creatinine levels, or initiation of renal replacement treatment. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1,913 patients, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 53.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean medication count was 4.1, and the prevalence of polypharmacy was 27.1%. During the average period of 3.6 years, 520 patients developed renal events (27.2%). Although increased medication counts were associated with increased renal hazard with HR (95% CI) of 1.056 (1.007-1.107, p = 0.025), even after adjusting for various confounders, adding comorbidity score and kidney function nullified the statistical significance. In mediation analysis, 55.6% (p = 0.016) of renal hazard in increased medication counts was mediated by the kidney function, and there was no direct effect of medication counts on renal event development. In subgroup analysis, the renal hazard of the medication counts was evident only in stage 1-3 of CKD patients (p for interaction = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: We cannot identify the direct renal hazard of multiple medications, and most of the potential renal hazard was derived from intimate relationship with disease burden and kidney function.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069208

RESUMO

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.2 × 10-3). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.1 × 10-4). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10928, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035377

RESUMO

Hyperadiponectemia is paradoxically associated with renal disease progression and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its association with health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is unknown. This study aimed to verify the association between adiponectin and HR-QOL in Korean pre-dialysis CKD cohort. This cross-sectional study analyzed 1551 pre-dialysis CKD patients from KNOW-CKD (KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease). Participants were categorized into three tertiles (T1-T3) according to adiponectin levels. HR-QOL was assessed using SF-36. High physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were defined as highest quartile of each score. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for high PCS and MCS. Prevalence of high PCS were 33.3%, 27.5%, and 17.0% and that of high MCS were 31.7%, 24.8%, and 21.3% for T1, T2, and T3 (both p for trend < 0.001). The adjusted OR [95% CI] of T1 and T2 in reference to T3 were 1.56 [1.09-2.23] and 1.19 [0.85-1.68] for high PCS and 1.19 [0.85-1.68] and 0.94 [0.68-1.29] for high MCS. Serum adiponectin level was inversely associated with physical HR-QOL in Korean pre-dialysis CKD patients. This relationship was independent of various cardiovascular risk factors.

13.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(3): 574-581, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. METHODS: This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 µIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 µIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the time course of mortality reduction following smoking cessation in Asians who have smoking behaviours distinct from their Western counterparts. We evaluated the level of reduction in all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung cancer mortality by years since quitting smoking, in Asia. METHODS: Using Cox regression, we analysed individual participant data (n = 709 151) from 16 prospective cohorts conducted in China, Japan, Korea/Singapore, and India/Bangladesh, separately by cohorts. Cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 108 287 deaths were ascertained-35 658 from CVD and 7546 from lung cancer. Among Asian men, a dose-response relationship of risk reduction in deaths from all causes, CVD and lung cancer was observed with an increase in years after smoking cessation. Compared with never smokers, however, all-cause and CVD mortality among former smokers remained elevated 10-14 years after quitting [multivariable-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25 (1.13-1.37) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41), respectively]. Lung cancer mortality stayed almost 2-fold higher than among never smokers 15-19 years after smoking cessation [1.97 (1.41-2.73)], particularly among former heavy smokers [2.62 (1.71-4.00)]. Women who quitted for ≥5 years retained a significantly elevated mortality from all causes, CVD and lung cancer. Overall patterns of the cessation-mortality associations were similar across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse effects of tobacco smoking persist for an extended time period, even for more than two decades, which is beyond the time windows defined in current clinical guidelines for risk assessment of lung cancer and CVD.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1187: 405-417, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983591

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of female cancers worldwide in 2018, followed by lung cancer, and the fifth fatal cancer, followed by lung, colorectal, gastric, and liver cancers. The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Western women have been shown to decrease for a long period of time, while the incidence and mortality rates of Asian women are rapidly increasing. The incidence and mortality rates of BC in Western women have been changing to a recent decrease from a fluctuation in rates for a long time, while in Asian women, the incidence and mortality rates have increased rapidly. The secular changes in rates are mainly related to medical advancement in treatment or diagnosis for BC, and preventive management and policy in each country, but also to the change of risk factors in the population.In this chapter, we briefly review the epidemiologic characteristics of breast cancer reported so far and summarize the results for various risk factors of breast cancer. Moreover, we summarize the potential for risk modification in high-risk population of breast cancer with various risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8485, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875706

RESUMO

Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is crucial in diagnosing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes and has increased with the development of multigene panel tests. However, results classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS) present challenges to clinicians in attempting to choose an appropriate management plans. We reviewed a total of 676 breast cancer patients included in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study with a VUS on BRCA mutation tests between November 2007 and April 2013. These results were compared to the ClinVar database. We calculated the incidence and odds ratios for these variants using the Korean Reference Genome Database. A total of 58 and 91 distinct VUS in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified in the KOHBRA study (comprising 278 and 453 patients, respectively). A total of 27 variants in the KOHBRA study were not registered in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database. Among BRCA1 VUSs, 20 were reclassified as benign or likely benign, four were reclassified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and eight remained as VUSs according to the ClinVar database. Of the BRCA2 VUSs, 25 were reclassified as benign or likely benign, two were reclassified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and 33 remained as VUS according to the ClinVar database. There were 12 variants with conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity for BRCA1 and 18 for BRCA2. Among them, p.Leu1780Pro showed a particularly high odds ratio. Six pathogenic variants and one conflicting variant identified using ClinVar could be reclassified as pathogenic variants in this study. Using updated ClinVar information and calculating odds ratios can be helpful when reclassifying VUSs in BRCA1/2.

18.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(11): 4345-4351, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is often defined based on symptoms accompanied by a positive allergen sensitivity test result. However, a positive skin prick test (SPT) does not always imply the occurrence of clinical symptoms. If an asymptomatic allergen-sensitized patient has nasal septal deviation (DSN) that could cause nasal obstruction, the condition could easily be confused with typical symptomatic AR. This study investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of asymptomatic allergen-sensitization with septal deviation (ASSD). METHODS: Patients from a nationwide AR cohort study, conducted in 8 university hospitals, were investigated. AR was diagnosed when there were at least 1 rhinitis symptom with a positive SPT result. The ASSD group included patients who had severe nasal obstruction with few other symptoms and a positive SPT, along with septal deviation. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between the ASSD group and the true AR group. RESULTS: In total, 728 patients were included. The average age was 32.2 ± 12.7 and 66% of the patients had DSN. SPT indicated that ASSD patients were less sensitized to house dust mite (p = 0.019 for Dp and p = 0.021 for Df). There was a significant sex difference: the male-to-female ratio was higher in the ASSD than in the AR group (3.59 vs. 1.77, p = 0.012). However, no statistically significant differences in age, family history, and body mass index were found. CONCLUSION: ASSD can mimic AR. When dealing with allergen-sensitized patients with a predominant symptom of nasal obstruction, DSN might also be considered before confirming a diagnosis of AR.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Rinite Alérgica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both obesity and being underweight are risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, the effects of longitudinal weight changes on patients with predialysis CKD have not yet been studied. In this study, we analyzed the effects of weight change over time on the adverse outcomes in predialysis CKD population. METHODS: Longitudinal data from a multicenter prospective cohort study (KNOW-CKD) were analyzed. In a total of 2,022 patients, the percent weight change per year were calculated using regression analysis and the study subjects were classified into five categories: group 1, ≤ -5%/year; group 2, -5< to ≤ -2.5%/year; group 3, -2.5< to <2.5%/year; group 4, 2.5≤ < 5%/year; and group 5, ≥5%/year. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death were calculated in each group and compared to group 3 as reference. RESULTS: During a median 4.4 years of follow-up, 414 ESRD, and 188 composite of CVD and mortality events occurred. Both weight gain and loss were independent risk factors for adverse outcomes. There was a U-shaped correlation between the degree of longitudinal weight change and ESRD (hazard ratio 3.61, 2.15, 1.86 and 3.66, for group 1, 2, 4 and 5, respectively) and composite of CVD and death (hazard ratio 2.92, 2.15, 1.73 and 2.54, respectively), when compared to the reference group 3. The U-shape correlation was most prominent in the subgroup of estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSION: Both rapid weight gain and weight loss are associated with high risk of adverse outcomes, particularly in the advanced CKD.

20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 782-792, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the association of baseline obesity measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR), and their trajectories over time with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Utilizing data from 2001 to 2014 for 9796 Korean adults without CKD at baseline, the association of baseline obesity measures with incident CKD was evaluated using logistic regression. Further, among 5605 subjects with repeated measures, the effect of the trajectories in obesity measures on CKD incidence was investigated via Cox regression. Baseline obesity in terms of BMI, WC, and HC increased the odds of incident CKD (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.33; OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.38; and OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41, respectively), while baseline WHR did not show such an association. A "became non-obese" BMI, WC, or WHR trajectory, and a "constantly not large" HC trajectory decreased the hazard of incident CKD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.92; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.85; and HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95, respectively) when compared with a "constantly obese or became obese" trajectory. CONCLUSION: Both baseline obesity and obesity trajectories over time were associated with CKD incidence. BMI and WC were equally good measures of CKD risk, while WHR was not. Separately examining WC and HC components of WHR (= WC/HC) may explain WHR's inconsistency, and WHR's usefulness as a measure of CKD risk should be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
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